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THE  works  of  Pandit  Guru  Datta  Vidyarthi,  M.  A.  un 
doubtedly  occupy  the  foremost  position  in  the  whole 
range  of  S^majic  literature  that  exists  in  English.     In  point 
of  sublimity  of  thought,   nobility  of  conception,  beauty  and 
gracefulness  of  style,  breadth  and  comprehensiveness  of  vision 
and  force  and  impressiveness  of  meaning,  the  works  are  simply 
unsurpassed.  w  Pandit    Guru  Datta  was    one  of  those  rare 
geniuses  of  whom  any  civilized  country  may  justly  be  proud. 
He  died  while  yet  in  his  youth.     His  career  of  usefulness 
to  the  Arya  Samaj   was  sadly  brief.     Being  a  man   of  ex 
tremely  inquisitive  and  analyzing  faculties,  no  religion  except 
that  of  the  Vedas  could  satisfy  his  profoundly  philosophical 
and  scientific  mind.     He  accordingly  enlisted  himself  under 
the  banner  of  Swami  Dayananda  Saraswati,  and  evinced  a 
great  interest  in  the  advancement  of  his  Vedic  mission.     The 
truths  of  the  Vedic  Religion,  however,  did  not  strike  a  deep 
and  permanent  root  in  his  mind  till  he  had  been  brought,  by 
the  chance  of  unhappy  circumstances,    under    the   magne 
tising  touch  of  that  GREAT  YOGI,  Swami  Dayananda  Saras- 
•  wati.     When    the  great   Rishi   was   lying     seriously  ill  at 
Ajmere,  he,  along  with  myself,   was  deputed  by  the  Lahore 
Arya  Samaj  to  attend  upon  the  Swamiji  there.  The  dying  scene 
of  Swamiji,  which  he  was  fortunate  enough  to  witness,  gave 
a  death-blow  to  his  old  cherished  sceptic  ideas,  and  inspired 
in  him   a  spirit  that  has  ever   since  immortalised  his  name. 
He  saw,  on  the  one  hand,  the  dreadful  disease  giving  rise  to 
such  excruciating  pains  that  even  the  bravest  and  mightiest 
of  men,  having  less  insight  into  the   realm  of  Spirit,   would 
give  way  under  its  fearful  and  cruel  onslaughts,  and  on  the 
other,  the  Swami's  calm,  dignified,  cheerful  and  brightened- 
up  face,  without  the  least  indication  of  any  sort  of  suffering 
or  remorse.     This  singular  scene  threw  a  fascinating  charm 
over  him  ;  how  it  affected  him  cannot  be  described  in  words, 
nor  could  the  Pandit  himself  explain  it.     It  appears  to  have 
taken  entire  possession  of  his  soul,  and  transformed  him  into 
something  far  above   the   ordinary   run  of  humanity.     His 


real  conversion,  thus,  dates  from  the  day  of  Svvamiji's  death, 
after  which  we  saw  him  ever  fired  with  an  extraordinary 
enthusiasm  for  "  Dharma"  his  whole  nature  permeated  with 
the  grand  elevating  truths  of  the  Vedic  Religion,  restless  for 
the  promotion  of  the  mission  of  Swami  Dayananda  Saras- 
wati.  His  body,  mind  and  wealth  were  all  at  the  service, 
of  the  Arya  Dharma  and  his  only  occupation  was  the  dis 
covery  and  elucidation  of  the  Vedic  truths.  The  lectures 
that  he  delivered  on  various  subjects  connected  with  the 
Arya  Dharma  produced  a  profound  influence  upon  the  people, 
and  the  appearance  of  his  Vedic  Magazine  caused  a  great 
stir  in  the  religious  world.  That  cursed  disease — consump 
tion — carried  him  off  in  his  youth  and  thus  cut  short  his 
very  useful  career.  It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  we  could 
not  have  more  than  three  issues  of  his  Magazine.  The 
purifying  and  ennobling  truths  that  are  stored  up  in  these 
publications  will  ever  remain  a  source  of  admiration  to  the 
learned  and  religious-minded  men. 

These  magazines  and  other  works  of  Panditji  have,  sine© 
his  death,  been  in  Mich  a  scattered  condition  as  to  be  hardly 
within  the  reach  of  every  man.  Their  aggregate  high  price. 
(Rs.  4  nearly),  too,  was  a  bar  in  the  way  of  their  extensive 
circulation.  Besides,  some  of  them  are  out  of  print.  To 
remove  these  defects,  I,  as  one  of  his  old  friends  and  admir 
ers — as  one  who  had  a  close  connection  with  him  for  several 
years — actuated  principally  by  the  motive  of  (1)  giving  a 
wide  currency  to  the  "  Vedrc  Siddhants,"  and  (2)  keeping 
always  a-fresh  in  the  minds  of  the  people,  the  fair  name  of 
one  who  was  once  an  ornament  of  the  Arya  Samaj,  and  whoso 
name  is  still  a  source  of  pride  to  this  country,  have  got  all 
his  works  reprinted  in  one  compact  and  handy  volume.  Its 
price  has  been  fixed  so  low  as  to  make  it  accessible  to  all 
classes  of  people. 

The  present  Volume  contains  (1)  all  the  subjects  treated 
-of  in  Panditji's  Vedic  Magazine,  (2)  oil  his  works  published 
.separately  in  pamphlet  form,  (3)  most  of  his  learned,  in 
structive  and  interesting  articles  in  the  Arya  Patrika,  and 
(4)  two  of  his  unpublished  papers,  one  of  \vhich  is  a  lecture 
on  Religion  delivered  during  his  early  life  when  he  was  yet 
hardly  out  of  his  teens,  and  the  other,  a  note-  on  Revelation, 
written  at  my  own  request,  on  an  Urdu  pamphlet  of  mine 


entitled  the  Maslah-i-Ilhdm  (the  Doctrine  of  Revelation). 
The  change  in  the  religious  life  of  Pandit  Guru  Datta  be 
comes  all  the  more  prominent  and  striking  when  one  reads 
the  above-mentioned  lecture  along  with  his  other  writings. 
It  is,  indeed  very  strange  that  the  subject  of  Religion,  which 
•is  so  much  decried  in  that  lecture,  soon  after  became  a  fav 
ourite  topic  of  his  written  as  well  as,  oral  discourses. 

It  is  worth  notice  that  some  of  the  fragments  of  his 
Criticism  on  Professor  Monier  Williams'  "  Indian  Wisdom," 
as  embodied  in  this  volume,  are  entirely  new,  and  others 
different  from  what  was  already  in  print  on  the  subject. 
These  additions  and  changes  have  been  made  with  the  help 
of  the  original  manuscript  in  the  author's  own  handwriting 
which  were  so  fondly  and  carefully  preserved  by  me.  Some 
mistakes  of  omission  and  commission  have  also  been  rectified 
\vith  the  help  of  the  same  manuscripts.  Besides,  I  have 
made  certain  alterations  which  the  sense  of  the  text  rendered 

The  present  Volume  is  the  first  of  its  series.  It  is 
presented  to  the  public  with  a  view  to  encourage  the  appre 
ciation  of  the  Aryan  Shastras  among  those  of  my  country 
men  who  cannot  have  recourse  to  them  in 'their  original 
Sanscrit  language. 

LAHORE:  ^  JIVAN  DAS,  Pensioner, 

loth  October  1897.   J  (  Vice-President,  Lahore  AryaSamaj.) 


Tho  present  publication  is  based  on  the  edition  of  Pan 
dit  Guru  Datta's  works,  edited  and  published  by  Lala 
Jivan  Das,  Pensioner,  in  1897. 

The  publishers  desire  to  express  their  very  great  obli 
gations  to  Lala  Jivan  Das  for  his  kindly  giving  permission 
to  reprint  his  book.  Every  attempt  has  been  made  to 
improve  the  printing  and  get-up  of  the  book,  the  paper 
used  being  of  a  very  superior  quality.  The  biographical 
sketch  has  also  added  much  to  the  value  of  the  book.  Not 
withstanding  all  these  improvements  in  the  present  edition, 
its  price  has  been  much  reduced.  In  the  end  the  publishers 
hope  that  the  book  in  its  present  form  will  meet  the  approval 
of  the  public. 


THE  SHORT  SPAN  OF  PANDIT  GURU  DATTA'S   life   is  full  of  very  interesting 
and  glorious  events.     It  is  not  pven  to   every   man  to   achieve  a  fair 
name  in  the  annals  of   his   country.     Thousands   come  on    the  stage  of  life 
and  depart  without  leaving  any  trace  behind.     They   are  never  thought  of  or 
remembered,  even  by  those  who  had  close    contact  with  them  through  friend 
ship,  partnership   in  business   or   any  other   kindred    cause.     How    many  of 
those  that  were  known    to  us  during   our  younger  days  still    claim  a  place  in 
our  mind.    •Hundreds   of  men  known  to   us  in  our  mature   life,    when   tha 
faculty  of  judgment  is  generally  ripe,  have  passed  away  and  with  their  death 
have  vanished    their  names  out  of  our    memory,    nay  the  mind  is  some  times 
led  to  doubt  whether   any  such  persons   existed   at  all.     Such  is  the  sad  fate 
of  the  majority    of  us.     Those   who 'leave   footprints   on  the   sands  of    time, 
are  undoubtedly  men  of  extraordinary   merit  and   exceptional  capacities.     la 
an  age    which    in   remarkable  for    its   re-actionary    tendencies   and   recklesa 
spirit   of  criticism  and  in  a  country    where  the   growth   and    development  of 
genius  is  retarded,  to  an  almost  immeasurable  extent,  by   unnatural    customs 
and  institutions  ;  where    low  and  base  passion?,  directed  for  the  most  part,  to 
wards  the  attainment   of  pelf  and    power  and  other  things   requisite  for  self, 
aggrandisement,  do  not  favour  the  appreciation  of  true  worth,  the  perpetuity 
of  a  good    name  implies,    the  possession,    on    the  part  of   the    hero,    many  a 
brilliant    and  transcendental    quality.     That  Pandit    Guru    Datta   should  be 
held  in  grateful  remembrance  by  learned  and  enlightened  men  of  all  sects  and 
denominations  in    this  land  is  a  proof  positive   of  his  excellence  and    towering 
genius.     He  is,  no  doubt,  little    known  beyond    India,    but    this  need    not  in 
any  way  detract  from  his  greatness.     Vico   and    Bishop  Butler  who  exercised 
ft  profound  influence  on   the  philosophical    and    religious   speculation  of  Italy 
and  Great   Britain  were   hardly  known   until   recently  outside  the  limits  of 
their  respective  countries.     A  philosopher  whose  business  lies  in  the  realm  of 
abstract  thought  can  not  at  once  be  known   among  those  who  live  thousands 
of  miles  away   from  the    land  of  his   birth,    especially  when    ignorance  of  the 
common  herd  acts  as  a  great  deterrent  in  the  spread   of  his  ideas.     Similarly 
a  religious  reformer  whose  work   consists   in    the    enunciation   of  the  higher 
principles  of  life  on  the  spiritual  plane,  can   not  receive  a  universal  homage  at 
be  hands  of  foreigners  whose  tone  of  speculation   is  entirely  at  variance  with 

(     2    ) 

his.  At  best,  be  can  be  known  only  among  men  engaged  in  a  kindred  occu 
pation.  And  we  find  that,  scarcely  had  a  couple  of  months  elapsed  since  the 
entrance  into  public  life  of  Pandit  Guru  Datta  when  his  name,  as  an  expositor 
of  the  Vedic  principles,  came  to  be  known  in  all  enlightened  circles.  In  En 
gland  he  was  well  known  among  that  class  of  men  who  call  themselves 
Oriental  Scholars. 

This  is  an  age  of  show  and  ostentation.     Every    man    who  has  a  smooth 
tongue  and  can  wield  some  hold  on  the  people  by    his  eloquence,  is  anxious  to 
pass  for  a  great  man.     There  are  men    whose  mental  acumen  is  not  of  a  high 
order,  who    have    no  strength    of  purpose,  and   vhose    moral  condition  is  far 
from  inspiring,    yet  they  display    not  the  least   reluctance  in    asserting  their 
claims  to  greatness.     The    ways  in  which    they    manage  to  attract  people  to 
wards  them  are  curious.     They    have  a  number  of  men  in    the;r  pay    \\hose 
business  consists  in  singing  their    praisps.     These   underlings  serve  as   their 
forerunners    and  heralders  and   wheie  ever  they    go,    they   expatiate  on    the 
virtues  of  their  masters  which  are  merely    imaginary  and  persiu.oe  the  people 
to  get  up  demonstrations    in  their  honor   and  celebrate    their  arrival  by  let- 
.  ting  off  bombs.     This  is  I  he    way  in  which   greatness  is   assumed  and  forced 
upon  the  people.     There  is    one  more  trait  in  greatmen  of  this  type    which  it 
would  be  well  to  mention  here.     They  assume   a  tone    of  reserve  and  serious 
ness  ;  every  word    that  escapes  their  lips   is  carefully  thought    and  every  act 
that  they  do  is  perfectly  studied.     Pandit   Guru  Datta  was  singularly    free 
from   affectations   and    false    pretensions.     Everything    that   he  did   was,  of 
course,  not    without  cause  and    reason,  but  it    appeared  to  be  natural   and 
the  difference  between  his  life    and   that  of  pseudo-great-men     was    broadly 
,  transparent.     Pandit  Guru    Datta  was  great    in   the   real  sense  of  the  term. 
He  had,  in    the  first  place,   an  unbounded  faith  in  the  Divine  Father;    2ndl" 
his  thoughts  and    ideas  were  pure,  energising    and    elevating;    Srdly,  he  exer 
cised  a  magnetic  influence  on  the   people  ;4lhly   he  had    SOT.  e  thing   of  that 
divinity  in  him    that  characterises   great-men;  Sthly,   he   wae    true  in    word, 
•   thought  and  deed.     His    life  presented    a  singular   uniformity  ;  6ihly,  he  was 
uncompromising  in  Dharma,    he  never  pandered  to   the  prejuuices  and  super 
stitions  of  men  like  pseudo-reformers   and  as  such   he    was  above  the  age  in 
which    he  lived  ;  Tthly,    he    \v.~<j  a  genius;    Sthly,    he  was  a    man  of  will  and 
action  and  could  by  inherent  divine   power  in  him  subdue  all  difficulties  and 
enlighten  the  world.     He    was  ev^ry  inch    a  greatman.     His   contemporaries 
are  still  living.     Some   of  them  who  vied  his  rise  with    an    evil  eye  and  who 
wanted  to  defame  him  in   order   to   secure   self-aggrandisement  may    still  be 
seen  to  speak  ill  of  him  but  there  are  others   who  hold  him   in  high  esteem, 

( ••' ) 

and  consider  him  to  be  one  of  the  greatmeu  of  the  age.  That  he  was  great 
there  can  be  no  doubt  and  the  reader  shall  find,  on  a  close  study  of  hia  life, 
that  he  was  far  above  the  level,  of  ordinary  mortals. 

Pandit  Guru  Datta  was  born  at  Multan  on  26th    April,    1864.     Multan, 
Birth  and  parent-      *s  a  unique  city  in  some     respects    in   the  Punjab.     The 
*£**  climate   is  dry  but   salubrious  ;    the   temprature  seldom 

falls  below  110  degrees.  The  soil  is  not  much  productive,  date 
palms  are  grown  in  abundance  and  the  Multani  dates  are  prized 
all  over  the  Province  for  their  sweetness.  The  dust  storms  are  fn« 
quent  and  the  city  anc*  its  surrundings  may  be  seen  covered  with  a  thick 
haze,  especially  in  th ;  summer  season,  when  sultry  winds  continue  blowing 
all  tho  day.  These  surrundings,  however  unpleasant  they  may  appear 
to  people  living  in  the  South-Eastern  Districts,  have  produced  a  strong 
and  hardy  race,  strong  in  constitution  and  robust  in  intellect.  They 
have  been  instrumental  in  developing  special  traits  which  give  dignity  to 
character.  Born  and  brought  up  amid  buch  environments,  the  toughness  of 
fibre  which  marked  Pandit  Guru  Datta  was  a  matter  of  course.  But  there 
was  also  an  additional  reason  for  it.  He  came  of  a  family  which  had,  for 
successive  generations,  distinguished  itself  in  the  battle  field,  and  which 
had  at  one  time  wielded  the  sceptre  of  sovereignty  over  a  wide  and  exten 
sive  area.  During  the  early  period  of  Mohammedan  invasions  when  the 
Hindu  Government  was  broken  up  into  small  principalities  owing  to  inter 
uecitie  quarrels  and  rivalry,  Pcaja  Jagdish,  the  ancestor  '  f  the  Sadana  family 
to  which  Pt.  Guru  Datta  belonged,  had  made  a  bold  stand  ogainst  the  tyran 
nical  excesses  of  the  foreign  conquerors  and  had,  in  the  serious  compli 
cations  that  followed  it,  sacrifice!  his  a!!,  even  his  life  for  the  protection  of 
bis  subjects.  The  blood  of  such  an  intrepid  warrior  coursed  through  the 
veins  of  the  Sadana  family  and  most  of  its  successive  members  had  given 
proof  of  their  martial  spirit  by  feats  of  heroic  character.  Lala  Ram  Ki&hen, 
the  father  of  our  hero,  had,  however,  no  chance  of  distinguishing  himself  in 
the  field.  During  his  time,  the  Government  was  fairly  well  settled,  theie 
was  no  longer  prevailing  that  anarchy  and  confusion  which  has  been  the 
chief  characteristic  of  the  latter  Mohammedan  rule.  He  had  consequently 
given  himself  up  entirely  to  literary  pursuits.  He  was  a  Persian  scholar 
of  great  repute  and  one  of  the  much  respected  members  of  the  Punjab  Edu 
cational  Department.  Constitutionally  he  was  strong  ;  quick-witted,  posses 
sing  a  keen  and  penetrating  .intellect  and  a  very  tenacious  memory 
He  retained  the  vigour  of  his  intellect  to  the  very  last.  Com 
mencing  the  fcstudy  of  Sanskrit  late  in  Jife  he  acquired  such  a  mastery 
over  that  language  that  he  could  write  and  speak  it  with  ease  and  withov&t 

any  serious  mistakes.  He  was  married  at  an  early  age,  as  is  the  custom 
among  the  Hindus,  to  a  handsome  girl.  She,  though  unlettered  possessed 
a  remarkable  sagacity  and  shrewdness.  Religious  by  nature,  she  was  very 
noble-minded  and  bore  up  all  trials  and  difficulties  with  passive  resignation. 
Her  spirit  quailed  not  under  misfortunes.  She  bore  him  several  children, 
but  few  of  them  survived.  Pandit  Guru  Datta  was  the  last  male  child,  the 
deaths  of  a  number  of  the  boy's  sisters  had  told  terribly  upon  his  parents 
and  they  were  considerably  borne  down  by  these  mishaps.  The  birth  of 
Guru  Datta,  however,  alleviated  their  sorrow  a  good  deal.  The  story  runs 
that  in  their  distressed  condition  they  had  recourse  to  their  family  Guru 
whom  they  begged  to  pray  to  the  Almighty  to  bless  them  with  a  male  child. 
Their  wishes  having  been  fulfilled,  they  took  the  child  to  the  Guru  who- 
named  him  Mula.  The  story  is  not  incredible  because  in  India  people, 
who  are  Guru  worshippers,  do  think  that  the  favour  of  Guriis  can  bring 
them  happiness,  <£c.,  though  it  can  hardly  stand  to  reason  that  in  the 
present  case  the  sex  of  the  child  was  the  result  of  the  prayers  snd  suppli 
cations  of  the  Guru.  The  Law  of  Karma  demanded  that  Guru  Datta  be  the 
last  child  of  his  parents  and  before  his  birth  they  should  receive  so  many 
shocks.  And  so  it  came  to  pass. 

Like  other  natural  hws,  the  Law  of  heredity  is  also  immutable.  The 
leading  characteristics  of  the  parents  are  invariably  transmitted  to  their 
children.  The  child  its,  in  most  cases,  a  likeness  of  the  parents.  The  causes 
which  contributed  to  the  high  physical  and  intellectual  stamina  of  Pandit 
Guru.  Datta  were  various  and  manifold.  His  high  spiritedness  was  due  to 
the  race  from  which  he  was  descended,  the  patience  and  forbearance  which 
were  so  largely  reflected  in  his  life,  were  the  result  of  the  strong  influence  of 
his  mother.  The  strength  of  purpose,  acuteness  of  vision,  subtlety  of  intel 
lect,  were,  in  a  large  measure,  dra\\n  from  his  father.  Another  reason  of  his 
having  possessed  great  mental  powers  was  that  he  was  the  last  child  of  his 
parents  and  was  born  in  the  rnaturest  years  of  their  life.  The  youngest  child 
is  always  better  off  than  others  as  regards  mental  and  physical  constitution. 
11  The  most  fortunate  period  in  which  to  be  born,"  bays  A.  J.  Davis,  "is  any 
where  between  the  mother's  thirtieth  and  forv-flfth  and  the  father's  ihiry-fiftb 
and  fiftieth  year.  Robust  and  rational  children,  who  possess  the  best  con- 
atitutiona  physically  and  spiritually,  result  from  parents  considerably  ad 
vanced  inorganic  devolpment."  'The  youngest  child,' he  remarks,  'is  the 
araartest/  Most  of  the  great  writers,  painters,  literary  men  and  thinkers 
were  either  the  last  children  of  their  parents  or  born  between  the  respective 
ages  that  have  just  been  named-  The  Fourth  Volume  of  the  Great  Har 

(    5    ) 

monia  contains  a  number  of  names  that  crroborate  the  truth  of  the  stnte- 
merit.  The  advantage  of  birth  was  thus  no  mean  a  factor  in  the  determi 
nation  of  Guru  Datta's  high  mental  powers.  And  to  this  advantage  was 
added  the  fruit  of  an  exceptionally  good  Prarabhda,  and  these  two  combined 
to  raise  him  to  the  position  of  a  great  man.  There  was,  as  we  have  already 
•tated,  not  the  least  show  in  Pandit  Guru  Datta.  Everything  was  spon 
taneous,  which  showed  that  his  greatness  was  intrinsic,  natural,  and  a  gift 
of  Providence. 

The  child  was  a  pet  of  his  parents  and  they  loved  him  intensly  he  being 
their  only  male  child  and  "obtained,"  as  the  term  goes  in  our  midst,  after  a 
good  deal  of  prayer  and  supplication.  He  was  at  first  named  Mula  as  has 
already  been  said,  but  the  name  was  soon  changed  by  the  family  Guru  who 
gave  him  frhe  name  of  Vairagi  which  was  highly  significant,  in  view  of  the 
future  career  of  the  child.  This  Guru  we  cannot  credit  with  a  high  power  of 
Yoga,  since,  if  he  had  been  a  Yogi,  he  could  not,  under  any  circumstances, 
have  preferred  to  live  in  the  tumult  and  bustle  of  a  large  city  and  consent 
to  perform  priestly  functions  to  a  community  overridden  with  superstition. 
Possibly,  he  was  a  verj  sagacious  man,  far  above  the  average  run  of  priests 
and  had  some  acquaintance  with  phrenology.  He  could,  it  appears,  read  the 
future  of  the  child  by  the  observance  of  his  featured.  Tue  natural  expression 
on  the  child's  face  converging  towards  Vairag,  might  have  given  him  the 
idea,  that  he  was  destined  to  lead  a  life  of  reuunicaiion — reuuciutiou  of  the 
pleasures  of  senses — and  so  he  suggested  the  name  Vairagi,  which  was  im 
mediately  adopted  by  the  parents  as  they  had  an  unbounded  faith  in  their 
Guru.  The  child  gave  early  indication  of  exceptional  powers  and  the  parents 
appear  to  have  been  alive  to  this  fact.  Tney  sufficiently  discerned 
the  bent  of  his  mind  and  brought  him  up  with  extreme  care.  He  began  to 
run  while  yet  he  had  scarcely  advanced  beyond  a  year.  Being  naturally  very 
inquisitive,  he  put  numerous  question  to  his  parents  and  relations  about  the 
objects  he  saw  and  displayed  a  marvellous  capacity  in  understanding  and 
grasping  things. 

Guru   Dutta   was   hardly  five   years  old,  when  he  was  put  to  Alphabet. 

_    ,  His  father,  being  in  the   Educational    line,  had    a  happy 

Early    education. 

knack  in  teaching  children.  He  held  out  many  induce 
ments  to  the  boy,  in  order  to  .make  him  learn  his  lessons.  He  seldom  had 
recourse  to  reprimands,  was  very  indulgent  towards  him,  and  always 
allowed  him  to  follow  his  own  inclinations.  The  rudiments  of  Arithmetic 

were  taught   in   the  following   year   and    Guru  Datta   couly  multiply  u large 
6gures  by    memory  very  ea»ily. 

The  child  remained  under  the  special  care  and  supervision  of  his 
father  who  carefully  studied  his  habits  and  tastes.  He  was  undented ly  a 
man  of  remarkable  sagacity  and  possessed  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the 
laws  which  govern  the  development  of  the  juvenile*mmd'.  He  was  very 
anxious  to  educate  his  son  himself.  He  took  him  to  the  suburbs 
of  the  town  and  answered  his  interesting,  though  somewhat  crude, 
questions  with  some  degree  of  minuteness.  The  child  ^finished1  elementary 
lessons  in  Urdu,  Persian  &c.,  in  the  course  of  a  short  period.  Be  bad  now  to 
learn  English.  And  in  this  his  father  could  be  of  little^  help  to  him, 
but  Lala  Rim  Krishen  knowing  as  he  did  the  temperament  of  his  sou 
thought  that  no  one  would  be  able  to  produce  in  his  mind  a  desire  for  the 
study  of  English,  as  he  himself.  lie,  therefore,  made  a  resolute^  determi 
nation  to  leain  the  First  Book  himself,  and  then  teachjt  to  Guru  Datta.  In 
those  days,  'how  to  speak  English'  by  Colonel  Holryd,*the  then  Director  of 
Instruction,  was  taught  to  the  beginners.  Lala  Ram  Kishan  set  to  reading 
it  with  all  his  vigour  and,  despite  the  disadvantages  ofA  advanced  age,  went 
through  it  in  a  very  short  time,  and  then  taught  it  to  Guru  Datta. 

At   the    age    of  eight,    he    was  sent  to  the  District  School  at  Jhang,  his 

father  being  a  teacher  in  that  school.     In  English  he  was- 
School  career. 

Just  as    well  up  as  boys  of  his  class,  butjti  other  subjects 

Persian  Arithmetic  &3.,  he  was  far  a-head.  Of  Persian,  he  had  read 
several  important  books;  and  before  he  left  the  ^  school, ;V  having 
finished  his  education  there,  he  had  read  and  assimilated]  the  poems 
M?iulana-i-Rumi,  Shanvia  Tabrez  and  Diwan-i-Hafiz.  These  books, 
though  at  soine  places,  embodying  thoughts  that  to  a  superficial  :  eye  might 
appear  unwholesome  as  regards  moral  development  of  youths,  reflect  that 
profound  misticism  which  has  been  prized  all  over  the  eastern  countries  for 
centuries  together,  and  where  the  poetic  vision  rises  high,  the  mind  of  a 
pure-hearted  reader  is  thrown  into  a  semi-mesmeric  state.  The  charm  that 
some  of  the  verses  exercise  is  truly  profound,  the  figure  of  a  devotee  saturat 
ed  with  love  and  Bliakti  rises  unbidden  before  the  mental  eye  aud  oi>e  cannot 
help  feeling  himself  under  the  influence  of  a  magnetic  current  of  thought, 
flowing  uninterruptedly  towards  him.  These  books  were  not  without  their 
effect  on  the  little  Vairagi.  Already  a  rnyatic  by  nature,  he  WHS  profoundly 
influenced  by  them.  For  houra  together  he  would  look  towards  the 
heavqn  with  an  attention  that  was  seldom  disturbed  by  the  noise  and  bustlo 

of  the  people  around,  and  contemplate  the  majesty  of  the  all-powerfflJ 
Lord  v\lio  bespangled  the  immeasurable  firmament  with  eountless  millions 
of  brilliant  lights.  At  this  period  of  life  he  was  strongly  convinced  of  the 
existence  of  Grd  and  once  when  his  mother  remonstrated  with  him, 
while  engaged  in  his  nocturnal  observations,  he  remaked  :  •*  Look  mother'! 
look  towards  heaven,  at  the  shining  stars  and  the  different  forms  there; 
they  must  have  their  Maker  and  I  am  learning  the  way  to  reach  Him.  You 
do  the  s?,me."  This  reply,  though  not  very  unusual  in  the  case  of  a  Vairagi, 
would  appear  to  be  very  startling  when  coming  from  a  boy  of  eleven  or 
twelve  years. 

Perhaps  by  far  the  most  marked  tendency  in  school-boys  is  that  towards 
verse-making.  Even  students,  not  possessed  of  a  poetic  bent  of  mind,  may 
be  seen  composing  verses.  There  is  hardly  anybody  who  in  his  school  days 
has  not  been  fired  with  the  ambition  of  becoming  a  poet.  But  this  ambi 
tion,  though  almost  general,  is  not  of  a  permanent  character.  It  is  short 
lived,  and,  in  most  cases,  vanishes  when  the  student  has  scarcely  advanced 
beyond  the  Entrance  Class.  This,  however,  was  not  the  case  with  Guru 
DaMa.  He  hud  much  of  poetie  element  in  him,  and  having  a  natural 
aptitude  for  verse-making,  his  compositions  were  free  from  artificiality.  There 
was  a  good  deal  in  them  characteristic  of  a  natural-born  "poet.  His  verses 
were  sweet,  beautiful  and  melodious  and  they  were  often  composed  without 
much  exertion.  So  great  was  indeed  his  power  in  this  particular  department 
that  he  is  said  to  have  once  translated  a  long  Urdu  passage  into  Persian 
verse  quite  extempore.  But  he  did  not  cultivate  his  poetic  taste. 
After  passing  the  middle  School  Examination  he  was  sent  to  Multan,  his 
native  place,  for  studying  in  the  High  School.  His  favourite  book  of  study 
in  those  days  was  Masnavi  Maulana  Rumi.  Being  a  student  of  extraordinary 
intellectual  acumen,  he  was  one  of  the  shining  students  of  his  class  and 
always  occupied  high  position  in  Examinations,  and  had  earned  the  favour 
and  good-will  of  his  teachers,  especially  of  the  Head  Master,  Babu  M.  M. 
Sircar,  who,  confident  of  his  great  powers,  foreshadowed  his  future  career. 
He  was  very  fond  of  study,  nnd  there  was  no  Library  in  Mult?«n  that  he 
did  not  have  recourse  to  for  the  improvement  of  his  knowledge.  The  big  "\ 
library  of  the  school  and  that  situated  in  Lnnghe  Khan  garden  he  had  total 
ly  ransacked  and  finished  within  a  short  time.  Master  Daya  Ram  being 
on  the  school  staff  at  the  time  and  perceiving  that  Guru  Datta  was  strongly 
inclined  towards  religion  gave  him  two  books  entitled  '  India  in  Greece  :  and 

(  *  ) 

the  *  Bible  in  India'  for  study.  Just  before  this  he  had  come  across  a  bo«k 
called  the  Aina-i-  Afaxhabi  Hanud.  These  books  gave  him  much  information 
concerning  the  ancient  history  of  this  country.  From  Ainai  Mazhabi  ffanvd 
which  embodied  the  cogent  points  of  the  Hindu  creed,  he  learnt  the  mystic 
recitation  of  Anhad,  an  attribute  of  God,  which  he  kept  up  for  some  time. 
Soon  after  he  came  to  know  of  the  e  fficacy  viPranayam  as  a  factor  in  psychic 
development.  He  practised  it  daily  without  fail,  and  one  result  of  thii 
practice  was  that  his  mind,  already  very  penetrative,  came  to  possess 
of  a  great  power  of  abstraction.  He  could  so  devote  his  attention  to  an 
object  as  to  be  unconscious  of  all  things  around  him.  He  could  so  far  with 
draw  his  mind  from  outer  activity  and  direct  it  towards  the  object  of  his 
observation  as  to  enter  into  its  heart  and  minutely  examine  all  its  parts. 
This  accounts,  to  a  large  extent,  for  his  remarkable  powers  of  retention, 
every  thing  was  realized  in  his  mind  and  so  strongly  impressed  on  it  that 
nothing  external  could  efface  it. 

The  Education  in  the  High  School  gave  quite  a  different  turn  to  the 
mind  of  Guru  Datta.  As  he  read  and  assimilated  English  authors,  his  old 
beliefs  were  shaken,  and  that  faith  which  characterised  his  talk  was  no 
longer  observable.  The  change  was  not  due  to  mental  incapacity,  for  Guru- 
D.itta  had  remarkable  power  of  analysis  and  could,  without  any  difficulty, 
relagate  the  various  items  composing  a  statement  to  their  respective  cate 
gories.  However  complicated  a  thought,  or  however  great  a  jumble  of 
heterogenous  ideas,  his  mind  was  never  confused.  But  just  at  the  tima 
when  he  was  prosecuting  his  studies  at  Muhan,  there  was  a  great  religious 
commotion  going  on  in  the  Punjab.  The  sudden  inrush  of  Western  ideas, 
the  gloss  and  glitter  of  the  new  civilization,  the  currency  of  the  novel  modes 
of  thought  and  life,  and  the  Missiomirits'  eloquent  and  pathetic  exhortation  to 
the  Hindus  against  idol-worship,  had  quite  upset  the  thoughts  of  the  educated 
people.  The  school  books,  at.  legist  some  of  them,  fostered  and  encouraged  a 
spirit  of  skepticism.  Pandit  Guru  Dattu  found  that  the  Persian  works  that  he 
had  studied,  and  the  Hindu  beliefs  in  which  he  was  nurtured,  were  too  much 
theoretical  and  absurd  ;  and  naturally  an  aversion  was  produced  in  his  mind 
towards  them.  He  became  skeptic  and  began  to  doubt  even  the  existence  of 
God.  A.t  this  time,  when  the  Western  civilization  was  carrying  before  its  tide 
everything,  when  doubt  and  skepticism  had  almost  banished  faith  from  the 
realm  of  religion,  when,  in  consequence,  people  were  embracing  Christianity  in 
large  numbers,  and  when  there  was  a  widespread  unrest  among  the  masses* 

(    9     ) 

there  appeared  on  the  scene  a  mighty  Reformer.  His  advent  reversed  the  order 
of  things.  Highly  intellectual,  he  shattered  to  pieces  in  no  time  the  grounds  of 
materialists  ;  the  Muhammedans,  Christians  and  Hindus,  who  came  forward 
to  argue  with  him  and  to  check  the  growth  of  the  religion  that  he  inculcated, 
sustained,  each  one  of  them,  a  crushing  defeat.  They  found  themselves 
face  to  face  with  an  intellectual  giant  who  completely  overpowered  them  and 
left  no  passage  for  retreat.  The  humiliation  of  these  people  shows  that 
the  respective  religions  whose  cause  they  took  up  and  fought  for,  were 
without  any  inherent  vitality.  His  ideas  were  at  once  reasonable  and 
ennobling,  and  the  Vedic  Dharma,  which  he  expounded,  was  highly  conducive 
to  the  harmony  of  physical,  moral  aud  spiritual  natures  of  man. 
The  highest  Western  thought  could  not  influence  him  in  any  way  , 
he  stood  on  a^  far  higher  plane,  and  the  religion  which  he  offered  to  the 
people  was  truth  without  the  least  tinge  of  falsehood — pure,  sublime,  and 
soul-inspiring.  As  soon  as  the  ideals  and  truths  of  this  religion  were  made 
known,  the  people  accepted  them  with  eagerness.  The  ever  swelling  tide  of 
conversion  to  alien  faiths  was  at  once  stemmed ;  excitement  and  uneasiness 
soon  ceased,  and  there  was  all  peace  and  harmony.  Guru  Datta  also  was 
attracted  towards  the  Vedic  Dharma,  and  his  inquisitive  faculties  were 
totally  satiated.  His  intimate  friends  at  the  time  were  Pandit  Remal  Das 
and  Lala  Chetanananda,  and  both  of  them  had  already  been*  converted  to  the 
Vedic  faith.  Guru  Datta  often  talked  to  them  on  God-head  and  other  problems 
of  religious  import.  He  read  the  Sattyarth  Prakash  (6rsfc  edition)at  their 
instance,  and  joined  the  church  of  Arya  Samaj  on  20th  June  1880.-  That 
was  the  happiest  day  in  the  annals  of  the  Arya  Samaj  and  marks  a  new  era 
in  its  development,  since  the  powerful  advocacy  of  the  Vedic  Dharma  by 
him  has  been  the  means  of  securing  to  the  Samaj  the  sympathy  and  co 
operation  of  many  a  talented  man.  Soon  after  his  accepting  the  member 
ship  of  the  Samaj,  he  commenced  the  study  of  Ashtadhyai,  and  such  a 
strong  fascination  had  he  for  it  that  he  called  on  the  office  bearers -of  the 
Multau  Arya  Samaj  to  send  for  a  Pandit  to  teach  him,  failing  which,  he 
would  consider  their  dharma  to  be  shallow.  The  office-bearers  gave  a  prompt 
attention  to  this  request,  and  at  once  sent  for  a  Pandit,  Akshananda  byname. 
Guru  Datta  read  with  him  for  a  few  weeks.  The  teacher  could  not  satisfy 
the  pupil  as  he  could  not  reply  to  his  endless  questions.  The  Vidyarthi 
learnt  only  H  adhyas  from  the  Pandit,  and  then  left  off  rather  unceremonious 
ly,  He  studied  the  book  independently,  perhaps  by  the  help  of  Swamiji's 

(     10    ) 

Yedang  Pralash  ;  he  had  a  commendable   mastery  over  it,     While  at  Multan, 
he  came  across  another  book,    called   "  Easy   lessons   in  Sanskrit  Grammar" 
by  Dr.  Ballantyne.     He  read  through  it   in    a   few    days.     This   little  book 
t;is  been    written   on    modern   system    of   instruction,    and    can    be     learnt 
without  the  help  of  a   Pandit.     It    contains  a  goodly  number  of  rules,    &c. 
on  Grammar  and  gives  a  fair  insight  into  the    nature    of   Sanskrit    language. 
The  present  writer  has  had  an  opportunity  of   studying    it    himself,    and    he 
con  speak  from  his   personal   knowledge  that   the   book   is   admirably   well- 
adapted  for   beginners.     Pandit  <j}uru    Datta,   after    finishing   it,    began    to 
read  the  Sanskrit  portion  of  the  Veda  Bhashya  Bhumika  and  fully  understood 
it.     He  had  a  very  high  opinion  of  the  book   and    recommended    it   to   those 
who  found  it  difficult,  on  account  of  advanced    age,    domestic  encumbrances 
&c.,  to  study  the    Ashtadhyai.     Some   gentlemen    at   his   suggestion    began 
to  learn  the  book,  and    found,    before    they   had   advanced  much,  that   they 
could  understand  tolerably  long  passages  of  Sanskrit.  Our  object  in  enlarging 
on  the  question  is  to  afford  to  those,  who  give  up   the  study   of  Sanskrit  on 
the  plea  of  age  aud  the  non-existence  of  easy  lessons  in  Grammar  the   sugges 
tion  that  they  can,  if  they  wish,  improve  their  knowledge   of   that   language. 
All  the  officebearers  of  tie  Multan    Samaj    were   interested    in    the    progress 
of  Guru  Datta  and  once  they  examined    him  in    Arya   Uddesh    Ratan  Mala, 
and  Veda  Bhashya  Bhumika.     He  used   to  attend  the   Samaj    regularly  and 
was  much  liked  by  the  Samajic  people. 

There  is  hardly  any  branch  of  study  that  did  not  receive  the  attention  of 
Guru   Datta    while   at   school.     Of   English    literature,  he  had  read  Milton, 
Cowper,    and    shakespeare ;   of  Persian,   he   had   n    thorough  mastery    over 
Masnavi    Maulana  Rutni,    Hafiz   and  other  works  of  note;  of  Arabic,  he  had 
read  Saraf  Nnhav  and  Mara  Nahv.  Physical  science  was  his  favourite  subject 
while  he  had  gone  through  several  books  on  Logic,  Psychology,  and  Philosophy. 
This   is   extraordinary  in  a  boy  of  fourteen  or  fifteen    years.     Ordinarily,  the 
knowledge  of  the  boys  studying  in  the  Entrance  class  is  very  limited,  in  some 
cases  the  Matriculates   cannot  write  a  line  or  two  of  correct  English.     They 
are  required  to  know  a  number  of  books  which  they  cram   into  their   heads, 
and  repeat  parrot-like  when  asked  to  do  so,  there  being  very  little  of  absorp 
tion    aud  assimilation.     They   know   nothing  of  Psychology,  Logic,  and  Phi 
losophy,  the  very  names  appear  to  them  something  unfamiliar.     But  Pandit 
Guru   Datta  had   acquired   a  fair   proficiency   in   these,  before  passing  the 
Entrance  Examination.     He  was  a  brilliant  student  in   his   class,     Much  of 

(  II  ) 

bw  time  being  spen-t  in  extra  study,  he  did  T50*  always  occupy  the  forei 
position,  the  other  boys  who  devoted  themselves  exclusively  to  the  study  of 
the  text-books,  having  advantage  over  him  in  this  respect,  sometimes  out 
stripped  him  in  class  lessons,  bat  none  of  them  could  boast  of  learning  so- 
vast  and  varied  in  range  and  extent.  Guru  Datta  could,  while  reading  in- 
the  High  School,  compete  successfully  with  F.  A.  students.  Whatever  he 
read,  he  not  only  retained  in  his  memory  but  fully  comprehended  it.  The 
various  shades  of  meaning  that  a  phifosophieal  question  was  susceptible  of, 
he  could  decipher  without  rnueh  exertion,  Shakespeare  he  recited  with 
warmth  and  passion  as  though  the  drama  was  being  really  enacted — the 
tone,  gestures  and  modulations  of  voice  exactly  suited  the  occasion.  And  his 
teachers  were  not  unconscious  of  these  capabilities.  Once  there  was  a  diffi 
cult  piece  frogi  a  well-known  author  ending  with  "  Here  it  is/  The  Head 
Master,  in  order  to  test  the  merits  of  the  students  and  quicken  them  to 
effort,  said  that  he  would  give  Rs.  5r  as  a  reward  feo  the  student,  who  would' 
recite  it.  in  the  proper  manner.  All  attempted  to  recite  the  passage,  but 
without  success.  At  last  Guru  Datta  was  summoned  to  the  table.  He  had* 
seen  his  fellow  students  fail,  but  that  did  not  disturb  his  mind.  He  request 
ed  the  Head  Master  to  let  him  mount  the  table,  so  that  all  might  observe- 
him.  The  permission  was  given,  and  he  ascended  it  with  agility  reciting  the- 
passage  with  a  beauty  truly  admirable.  Just  as  he  came  to  the  phrase- 
*  Here  it  is,"  his  look  and  gestures  wore  a  corresponding  appearance.  He 
handed  out  the  book  that  he  had  in  his  pocket  for  the  purpose,  pronouncing 
with  befitting  accent  r  "Here  it  is."  There  was  at  enee  a  loud  outburst  of 
cheers,  the  Head  Master  patted  him  on  the  back  and  awarded  bin*  Rs.  & 
This  wonderful  feat  by  an  Entrance  Class  student  is  certainly  something 
very  uncommon  and  extraordinary. 

Not  only  was  Guru  .Datta  loved  by  his  teachers  for  hrs  brilliant  capaci 
ties,  but  was  also  looked  with  much  favour  from  another  consideration,  viz.T 
for  his  veracity.  His  name  had  become  a  by-word  in  the  School  for  truth. 
Under  no  circumstances  would  he  tell  a  Ire.  Bis  own  moral  character  behi£ 
spotless,  he  was  afraid  of  none.  He  was  far  above  the  ordinary  run  of 
students  in  this  respect.  This  is  not  the  time  fo*  enlarging  on  the  vicesr 
that  prevail  among  the  students  ill  our  Schools  and  Col h-ges.  "We  have  t he- 
authority  of  one  of  the  leading  medical  met) — J>r.  Kellogg — to  state  tli.-ifc 
some  of  the  serious  vices  are  prevalent  to  an  tvhirming  extent  among  bov* 
in  educational  awd  other  institutions  in  England.  The  evil  is,  in  f«ct,  m- 

separable  from  the  Western  civilization  and  occidental  methods  of  instruction. 
In  India,  there  is  little  doubt  that  it  is  the  modern  system  that  has  been  in 
strumental  in  fostering  the  evil.  We  do  not  mean  to  insinuate  that  all  the 
students  in  our  seminaries  are  corrupt.  Far  from  that.  All  that  we  con 
tend  for  is  that  there  are  various  influences  in  the  modern  schools  which  do 
tell  on  the  moral  well-being  of  the  students,  and  all  those  who  have  been 
schoolboys  can  testify  to  this  fact.  There  are  students  who  assiduously  keep 
away  from  such  influences,  and  Pandit  G»ru  Datta  was  ons  of  them.  He 
was  wholly  uninfluenced  by  evil  desires.  This  indicates  that  he  was  fitted 
by  nature  to  rise  superior  to  sensuality.  She  evidently  intended  him  for 
a  higher  and  nobler  purpose.  Guru  Datta  was,  at  times,  mystical  while  at 
Multan  and  stuck  to  some  of  his  old  habits  with  great  pertinacity.  Why  he- 
did  so,  it  cannot  be  rationally  explained.  We  can  only  say  tfcat  it  was  not 
on  account  of  an  irresistible  influence  arising  out  of  a  fixed  mode  of  action, 
since  his  will-power,  even  when  he  was  young,  was  strong  enough  to  shake  off 
inveterate  habits.  He  was  very  fond  of  visiting  Sadhus  and  Sannyasis  and 
derived  much  pleasure  by  conversing  with  them.  Once  he  visited  an  old 
Sannyasi  who  came  to  Multan  with  his  uncle,  and  had  the  following  dialogue 
with  him. 

G.  D.  Vidyarthi. — Maharaj  what  is  the  best  mode  of  learning  Yoga — that 
written  in  Patanjali's  book  or  any  other? 

Sannyasi. — Patanjali's  is  the  correct  method;  almost  everything  else  a 

G.  D.  Vidyarthi. — Do  you  know  anything  of  Swami  Dyauanda  ? 

Sannyasi. — Yes,  we  have  been  companions  in  the  Jungles ;  once  at  a 
place  we  used  to  go  to  a  Pandit  who  recited  Bhagwat  Puran^upon  the  con 
tents  of  which  Swami  Dyananda  used  to  get  enraged,  but  I  used  to  appease 
his  anger  by  saying  that  a  Sannyasi  should  avoid  wrath. 

G.  D.  Vidyarthi — Are  the  germs  of  all  sorts  of  knowledge  to  be  found  in 
the  Vedas  ?. 

Sannyasi. — Yes. 

G.  D.  Vidyarthi. — Even-  the  art  of  regulating  the  army  and  rules  of  drill,. 

Sannyasi. — Yes  ;  I  know  all  this  and  can  train  any  six  men,  who  choose- 
to  go  with  me  into  the  jungle,  in  the  system  of  the  Muhabharata  ami 


(    Js 

G.  D.  Vidyarthi. — Swamiji  to  what  places  have  you  been,  and  what  places 
have  you  seen  ? 

Sannyasi. — Almost  all  the  world,  Allaska,  Baring  &c.  Allaska,  is  called 
Allawartadesha  in  Sanskrit. 

G.  D.  Vidyarthi. — Are  you  acquainted  with  the  different  languages  of 
.  these  parts  ?  If  so,  let  me  see  how  you  speak  the  Russian  language. 

Sannyasi. — Yes.  But  what  will  be  the  use  of  my  talking  in  Russian 
when  you  can't  understand  it.  Let  it  suffice  to  tell  you  that  this  language  con- 
Uins  too  many  consonants.* 

There  is  another  story  of  a  very  curious  character  which  reaches  us  from 
one  of  Panditji's  trusted  friends  and  to  whom  he  himself  related  it.  Panditji's 
parents  loved  him  very  much.  While  he  was  at  Multan,  they  had  a  servant 
exclusively.devoted  to  his  service.  He  used  to  keep  behind  him  like  a  shadow 
as  it  were,  and  seldom,  if  ever,  parted  his  company.  In  play,  in  school  and  in 
study  he  was  always  by  his  side.  One  day  Guru  Datta  was  playing  what  ia 
called  chachingal.  A  boy  struck  him  on  the  back,  and  ran  away.  Guru  Datta 
gave  chase,  but  the  boy  being  nimble,  rau  very  &wift.  He,  however,  kept  up 
the  pursuit.  Soon  they  were  out  of  the  city  gates.  One  or  two  miles  had 
been  traversed  in  this  way.  The  boy  at  last  disappeared  in  a  crowd  of  trees. 
Guru  Datta  was  confronted  in  his  flight  by  a  raised  wall.  He  stopped  near 
it  for  a  while,  thinking  to  himself  whether  he  should  climb  it  or  not.  In 
the  meantime  his  servant  came  up.  The  resolution  of  Guru  Datta  was,  how 
ever,  made.  He  told  the  servant  to  wait  outside  and  himself  jumped  over  the 
wall.  He  had  run  only  for  a  few  yards  inside  the  fence  when  a  shuddering 
sensation  ran  through  his  frame.  The  atmosphere  around  appeared  to  him 
to  be  of  a  different  nature.  He  thought  he  was  in  a  dangerous  place.  But  his 
mind  did  not  fail  him  and  he  went  on,  when  all  of  a  sudden  he  heard  a  rust 
ling  noise  from  amongst  the  surrounding  trees,  and  no  sooner  had  his  atten 
tion  been  rivetted  on  them,  he  saw  a  tall  giant  Fakir  advance  towards  him 

his  eyes  were  blazing  as  torch  light  and  there  was  an  expression  on  his  face 
that  could  not  but  inspire  awe.  Guru  Datta  was  struck  at  his  appearance 
and  experienced  a  sensation  of  fear.  The  Sadhu  came  up  to  him,  enquired 
his  name  and  the  cause  of  his  arrival  there,  and  then  took  him  among  the 
trees.  There  he  spoke  to  him  some  words,  eonforted  him  and  told  him  not 
to  be  afraid  of  any  one.  Guru  Datta  at  this  felt  easy.  Immediately  he 

*    From  the  life  of  Pandit  Guru  Datta  by  Lala  La j pat  Kai. 

(      1*     ) 

took  him  to  his  hut.  It  was  a  rude  building  but  extremly  clean  from  msicte. 
There  the  Sadhu  enquired  about  his  studies,  after  a  few  minutes  caught 
hold  of  his  lodi  and  in  a  manner  at  once  peaceful  and  conciliatory 
gave  it  a  jerk.  Guru  Datta  felt  at  the  moment  that  he  was  sitting  in  a 
well-furnished  room  with  a  large  mirror  just  before  his  ejes,  in  which  was 
reflected  the  image  of  a  boy  bent  over  his  book  in  study.  In  a  minute  or 
two  the  grip  on  the  hair  was  let  off,  and  the  whole  scene  disappeared.  The- 
Sadhu  then  spoke  some  words  of  benediction  and  bade  him  depart.  Guru. 
Datta  leaped  over  the  wall  and  returned  home  in  company  with  his  servant. 
The  whole  affair  was  kept  a  secret. 

This  story  might  appear  incredible  to  many  of  our  readers, 
but  it  is,  nevertheless,  true.  No  rational  explanation  can  at 
present  be  given  of  the  scene  that  appeared  to-  the  Vidyarthi  under  the 
magnetic  touch  of  the  Sanyasi.  It  may,  after  all,  be  an  optical  illusion,  or 
a  sort  of  reverie  in  which  he  beheld  his  own  image.  The  situation  of  the 
mirror,  the  position  of  the  boy,  and  his  attitude  were  exactly  as  in  his  own* 
case,  and  this  fact  dawned  on  his  mind  while  one  night  he  resumed  his 
studies  after  supper  as  usual.  How  this  came  about,,  isagam-a  mystery; 
we  are  unable  to  trace  the  raison  d'etre  or  the  sequences  that  led  up  to  it* 
There  are  moments  in  individual  existence  when-  old  and  forgotten  incidents, 
which  could  not  bo  recalled  notwithstanding  the  exertion  of  one's  whole 
might,  rise  all  of  a  sudden  prominently  before  the  mind  aa  if  they  had 
taken  place  but  a  few  days  back.  Sometimes-  it  so  happens  that  a  man,, 
who  has  spent  some  hours  in  the  solution  of  a  problem  without  s-n-eees,  finds 
the  enigma  wholly  explained  while  his  attention  is  occupied  with  another 
thing,  This  unexpected  solution  by  a  process  almost  unobstrusive  cannot  be 
easily  accounted  for.  But  it  is  a  psychological  phenomenon  which  cannot 
be  gainsaid,  and  those  of  us  who  have  had  occasion  to  think  over  problcms- 
of  deep  import  can  corroborate,  by  their  testimony,  the  position  herein  main 
tained.  The  final  appeal  in  the  matter  is  to  experience  ;  and  a  thing  which 
had  the  support  and  sanction  of  experience  cannot  evidently  be  improbable. 
But  this  is  not  the  only  thing  that  requires  explanation  in  this  connection. 
One  night  Pandit  Guru  Datta,  when  about  to  retire,  felt  as  if  he  were  sum 
moned  by  the  Sadhu.  He  experienced  distinct  vibrations  conveying  him  an 
order  from  the  Sadhu  to  call  at  his  hut.  Next  day  Guru  Datta  presented  hinv 
self  to  the  sannyasi,  who  was  very  glad  to  see  hfm.  He  told  Guru-  Datta  that 
he  had  done  well  to  obey  his  call.  Then  he  enquired  about  his  health  and 

(    15    ) 

dismissed  him  from  his  presence  with  orders  to  call  again  the  next  day.  The 
Vivdarthi  did  as  he  was  desired.  The  Sadhu  first  put  him  several  questions 
as  regards  his  Sanskrit  studies  and  then  spoke  words  of  encouragement,  urg 
ing  him  to  ]  ay  more  attention  to  Sanskrit,  as  he  was  destined  to  do  a  great 
service  to  the  cause  of  humanity  in  that  direction.  Next,  he  took  him  to 
.  his  hut  and  gave  him  a  lesson  on  Yamas  &  Niyams,  expounding  the  details 
in  an  able  and  learned  manner.  Certain  instructions  were  given  him  which 
we  are  not  in  a  position  to  state.  He  was  told  to  be  strict  in  their  obser 
vance  on  the  pain  of  a  serious  punishment,  three  mistakes  only  being  for 
given.  Guru  Datta  came  away  regulating  his  conduct  according  to  the 
methods  explained  and  expounded  by  the  sannyasi.  He,  however,  committed 
a  mistake  unconsciously  but  was  made  aware  of  it  by  the  Sadhu  who  warned 
him  for  the  future.  Guru  Datta  became  more  careful  at  this  but, 
notwithstanding  all  his  exertion,  he  was  led  into  another  mistake.  There 
was  again  a  warning  from  the  Sadhu,  who  said  that  it  was  the  last  time  that 
he  had  been  apprised  of  his  mistake,  the  next  infringement  would  not  be 
heeded  to.  Now  what  explanation  can  there  be  of  the  communication  of 
the  Sadhu  with  Vidyarthi.  Some  men  would  be  apt  to  regard  the  whole 
story  to  be  a  mere  tissue  of  fabrication,  others  might  think  the  latter  details 
as  a  mere  superstition.  But  we  think  both  these  allegations  cannot  be  made 
with  any  degree  of  force.  The  accuracy  of  the  story  is  vouched  for  by  the 
friend  of  Pandit  Guru  Datta  already  referred  to,  and  he  has  no  motive  to 
fabricate  it.  The  communion  of  ihe  Sadhu  is  also  susceptible  of  an  expla 
nation.  That  he  was  a  man  of  great  psychical  powers  is  proved  beyond 
doubt.  He  possessed  that  divine  halo  which  fascinated  those  who  came  in  his 
contact  and  the  strong  magnetic  currents  of  hia  will-power  could  not  be 
resisted  by  Guru  Datta.  Communion  can  be  established  by  mesmerism. 
A  man  can,  in  mesmeric  condition,  describe  things  situated  thousands  of  miles 
away  with  axactness.  The  present  writer  has  had  occasion  to  see  a  girl 
under  the  influence  of  mesmerism  giving  faithful  description  of  a  house 
situated  several  thousands  of  miles  away  from  the  place,  and  a  house  of 
which  she  knew  nothing  at  all.  The  owner  of  the  house  testified  to  every 
thing  that  the  girl  said.  In  her  ordinary  condition,  she  did  not  know 
what  was  asked  from  her  while  in  the  mesmeric  trance.  The  powers  and 
capabilities  of  the  human  mind  are  by  no  means  small  and  insignificant. 
To  those  who  doubt  the  possibility  of  thought-transmission,  we  re 
commend  the  perusal  of  works  on  "  mental  suggestion."  The  contact 
of  the  Yogi  with  Guru  Datta,  though  it  was  incidental,  proved  of 

(  w  ) 

much  advantage  to  the  latter.  It  strengthened  his  faith  and  conviction  in  the 
principles  of  individual  purity.  The  lesson  on  yamas  and  niyamas  and  the 
threats  of  the  Yogi  that  he  would  be  punished  in  t&e  event  of  his  deviation 
from  those  principles  exercised  a  very  salutary  influence  over  him.  He  became 
very  cautious  in  all  his  movements,  and  his  mental  and  moral  tone,  which  was 
already  above  that  of  the  average  run  of  students,  became  still  more  high. 
It  nad  subsequently  much  to  do  with  the  development  of  his  genius,  since  tho 
purer  a  man  in  heart,  the  higher  and  more  lofty  will  be  his  ambition  and  less 
chance  will  there  be  of  the  vitiation  of  his  judgment,  because  the  causes 
that  give  rise  to  such  things  are  conspicuous  by  their  absence,  He  grew 
pure  in  thought  and  deed  day  by  day,  and  in  his  college  career  he  was  one 
of  the  few  young  men  who  commanded  respect  from  fellow  students  for  their 
nobility  of  life  and  conduct. 

Guru    Datta  passed  his    ''Entrance"    in  November    1880,  and    left  for 
p          ,.,.  Lahore  in  January    1881  to   prosecute    his  studies  at  the 

local  Government  College.  Education  was  at  the  time 
in  its  incipient  stages  in  the  Punjab.  There  was  bub  one  College  in  the 
whole  Province,  and  students  from  all  parts  of  the  Punjab,,  after  finishing 
their  education  in  high  schools,  came  to  Lahore  for  further  study.  The  Gov 
ernment  College  was  then  the  nucleus  of  learning.  The  entire  staff  consist 
ed  of  experienced,  learned,  and  talented  professors.  Dr.  Leitner,  who  enjoyed 
a  world-wide  celebrity  as  an  oriental  scholar  and  whose  memory  is  still  held 
in  grateful  rememberance  in  the  Punjab,  was  in  charge  of  the  institution. 
Under  his  sympathetic  and  enlightened  guidance,  the  College  had  attained 
much  popularity.  The  professors  had  a  happy  regard  for  the  students,  and 
were,  in  return,  loved  and  respected  by  the  students.  The  spirit  of  indi- 
efference  towards  the  pupils  and  utter  disregard  for  their  moral  well-being, 
-which  is  now  the  leading  characteristic  of  those  entrusted  with  the  noble 
duty  of  imparting  education,  were  unknown  at  the  time,  nor  did  there 
exist  the  spirit  of  irreverence  with  which  the  students  at  present  behave  to 
wards  their  Professors.  Consequently,  the  College  turned  out  men  of  worth. 
Guru  Datta,  being  a  genius,  drank  deep  at  the  fountain  of  knowledge,  and 
all  the  aforesaid  advantages  had  an  elevating  effect  on  his  intellectual  and 
moral  life.  He  rose  into  prominence  only  a  few  months  after  his  joining 
the  College.  The  loftiness  of  his  tone,  high  regard  for  truth,  profundity 
of  thought,  nobility  of  character,  vastness  of  information  in  almost  all  de 
partments  of  study,  the  stern  and  unbending  will  which  he  brought  to  bear 

upon  all  his  acts,  attracted  the  attention  of  the  Professors  as  well  as  of  the 
students  who  admired  him  for  these  high  virtues.  Just  as  magnet  attracts 
the  iron  so  did  he,  by  virtue  of  his  amiable  qualities,  attract  students 
towards  him.  His  study  of  the  western  authors  produced  great  unrest  in  his 
mind  during  the  first  two  or  three  years  of  his  college  career.  His  intellect 
would  not  believe  in  the  existence  of  God,  though  his  spiritual  nature  and  hia 
moral  qualities  that  were  high  and  sublime,  bore  strong  and  unequivocal 
testimony  to  the  existence  of  the  Divine  Father.  His  heart  had  firm  faith  in 
God,  and  His  beneficence  and  mercy,  while  his  intellect  would  not  assent  to 
the  dictates  of  the  heart.  There  was  a  phase  of  skepticism  in  his  intellectual 
speculation  that  could  not  be  mistaken.  His  favourite  authors  at  the  time 
were  Mill  and  Bain,  and  some  of  his  ideas  in  the  Department  of  moral  science 
derived  their  nutriment  from  the  works  of  these  philosophers,  and  he  was 
strongly  oppo'sed  to  the  inadequate  tests  that  Christianity  supplied  in  regard 
to  the  judgment  of  the  Tightness  or  wrongness  of  our  actions.  The  Christian 
theory  of  morals  had  risen  to  much  prominence  owing  to  the  great  impulse 
havin<*been  communicated  to  it  by  the  Brahmo  Samaj,  then  in  a  very  pros 
perous  and  flourishing  condition.  The  idea  of  the  authority  of  conscience  in 
the  decision  of  the  legality  or  otherwise  of  an  action  was  gaining  wide  accept 
ance  and  Guru  Datta,  with  a  view  to  enlighten  the  public  mind  on  the 
-question,  wrote  a  vigorous  article  in  the  Regenerate*  of  Arya  Varta  which 
was  virtually  under  his  editorial  charge.  The  article  deserves  a  careful 
perusal,  and  we  reproduce  it  for  the  edification  of  our  readers  :— 

"The  position  of  the  Brahmo  Sarnaj  with  regard  to  conscience  has 
been  that  of  Intuitionists.  This  School  asserts  that  there  is  a  moral  faculty 
or  moral  instinct  in  us  which  gives  us  the  perception  of  right  and  wrong,  of 
good  and  bad,  as  the  eye  gives  us  the  perception  of  colour.  Those  that 
are  opposed  to  this  doctrine  hold  that  conscience  is  not  an  innate  faculty- 
but  that  it  is  really  an  acquired  faculty,  a  faculty,  which  is  in  no  way  diff 
erent  and  distinct  from  other  senses,  the  acquisition  being  mainly  from  ex 
perience  and  association.  Before  we  attempt  an  exposition  of  the  nature  of 
conscience,  we  would  ask  leave  of  our  readers  to  show  \\hat  practical  differ 
ences  result  from  these  two  viewa.  "  Now,  the  difference  between  the  two 
schools  of  philosophy — that  of  intuition  and  that  of  experience  and  associ 
ation,  is  not  a  mere  matter  of  abstract  speculation  ;  it  is  full  of  practical 
consequences,  and  lies  at  the  .foundation  of  all  the  greatest  differences  of 
practical  opinion  in  an  age  of  progress.  The  practical  reformer  has  con 
tinually  to  demand  that  changes  be  made  in  things  which  are  supported  by 

(     18    ) 

^powerful  and  widely-spread  ieelings,   or  to  question   the  apparent  necessity 
or  indefeasibtlity  of   established  facts;  and  it  is  often  an  indispensable   part 
of  his  argument  to  show  how  those  powerful   feelings  had  their  origin,  and 
how  those  facts  came  to  seem  necessary  and   indefeasible.     There  is,  there 
fore,  a   natural  hostility  between  him  and  a    philosophy  which  discourages 
the  explanation  of  feeling  and  moral  facts  by  circumstances  and  association, 
and  prefers  to  treat  them  as   ultimate  elements  of  human   nature,  a  philoso 
phy  which  is  addicted  to  holding  of  favourable  doctrines  as  intuitive  truths, 
and  deems  intuition  to  be  the   voice   of  Nature  and  of  God,    speaking   with 
.authority  iiigher  than  that  of  our  reason."     The  above  words  from  the  pen  of 
one  of  the  greatest  philosophers  that   the  nineteenth    century    has  yet  pro 
duced,  clearly  show  the  unfitness   of  this  doctrine   to  reformation,   and   the 
inadaptability  of  this   view    to   progress   and   improvement   in  general.     Al 
though  this  mode  of  thought  might  not  yet  have  indolence  and  the  conser- 
vativism  indicated  in   the  above  words,   it   is   certain  to   produce   these   in 
future,  and  we  sincerely  believe  that  this  tendency  has  been  a  chief  hindrance 
to   the  rational  treatment  of  great   social  questions,    and  one  of  the  great 
stumbling  blocks  to   human   improvement.     This  radical   defect  in  the  ten 
dencies  of  the  Brahmo  Samaj  should   not  escape   the  attention  of  a  Brahmo 

11  Had  it  been  impossible  in  any  case  to  teach  against  the  dictates  of 
conscience,  or  were  it  so  that  this  capacity  lay  uncorrupted  in  the  general 
decay  and  habitual  change  of  our  other  faculties,  onr  treatment  of  the  ques 
tion  would  have  been  otherwise.  But  unfortunately,  however,  such  is  the 
refragibility  with  which  this  faculty  yields  under  external  influences  and 
other  motives,  that  the  question  has  very  often  been  put,  "  should  I  obey  my 
conscience  T  and  there  have  been  men  who  have  answered  it  in  the  negative. 

11  We  cannot  be  more  certain  of  anything  than  that  it  is  with  perfect 
sincerity  and  feeling  of  reverence  and  godliness,  that  an  humble  Hmdn 
kneels  down  before  his  idol,  and  prays  that  he  should  succeed  in  his  efforts  ; 
nor  are  we  less  confident  of  the  truth  of  the  fact  that  when  the  iconoclast 
Mahmud  broke  the  precious  statue  of  Somanath,  it  was  with  no  less  an  air  of 
solemnity  and  calmness  of  conscience  than  when  a  Brahmo  prays  his  God  for 
good  conscience  and  upright  heart.  If  these  facts  are  true,  there  can  be 
little  doubt  that  this  faculty,  if  innate  at  all,  is  not  one  of  perception,  but  is 
only  a  strengthening  element  in  our  feelings,  the  direction,  which  is  givei 
to  them,  being  solely  established  by  association  or  by  education. 

t  w  )> 

"What  is  this  strengthening  element?  Wherr  a  child  is  reluctant  to 
tell  a  lie,  what  is  it  but  the  fear  of  displeasing  or  the  hope  ef  pleasing  his 
parents  or  his  fellow-creatures,  that  operates  hi  his  mind  ?  What  is  this 
binding  force,  then,  if  it  be  not  the  fear  of  displeasing  or  the  hope  of  pleas 
ing  our  fellow-creatures,  or  if  it  be  not  the  fear  of  hell  or  the  hope  of 
heaven,  the  fear  of  acting  against,  or  the  hope  of  acting  according  to,  the 
Will  of  God  ? 

"  In  proportion,  then,  as  these  external  fears  or  hopes,  these  anti 
pathies  and  sympathies  act  or*  the  mind,  in  the  same  proportion  is  con 
science  more  or  less  delicate  or  callous.  Its  binding  force  then  consists  in 
this,  that  there  is  a  mass  of  feelings  previously  present  in  the  mind,  which 
gives  direction  to  all  onr  actions,  and  it  is  the  resistance  which  this  mass  of 
feelings  offers,  while  we  do  anything  or  act  contrary  to  those  previously 
present  feelings,  which  probably  comes  aftewards  in  the  form  of  remorse. 
When  these  feelings  are  of  sufficient  strength  and  are  regarded  with  a* 
sanctity,  man  shrinks  from  acting  against  those  feelings  as  an  impossibility. 
This  is  what  is  termed  the  scrupulosity  of  conscience.  If  this  view  of  the 
moral  faculty  be  true,  then  conscience  is  not  only  not  an  innate  faculty 
but,  clogged  as  it  is  with  many  associations,  both  false  and  true,  aiidj 
bent  as  it  can  bs  by  education  and  the  operation  of  external  influences,  it 
cannot  be  a  rational  ground  for  the  foundation  oi  a  sound  morality," 

The  article  on  "  conscience "  was  written  in  1882.  Guru  Datta  was 
then  reading  in  the  first  year  elass.  The  sobriety  of  tone,  soundness  of  judg 
ment,  and  mastery  over  the  intricate  problems  of  philosophy  which*  this 
interesting  piece  of  criticism  reflects  are  certainly  remarkable.  The  existence 
of  such  profound  merits  iu  a  boy  of  sixteen  or  seventeen  years,  who*  had 
just  entered  the  threshhold  of  his-  college  career,  is  astonishing.  At  thia 
period,  the  reader  would  be  surprised  to  learn,  he  had  read  through-  many 
voluminous  works  on  Philosophy  available  in  this  country.  There  was 
hardly  any  philosopher  of  note  whose  works  could  be 'had  in  the  English 
language,  that  he  bad  not  studied  with-  deep  and  close  attention.  His 
memory  being  tenacious,  the  leading  ideas  and  views  of  tlte  various  philoso 
phers  were  indelib'y  impressed  on  his  mind  and  he  was  seldom  put  to  the 
necessity  of  referring  to  a  philosophical  work  for  ascertaining  the  views  of 
its  author.  While  so  great  was  the  range  of  hia  learning  in  the  realm  of 
Philosophy  he  was  no  less  erudite  in  other  departments  of  knowledge. 
Mathematics  he  knew  as  much  as  was  required  for  the  B.  A.  examination. 
Science  was  his  special  subject  of  study  and  he  had  a  vast  information  in 
bid  branch  of  learning.  The  rules  of  Arabic  Grammar  were  D*J  the  tip  of 

(     20     ) 

his  tongue,  ready  for  application  at  any  time  and  he  had  read  several  works 
in  that  language.  According  to  a  gentleman  who  had  an  intimate  connec 
tion  with  him  at  the  time  and  who  at  present  holds  a  high  office  under 
Government  "  he  was  as  good  in  Mathematics  as  in  Science,  as  good  in 
Philosophy  as  in  languages."  Almost  the  whole  of  his  leisure  time  was 
spent  in  the  study  of  books  that  did  not  fall  within  the  College  curriculum*, 
lie  seldom  opened  his  clas°-books  outside  the  College  precincts,  yet  he  never 
failed  in  any  one  examination.  The  secret  of  his  success  was  the  close  and 
undivided  attention  that  he  gave  to  his  lessons  while  sitting  in  the  class.  He 
heard  the  lectures  of  the  professors  very  attentively,  and  all  the  salient 
points  in  them  were  noted  and  carefully  grasped.  He  went  up  for  the 
Intermediate  Examination  in  Arts  of  the  Punjab  University  in  May  ]883 
and  his  Class-fellow  Mr.  Lajpat  Rai  assures  us  that  at  home  he  never 
saw  him  reading  a  College  lesson  or  a  Class-book.  Still  he  came  out  at  the 
head  of  the  successful  candidates. 

Pandit  Guru  Datta  exercised  a  profound  influence  on  the  life  and 
thought  of  his  class-fellows,  and  especially  those  who  were  his  friends.  It 
was  he  who  moved  for  the  establishment  of  a  Club  for  the  discussion  of 
questions  on  religion  and  philosophy.  The  Club  was  formally  organised  in 
1882.  Guru  Datta  was  appointed  its  Secretary  by  the  unanimous  consent 
of  all  interested  in  the  Club.  His  views,  at  the  time,  as  we  have  already 
said,  were  agnostic  and  at  times  his  speculations  partook  of  atheism.  All 
sorts  of  subjects  were  discussed  at  the  Club.  The  members  professed 
various  shades  of  beliefs,  some  were  Hindus,  some  Mohammedans,  some 
Brahmos  and  some  Aryas.  They  approached  the  problems  under  discussion 
from  the  points  of  view  of  their  respective  faiths.  The  Club  served  to 
create  a  spirit  of  research  among  the  members,  each  trying  to  know  more 
of  the  beliefs  of  others.  The  permanent  Hindu  members  of  the  Club  were 
Lalas  Sheo  Nath,  Lajpat  Rai,  Hans  Raj,  SadaNanda,  Chetana  Nanda, 
Ruchi  Ram,  Dewan  N'arendra  Nath,  Pandits  Hari  Kishen,  Rameshwar  Nath 
Kaul,  Ac.,  &c.  Pandit  Guru  Datta,  being  a  man  of  genius,  his  views  were 
much  esteemed  by  the  other  members,  and  not  a  few  of  them  were  influenced 
by  the  predominating  tone  of  his  mind. 

In  1883,  Pandit  Guru  Datta's  religious  ideas  approximated  almost  to 
atheism.  He  delivered  a  lecture  probably  in.  the  middle  of  that  year  on 
"Religion.'  We  owe  it  to  the  industry  of  our  venerable  brother,  Lala 
Jiwan  Das,  late  President  of  the  Lahore  Arya  Samaj,  that  a  part  of  that 
lecture  is  now  accessible  to  the  Aryan  public.  Pandit  Guru  Dutta  discusses 

(     21     ) 

in  the  pages  that  are  preserved  to  us,  the  origin  of  Religion.  It  is  a  strong: 
onslaught  against  religion.  At  the  outset,  he  observes  :  "  The  real  object 
of  my  sketching  out  these  appalling  and  yet  perfectly  true  reflections  on  the 
general  theory  of  religion  is  to  point  out  how  the  feelings  of  mankind  and 
especially  of  individuals,  have  been  swayed  by  Religion.  This  points  us  to 
a  moral  which  it  is  most  essential  for  our  purposes  to  have  constantly  in 
our  view  ;  and,  were  it  not  for  the  elucidation  of  this  moral,  I  would  not 
have  taken  the  trouble  of  sketching  out  these  sad  reflections.  The  moral 
is  that  in  discussing  all  questions  concerning  religion,  we  must  not  allow 
ourselves  being  influenced  by  our  feelings  but  must  strictly  abide  by  our 
reason.  There  are  regions  wherein  one's  favourite  ideas  may  be  indulged. 
But  we  are  here  concerned  with  only  truth  so  far  as  our  reason  can  discover  it. 
Of  all  tasks,  the  most  odious  certainly  is  that  of  unwittingly  shocking  the 
feelings  anfl  opinions  of  others.  For  this  reason,  I  will  not  unnecessarily 
touch  upon  the  ground  of  that  higher  question  of  the  truth  of  religion  from 
which  my  present  subject  stands  quite  aloof.  I  propose  to  deal  with  my 
subject  in  a  thorougly  scientific  way  ;  a  way  which  should  not  be  prejudicial 
to  the  interests  either  of  a  philosopher  or  of  a  metaphysican.  Twill  refer  to 
well-established  laws  of  human  nature  and  to  other  empirical  generalistions 
as  forming  the  basis  of  deduction  for  my  purposes  and  will  verify  my  results 

from  the  facts  of  universrl  history. 


Honesty  of  conviction  was  the  leading  trait  of  Guru  Datta'a 
character.  He  had  an  unbounded  abhorrence  for  a  life  which 
was  not  consistent  in  thought  and  deed.  His  nature  was  utterly  foreigu 
to  cant  and  dissimulation,  which  figure  so  largely  in  the  so-called 
civilized  world  of  to-day.  He  was  never  an  atheist  in  his  life 
for  any  considerable  length  of  time.  Days  there  were  in  which  the  tone 
of  his  mind  was  decidedly  atheistic,  but  they  were  few.  The 
lecture  on  "  Religion  "was  delivered  in  that  period  in  which  his  mind 
got  the  better  of  his  spiritual  faculty.  He  made  no  secret  of  his  beliefs 
but  plainly  declared  his  convictions  when  he  was  not  a  theist  and 
the  aforesaid  lecture  affords  a  strong  testimony  to  his  hones-ty.  Bat  as. 
his  mental  condition  was  seldom  uniform  in  the  period  of  which  we  are  writ 
ing,  he  could  not  adopt  a  fixed  course  of  action.  When  theistie  tendency 
became  pre-dominant,  he  openly  avowed  his  belief  in  the  existence  of  tho 
Divine  Being.  There  was  a  strange  conflict  going  on  between  his  intellec 
tual  and  spiritual  faculties  in  1883.  As  he  was  a  man  of  great  force  of 
character  and  logical  powers,  there  were  several  of  his  friends  whose  ideas 
about  GoJ  had  been  shaken  by  his  conversation  and  one  o£  thoiu  \vi-ota  ta 

(     22     ) 

him  in  the  same  year  proposing   to  disavow  their  belief   in  God   in  public. 

Accordingly  we  find  a  iiote  in  his  diary  to    this  effect:     "Lala 

writes  that  we  should  have  to  declare  that  we  are  atheists."  The  letter 
in  which  this  idea  was  suggested  was  probably  received  at  a  time  when  the 
speculative  tone  of  the  Vidyarthi  had  changed,  otherwise  he  might  have  de 
termined  on  some  definite  course  of  conduct  in  regard  to  this  affair. 

Pandit  Guru  Datta  was  much  occupied  during  the  year  1883.  In  Janu 
ary  he  delivered  the  aforesaid  lecture,  and  in  March  he  founded  a  Science 
Class  in  connection  with  the  Arya  Samaj.  The  class  was  launched  under  the 
auspices  3f  Dr.  Oman,  the  Professor  of  Science  in  the  Government  College. 

The  activities  of  the  Pandit  were  many-sided.  While  on  the  one  handr 
he  was  working  in  the  interests  of  the  Science  Class,  on  the  other,  he  had  to 
write  articles  for  the  Regenerator  of  Arya  Varta,  a  paper  started  by  Lala 
Salig  Ram,  Proprietor  of  the  Arya  Press. 

At  this  time  occured  an  event  which  changed  the  whole  course  of  his 
life.  Swami  Dayananda,  lay  dying  at  Ajmere.  This  intelligence  was  received 
at  Lahore,  on  the  9th  of  October.  The  office-bearers  of  the  Lahore,  Arya 
Samaj,  at  once  deputed  L.  Jiwan  Das  and  Pt.  Guru  Datta,  to  Ajmere, 
His  going  there  proved  highly  beneficial  both  to  himself  and  to  the 
Arya  Samaj.  It  marks  a  turning  point  in  his  life  and  a  great  epoch  in  the 
history  of  the  Arya  Samaj.  When  he  reached  Ajmere,  Swamiji's  condition 
had  become  very  critical.  Eruptions  had  appeared  all  over  his  body,  and  he 
moved  about  with  much  difficnlty.  An  ordinary  man  would  have  suc 
cumbed  nnder  such  an  ordeal  in  no  time.  But  Swamiji  heaved  not  a 
sigh,  his  expression  was  as  calm  and  serene  as  ever,  there  being  not  even  the 
slightest  trace  of  anguish  on  his  countenance.  This  was  really  an  astonish 
ing  sight  to  a  man  so  sensitive  and  keen-witted  as  Pandit  Guru  Datta  and 
he  looked  at  the  Mahnrishi  for  hours  together  in  dumb  surprise.  This  was 
the  first  time  that  he  had  seen  the  Great  Reformer  in  his  life-time  and 
Swaraiji  had  also  not  seen  him  before  and  was  wholly  unaware  of  his  capabi 
lities.  At  this  meeting  the  quick  eye  of  the  Maharishi  at  once  singled  him 
out  from  the  whole  host  of  Aryas  as  a  man  who  was  fitted  to  render  a  lasting 
service  to  his  people.  Guru  Datta  too,  on  the  other  hand,  felt  the  charm  of 
his  character  and  the  m-iguetic  influence  of  bis  life.  A  close  relationship, 
as  it  were,  was  established  between  the  two  souls.  Atheism  began  to  melt 
away  at  the  sight  of  the  Maharishi,  but  it  was  utterly  swept  off  at  his 
death-scene.  One  or  two  hours  before  the  last  moments  the  Mih^rishi  dis 
tributed  shawls,  &c.,  among  his  servants  and  scribes  anil  when  a  few, 
minutes  were  left  in  his  death,  he  ordered  all  mcu  to  retire  excepting. 

(     23     ) 

Pandit  Guru  Datta.  There  lay  on  his  death-bed  the  mighty  Reformer  and 
his  face,  calm  and  placid,  radiated  with  a  heavenly  brilliance.  He  thought 
not  of  the  world  and  world's  sorrow.  He  sang  the  glory  of  his  Lord. 
He  felt  no  horror  of  death,  nay  he  felt  joy  as  he  was  going  to  join 
liis  Divine  Father.  With  the  words  '  God,  Thy  will  be  done,'  on  hia 
.'lying  l'Ps»  Swami  closed  his  eyes.  Pandit  Guru  Datta  saw 
all  this.  He  g'ized  and  gazed  and  then  came  a  change  over  hiu). 
The  last  relic  of  atheism  perished  in  his  rnind.  His  whole  nature  was 
transformed  into  something  higher  and  sublimer.  All  his  doubts  were 
solved  and  he  became  quite  a  new  man.  He  saw  that  death  had  no  terror 
for  those  who  live  for  TRUTH,  that  there  «vas  an  endlesss  life  behind  and 
beyond,  that  the  spirit  being  immortal,  no  earthly  considerations  should 
«ver  over-ride  the  interests  of  dharma — that  death  was  after  all  a  change 
from  one  place  to  another  and  was  not  feared  in  the  least  by  those  who 
led  a  life  of  devotion  and  righteouness.  This  grand  scene  worked  a  wonder 
ful  effect  on  the  mind  of  Guru  Datta  and  ever  afterwards  we  find  him  fight 
ing  the  cause  of  theism  and  dkarnia  with  all  his  might  and  main.  The 
services  he  has  rendered  to  the  Arya  Sarnaj  are  already  woll-knewn  to  the 
Aryas,  and  his  name  shines  like  a  brilliant  star  in  the  firmament  of  the  Arya 
Samaj.  After  the  memorable  event  we  have  just  chronicled,  Pandit  Guru  Datta 
gave  himself  up  to  a  deep  study  of  Aryan  literature.  The  more  he  studied 
Swami  Dyananda,  the  intensergrew  his  admiration  for  the  Great  Reformer  and 
the  deeper  became  his  faith  in  Vedic  dkarma.  He  read  SATTYARTH  PRAKASH 
no  less  than  eighteen  times  and  declared  that  every  time  he  read  it,  he 
found  something  new  and  fresh  in  the  way  of  mental  and  spiritual  food, 
The  book,  he  said,  was  full  of  recondite  truths. 

The  intelligence  of  Swami  Dayananda's  death  was  at  once  wired  from, 
Ajmere  to  the  various  centres  of  Samajic  activity.  It  cast  a  deep  gloom  over 
the  country,  and,  for  a  time,  the  leaders  of  thought  in  the  Samaj  were 
completely  stupified  and  stunned.  The  Samajists  brooded  in  dark  despair 
over  the  fate  of  their  movement.  With  the  sailor  removed  from  the  helm, 
the  ship  of  the  Arya  Samaj  might  run  into  shoals  of  rocks  and  be  wrecked 
into  pieces.  Sorrow  and  disappointment  were  visible  in  all  Samajic  circles, 
«very  Aryan  heart  was  prostrated  with  grief.  Men  like  Lala  Sain  Dass, 
who  possessed  a  calm  temperament  and  whose  minds  remained  unhinged 
even  in  the  severest  of  crises,  wept  bitterly  at  this  loss.  In  the  sombre 
moments  when  every  thing  appeared  gloomy  in  the  Arya  Samaj,  a  thought, 
however,  suggested  itself  to  a  keen-witted  gentleman  in  the  Lahore  Arya 
Samaj,  and  he  broached  it  to  his  fellow-believers  in  a  pensive  mood.  There 
was  little  hope  of  its  meeting  with  approval  at  that  period,  but  the  actua 

(     24     ) 

experience  proved  to  be  quite  the  contrary.  The  idea  of  perpetuating  the 
memory  of  the  illustrious  reformer  received  a  sympathetic  response  in 
every  mind  that  was  apprised  of  the  thought.  Consequently  the  Lahore 
Arya  Samaj  conceived  a  plan  of  action  to  give  it  a  practical  shape  within  a 
\veek  after  the  death  of  Swarniji.  It  was,  however,  not  made  public  till 
the  return  of  Pandit  Guru  Datta  from  Ajmere.  When  it  was  made  known 
•to  him,  he  readily  gave  his  assent  and  promised  to  work  in  the  interests  of 
the  proposed  institution  as  much  as  his  avocations  would  permit.  He 
delivered  a  lecture  soon  after  his  arrival  in  Lahore,  in  which  the  closing 
scene  of  Maharishi  Dayananda's  career  which  he  had  witnessed  was  depicted 
in  such  a  vivid  manner  that  every  man  in  the  vast  audience  was  touched  to 
the  innermost  core  of  his  heart.  The  proposal  of  founding  a  College  in  memory 
t)f  Dayananda  was  formally  put  forward  before  the  public  on  the  8th  Novem 
ber  1883.  It  was  received  with  favour  by  all  classes  of  people.  Pandit 
Guru  Datta's  speech  on  the  occasion  was  highly  pathetic,  passionate  and 
impressive.  Rs.  7,000  were  subscribed  on  the  spot. 

Though  the  Samajists  had  set  on  foot  a  stupendous  movement,  which 
was  calculated  to  inspire  faltering  hearts  with  hopes  and  diffuse  activity  in 
the  Arya  Samajes,  yet  to  those,  who,  amidst  the  strifes  and  turmoils  of  the 
world,  sought  for  dharma,  it  afforded  little  consolation.  In  the  sphere  of 
religion,  as  in  all  .others,  precept  accomplishes  far  more  than  mere  speculative 
thought.  However  grand  and  magnificent  a  faith,  it  can  have  no  influence  over 
the  people  unless  there  are  men  who  exemplify  its  truths  in  their  person. 
Maharishi  Dayananda,  who  embodied,  with  unparalleled  exactness  the  sublime 
ideals  of  the  Vedic  dharma  in  his  life,  had  disappeared  from  the  scene; 
and  there  was  none  who  could  take  his  place.  Consequently  there  was 
a  lull  in  activity  and  several  men  had  been,  more  or  less,  disspirited. 
But  little  did  they  know  that  in  the  metropolis  of  the  Punjab,  there  was 
a  mind  in  the  process  of  incubation,  that  would,  in  a  year  or  two,  shed 
forth  its  lustre  on  the  Arya  Samaj  and  illumine  the  surrounding  dark 
ness  with  its  radiant  lustre.  The  soul  of  Guru  Datta  was  gradually 
ascending  higher  flights,  notwithstanding  the  din  and  bustle  in  the  Samaj 
consequent  on  the  inauguration  of  the  D.  A.-V.  College  Movement  He 
was  assimilating  the  profound  truths  of  the  Vedic  religion,  had  commenced 
the  practice  of  pranayam  and  other  sadhans  and  all  his  attempts  were 
mainly  concentrated  on  self-improvement.  He  did  not  care  at  all  for  his 
College  lessons  ;  the  greater  portion  of  his  time  was  spent  in  meditation  on 
deep  problems  tf  spiritual  import.  And  the  result  of  all  this  pursharath  and 
struggle  for  a  higher  existence  was  fully  manifestsd  two  or  three  years  later. 

(     25     ) 

Now  the  Dayananda  Anglo   Vedic   College    Movement  began    to  absorb 
his  whole  attention.  After  passing  the  B.A.  Examination  in  1885,  he  set  himself 
actively  to  the  advocacy  of  the  oause  of  the  College  ;":i  number  of  speeches  were 
delivered  in  the  different  Samajes  in   the   Province '%on    the  subject,   with  the 
,  result  that  a    healthy   and  intelligent  interest  was  created    in  the  movement 
among  the  educated  people    at    large.     His    learning,    his    noble     bearing, 
his  spotless  character,   his  child-liks.  simplicity^  drew    large  audiences  every 
where  and    his  pathetic    and  vigorous  appeals   so    charming   and    eloquent 
had  a  marvellous   eftect  in  moving  the  people  to   open  their   purses  in  the 
interest     of    the    College.     Money     poured    in    from    all    sides,     so    much 
so   that  those  who  had  no  cash  with  them  at  the  time,  gave  away  ear-rings, 
chands,  anant*   and  similar  other  ornaments  on  their  persons.     The  following 
cutting  from  the  Arya    Patrika  will  show  how  the  lectures  of    Pandit    Guru 
Datta  were  appreciated.     "Pundit  Guru  Datta,   Vidyarthi,  B.A.,  an  able  mem: 
ber  of  the   Lahore   Arya   Samaj,  then  followed.     He    delivered   a    very  im 
pressive    and  learned    speech    and    proved     by     quoting    and    explaining    a 
mantra   of  the  Rig  Veda    that  the  assertion    of  the    late    Maharishi  Swami 
Dyananda  Saraswati  that  the    Vedas    contained    the  germs  of  all    knowledge 
was  quite  true.     In  one  single  Mantra  quoted  by  him  he   showed  that  all  the 
properties  of  air  were  forcibly  described.     He  also   stated  that  the  study  of 
Vedas  was  very  necessary  from  many  points  of  view.     He  said  that  even  those 
who  considered  the  Vedas  as  worthless  books  should  feel  interest  in  spreadr 
ing  their  knowledge,   because  that  alone  was  the   way  of  shaking  the  faith 
of  the  people  in  then),  if  they  were  really  books  containing  childish  things. 
In  the  end  he  said  that  the  first  duty  of  every   well-wisher  of  the  country 
xvas  to  contribute  to   the  funds  of    the  Anglo-Vedic   College."     Rs.    10,000 
were  collected  at  this  speech.     Shortly  after,    another  was  delivered  at  Pindi 
which  fetched   Rs.   1,600.     In    April  next  the  exigencies  of    the  work  took 
him  to  Peshawar    where  no    less  than    Rs.    2,600     were    subscribed.     Some 
•months  later  Amritsar  was  revisited    and  a  most  impressive  lecture  ou   the 
D.-A.  V.  College  delivered  there    which,  to  quote  the  Patrika  again  "  moved 
the  hearts  of  all  the  people  present  and  produced  a  wonderful  effect,   'He 
proved  to  demonstration  that  it  was  one  of  the  chief  duties  of  all  the  Arya 
Samttjists  to  help  in  the  foundation  of  this  grand    seminary  of  Sanskrit  and 
western  Sciences  and  technical  instruction  in    memory  of  Swami  Dayananda. 
His  appeal  to  the  public  was  very    impressive.     On   his  speech  being  biou^hl 
to  a  close,  Ra.  908-4  in  cash  were  collected. 

«    26    ) 

•The  major  portion  of -the  year  following  that  in  which  Pandit  Guru 
Datta  passed  the  B.  A.  Examination  was  spent  in  lecturing  on  the  aims  and 
objects  of  the  D.  A.-V.  College.  Though  he  had  made  up  his  mind  to  go  up 
for  the  M.  A.  Examination,  he  paid  Arerj  little  attention  to  his  studies, 
"Much  of  his  time  was  spent  in  chess-playing — a  game  for  which  he, 
•in  those  days,  had  a  passionate  fondness,  'in  religious  discussions  and  in 
-conversation  on  topics  of  Samajic  interest  with  his  friends  a«d  with  gentle* 
vinen  who  gathered  round  him  in  numbers  for  counsel,  advice  and  enlighten- 
'ment  There  are  men,  some  of  whom  were  his  constant  companions  and 
lived  in  the  same  house  with  him,  who  state  that  they  seldom  found  him 
with- a  book  in  his  hand,  studying  for  the  approaching  examination.  And 
jet-he  ^headed  the  list  of  the  successful  candidates,  taking  his  degree  in 
Physics.  The  year  1886  when  he  passed  his  M.  A.  brings  to  a  close  his 
College  career. 

After  passing  bis  M.  A.  he  was  appointed  Assistant  Professer   of  Science 
His  work  lor  the     m  fc^e  Government-  CoHege,    Lahore,  in    1886.     And   now 
Arya  Samaj.  that  he  was  settled    in  life  he  began    to    work   heart  and 

soul  for  Dayananda  Anglo  Vedic  College.  He  attended  almost  all  the 
anniversaries.  His  lectures  grew  so  popular  that  every  Samaj 
was  anxious  to  avail  itself  of  his  eloquence  in  this  connection. 
The  Arya  Patrika  designated  him  as  "our  famous  anniversary 
lecturer  on  the  D.  A.  V.  College  movement."  It  is  not  possible  to  form 
anything  like  an  adequate  conception  of  the  hopes  that  he  himself  entertain 
ed  with  regard  to  the  College;  the  ordinary  members  of  the  Samaj  considered 
it  as  the  would-be  centre  of  Vedic  learning  and  enlightenment  in  the  country, 
as  a  home  and  nursery  of  the  Aryan  civilization  which  would  impregnate 
the  entire  atmosphere  with  wholesome  and  salutary  elements,  favourable  to 
the  growth  of  spirituality  and  high  ideals  of  dharma  among  the  Indians. 
Ouru  Datta  was  a  man  of  great  intellectual  insight ;  his  expectations,  there 
fore  must  be  far  higher  and  this  idea  receives  wonderful  corroboration  from 
the  fact  that  he  pleaded  the  cause  of  the  College  with  an  unbounded  zeal 
and  enthusiasm.  All  that  he  said  about  it  seemed  to  arise  from  the 
innermost  depth  of  the  soul.  He  could  not,  however,  work  the  whole  year 
(1886)  without  intermission.  His  father,  who  at  that  time  was  much 
advanced  in  age,  fell  ill  and  much  of  his  time  was  spent  beside  the  invalid's 
bed.  The  idea  of  sending  a  deputation  with  the  object  of  collecting 
subscriptfons  for  the  College  to  N.-W.  Provinces  and  Oudh  was  conceived 
in  1886,  Paudit  Guru  Datta  hud  no  hope  of  accompanying  it,  for  hia 

(    27    ) 

father's  condition  grew  worse  ;  the  disease,    far    from    showing    any   sign  of 

abatement,  assumed  serious    proportions.     He   must    serve   the    father   and 

stay  at  home,  but  the  inability   to   accompany    the    Deputation    was   keenly 

felt  and  sincerely  regretted.     In  a  letter  addressed  to  Lala  Lajpat  Rai    about 

the  timp,-  lie  observes  :     "  M-y  father  is  very   weak   and    ill  at  Muzaffargarh. 

He  likes  that    I   should    live    with'  him.     Now  I  am  officiating   in    Lahore. 

His  coming    here    will   unnecessarily  produce  undue  expenditure.     Besides, 

his  being  here  will  not  allow  rne  to  stir  from- Lahore,    my   promise   to   go  on 

a  mission,  Sumajic  or  other,  will  go  for  nothing.    Duty  to   father  and    duty 

to  country  are  at  conflict,  mind  is  set  in    abeyance  ;  every    holiday    I    go  to 

Multan  and  come  back."     This  was  fallowed  by  another   letter  after  a    short 

interval  in  which  he  writes :  *  Guru  Datta,  Vidyarthi,  is  sad  enough    to   find 

that  he  cannot  leave  Muzaffirgarh,   at   which    place    he  will    sojourn     during 

the  whole  term  of  vacation.     He  i»  but  powerless  to  wander  about  apreackinp. 

Father  is  very  ill  and    he  most   urgently  demands    my  presence    with   him 

every  [moment.    /  know  what  sacrifices  shall  I  have  to   undergo   to  please    my 

father — say  what  you-  will  advise." 

The  Summer  Vacation  of  1886  was  spent  at  Muzaffargarh  beside  the 
father's  sick-bed.  There  was  not  only  no  improvement  in>  his  condition  for 
some  time,  but  the  disease  grew  virulent  and  Panditji  lost  all  hope  of  his 
recovery.  He,  however,  nursed  him  with  the  devotion  of  a«dutiful  son,  per 
sonally  administering  medicines  and  supervising  all  arrangements  made  in 
connection  with  his  illness.  The  disease  at  last  spent  its  fury  and  there  were 
signs  of  relief.  The  gentleman-  fully  recovered.  In  the  meantime  the  vaca 
tion  was  over  and  Pandit  G«ini  Datta  returned  to  Lahore.  He  was  officiating 
in  these  days  as  the  Assistant  Professor  of  Science  in  the  Government  College, 
Lahore.  The  year  rolled  on  ;  he  was  sorry  that  he  had  not  served  his  conv 
nvunity  as  much  as  he  desired. 

Next  year  (1887)  he  was  appointed  Officiating  Proffessor  of  Science  in 
place  of  Mr.  Oman  who  went  on  leave. 

But  whether  working  as  assistant  professor  or  as  professor,  his  heart  was 
iai  the  D.  A,  V.  College.  And  we  find  him  again  prepared  to  go  out  on  a 
lecturing  tour  for  the  same  institution  in  the  summer  vacation. 

A  deputation  for  collecting  subscriptions  for  the  College  was  organised, 
like  the  one  in-  the  last  year  during  summer  vacation  but  unfortunately  a, 
few  days  before  starting  on  the  eleemosynary  tour,  Panditji's  father  agaia 
fell  ill.  He  roust  stay  at  home.  But  at  the  same  time  he  was  very  anxioua 

.  (     28     ) 

to  serve  the  College.  The  father  being;  a  very  intelligent  and  patriotic  man 
and  at  the  same  time  a  sincere  well-wisher  of  the  movement,  read  the  mind 
of  the  son  and  allowed  him,  without  any  formal  request  on  his  part,  to  join 
the  Deputation. 

Trie    Deputation  left    Lahore   in    July    1887.     It  consisted  of  Lalas  LaK 
C.hand,  M.  A.,  Lala  Marian   Singh,  B.    A.,    Lala    Dwarka    Dass,    M.    A.r   Lai* 
Lajpat    Rai,    Lala    Jwala  Sahay,  the   well-known  contractor  and  reis  of  Miani 
and  our  Vidyanhi.     There  was  no  particular  destination.     Halts  were    made 
at    almost  all  important    towns.     During   all  this  time  the  mind  of  Panditji 
AY  as  by  no  means  at  rest,  he  was  very  anxious  to  know    the  condition   of   his 
father    and    kept   sending    telegrams    to   Muzaffargarb,   inquiring    about    it. 
When  the  vacation  was  over,  the  party  returned  to  Lahore  and    immediately 
after   his    arrival    Panditji    attended  the  anniversary  of  the  Rawalpindi  Arya 
Samaj.     The  lecture  on  the  D.  A.  V.  College  movement  delivered  by  him    on 
the   occasion   was    simply  grand.     The  last  sentences  have  been  preserved  m 
record,  and  they  are  very  pathetic-    and    touching.      'If   yon    are   convinced,' 
said   he,    "you  have  a  soul  within  you,  if  yon  are  convinced  your  life  will  not-' 
end  with  the  dissolution  of   your   outer  selves,  but  that   there   is    something 
within  you,  which  will  live  after  your  bodies  have  perished,  and  if  you  deHire- 
that  this  boul   of  yours  should  go  on  progressing  and  are  aware  that  learning 
•will  effect  this  object,  you    must  join    in    helping    the  establishment   of   the 
D.    A.-V.   College.     The    cause   of  the  progress  of  the  soul  is  the  cause  of  the 
progress  of    all    humanity  and   Hindus    and    Mohammedans   and     Christians 
should    all    join     in      this   noble    cause."     In    response    to    this   appeal    Rs. 
1,253-4-6    were  collected    on    the   spot.     A    few    hours  after  his  return  from 
Pindi    he    received  the  sad  intelligence  of  the  death  of  his  father.     The  inei- , 
dent  must  have  much  affected  his  mind.     He  at  once  telegraphed  to  his   rela 
tives  at  Mukan  to  preserve  the  body  till  his    arrival.      His   castemen    coining 
to   know   of  his  intention  of  cremating  the  remains  of  his  father  according  to 
{he  Vedic  rites  asked  his  mDther  to  give  up  the  body  to  them,  but  she  would 
not  do  anything   against  the    wishes   of    her    son.     A  strong  resistance  was-' 
offered  by    the  Bradari  but  PanditGuru  Datta  braved  it  very  manfully. 

Shortly  after  the  death  of  his  father  the  public  demand  on  Pt.'jGnn* 
Datta's  energies  became  very  great.  The  death  of  his  father  had  thrown 
him  into  various  domestic  afflictions.  The  loss  of  a  parent,  especially  one 
v?ho  is  very  gentle,  noble  and  affectionate  is,  in  itself,  a  great  calamity  that 
(Jan  befal  a  person.  The  disappearance  of  the  venerable  figure,  whose  loving 
Lands  have  protected  one  through  life's  most  prickly  -thoroughfares,  ^Yhos€^: 

(     29     ) 

courageous  and  inspiring  words  in  moments  of  difficulty  and  depression 
have  infused  a  new  strength  in  the  mind,  is  not  an  ordinary  catastrophe. 
It  is  most  keenly  felt  by  sensitive  individuals  and  hardly  had  Pandit  Guru 
Datta  a  sigh  of  relief  from  the  overwhelming  grief  that  had  seized  on  him 
when  he  was  asked  to  deliver  lectures  on  the  D.  A.-V.  College  Movement  at 
the  anniversaries  of  the  Samajes.  The  gentleman,  having  a  great  regard  for 
'  the  Movement,  did  not  attach  any  importance  to  his  private  affairs,  in  view 
of  the  matters  of  public  interest  and  he  at  once  responded  to  the  call.  The 
10t,h  anniversary  of  the  Lahore  Arya  Sarnaj  came  oft'  on  the  2Gth  and  27th 
November,  a  few  da}'s  af;ter  his  father's  demise  and  he  delivered  a  very 
splendid  address  on  the  D.  A.-V.  College  on  the  occasion.  To  attempt  even 
to  give  a  distant  idea  of  the  earnestness,  the  depth  of  feeling  with  which  he 
spoke  on  the  occasion  would  be  to  attempt  an  impossibility.  A.  death-like 
silence  reigued  in  the  hall  when  he  spoke,  and  a  gathering  of  men  number 
ing  little  less  than  3  thousand,  sat  the  very  embodiment  oj  muteness.  Every 
thing,  he  said,  had  a  ring  of  sincerity  and  earnertness  about  it.  His^ltter- 
inys  of  a  feeling  heart,  his  tone,  his  language  gave  the  most  unridstakeable  evi 
dence  of  the  fact  that  hefdt  what  he  said.  We  have  se'.dom  heard  a  more  elec 
trifying  speehc.  Verily  the  language  of  the  heart,  in  spite  of  all  its  sim 
plicity,  excels  the  most  exquisite  pieces  of  eloquence  without  sincerity  and 
innermost  earnestness  to  back  them.  He  exemplified  his  remarks  by 
drawing  illustrations  from  the  life  of  Swami  Dayananda  •  and  we  are  faith-, 
fully  chronicling  the  fact  when  we  say  that  we  saw  the  tears  coursing  down, 
the  faces  of  many." 

Thfc  closing  months  of  the  year  1887  were  spent,  for  the  most  part,  in 
delivering  lectures  upon  important  religious  subjects.  Three  of  these  are 
worthy  of  special  mention.  The  subjects  dealt  with  in  them,  viz.,  'The 
Object  of  'LhV  '  Truth,'  and  the  '  Arya  Samaj  '  are  of  vital  interest  to  the 
religious  world.  '  But  perhaps  the  most  interesting  and  instructive  lecture 
delivered  during  the  period  just  named  is  that  of  the  'Realities  of  Inner 
Life.'  It  was  printed  in  a  pamphlet  form  in  1890. 

With  the  commencement  of  the  new  year,  Pandit  Guru  Datta's  activity 
was  redoubled.  He  grew  very  enthusiastic  and  the  major  portion  of  his 
spare-time  was  spent  in  the  diffusion  of  healthy  ideas  on  religion  and  morali 
ty  'among  the  people.  One  lecture  after  another  was  delivered ;  the  edu 
cated  men,  especially  those  whq  were  members  of  the  Arya  Samaj,  frequented 
his  house  and  gathered  round  him  in  numbers  in  the  mornings  and  evenings 
and  held  conversations  on  deep  and  recondite  questions  of  Vedic  Philosophy 

These  conversations  were  generally  cheeiful  and  animated  and  continued 
for  hours  together.  Panditji  never  sent  any  man  back  without  satis 
fying  him  on  every  point  connected  with  bis  inquiry.  The  questions  vrere 
varied  and  embraced  various  departments  of  learning  and  it  is  a  wonder 
indeed  how  Panditji  had  managed  to  master  difficult  and  abstruse  subjects. 
He  was,  as  it  were,  an  embodiment  of  learning ;  Sanskrit,  Arabic,  Physical 
Sciences,  Geology,  Chemistry,  Botany,  Physiology,  Astronomy,  Mathamatics, 
Philosopy,  Philology — in  all  these  and  in  many  more — he  appeared  to  be 
quite  at  home  and  those  who  approached  him  for  the  removal  of  their  doubts 
were  simply  struck  at  his  profound  scholarship.  He  died  while  yet  he  was 
hardly  27  years  of  age  and  how  in  this  short  time  he  contrived  to  gather 
such  a  vast  store  of  knowledge  will  ever  remain  an  object  of  wonder  and  ad 
miration.  His  very  presence  was  quieting.  There  are  men  who  say  that  after 
they  had  once  heard  him  talk  at  his  residence  not  a  doubt  arose  in  their 
minds  on  any  subject.  This  might  seem  somewhat  paradoxical  and  some 
men  would  be  inclined  to  think  that  there  is  a  vein  of  exaggeration  in  all 
that  we  have  said  about  Panditji,  but  if  any  testimony  from  those  that  have 
been  in  personal  contact  with  the  illustrious  scholar  can  be  valid,  we  can 
assure  the  reader  that  we  are  giving  an  exact  and  faithful  description  of 
facts.  There  are  things  that  appear  quite  inexplicable  at  first  sight  but  if 
sufficient  attention  were  bestowed  upon  them  and  mind  were  left  to  cogitate 
on  the  complex  and  intricate  aspects  that  they  present,  undisturbed  for 
some  time,  they  become  perfectly  clear  and  transparent. 

The  year  1888  was  the  most  eventful  in  the  life  of  Pt.  Guru  Datta. 
It  wsa  during  this  year  that  he  delivered  lectures  by  way  of  criticism 
on  Monier  Williams'  'Indian  Wisdom,'  studied  the  science  of  Swars  and  intro 
duced  the  right  mode  of  the  recitation  of  the  Vedic  texts.  Thw  was  a  task  of 
which  the  magnitude  cannot  be  easily  conceived.  If  he  bad  done  no  other 
work,  this  alone  was  enough  to  entitle  him  to  a  high  position  among  the 
greatmen  of  the  age.  But  by  far  the  most  valuable  work  which  he  did 
and  which  is  worthy  of  being  cherished  with  gratitude  by  us  all,  is  his 
staunch  and  uncompromising  advocacy  of  the  Vedic  religion.  The  Vedic 
religion  was  in  those  days  much  traduced  by  the  Brahmans.  The  educated 
men,  imbued  with  western  ideas,  raised  a  host  of  objections  on  the  principles 
of  the  Arya  Samaj.  To  meet  these  persons  on  their  own  ground  a  very 
powerful  exponent  of  dharma  was  needed.  A  man  of  learning  was  in 
requisition  who  should  not  only  refute  the  objections  of  the  opponents  in  a 

(    31     ) 

tatlorval  manner  and  tepJy  to  the  half-hearted  questionings  o!  the  skeptics 
in  a  courteous  and  sympathetic  spirit  but  vindicate  its  superiority  over  all 
other  fora*  rf  faith.  And  such  a  man  Providence  had  vouchsafed  to  the 
Siwnaj  in  the  person  of  Pandit  Guru  Datta,  He  did  an  excellent  work. 
His  fearless  and  undaunted  expression  of  truth  extorted  admiration  even 
from  his  opponents.  The  lecture  which  he  delivered  at  the  anniversary 
of  the  Lahore  Arya  Samaj  in  December  1888  is  worth  preserving  in  a 
permanent  form.  Ha  said  **  that  modern  science,  whatever  its  merits, 
did  not  throw  the  least  light  on  the  problem  of  life.  It  did  not  afford 
the  slightest  cl-ue  towards  the  solution  of  the  grandest  and  the  most 
difficult  question  which  can  agitate  the  human  mind— the  origin  and  the 
ultimate  destiny  of  mankind.  The  modern  scientist  might  dissect  every 
nerve  and  bone,  subject  every  drop  to  a  most  searching  examination  under 
the  most  powerful  microscope  he  could  possibly  have,  but  he  was  as  hope 
lessly  lost  -over  his  question  as  «ver.  He  could  not  undo  the  mystery  of 
life.  He  might  go  on  for  ages  dissecting  and  experimenting,  but  he  would 
be  none  the  wiser  for  it  on  the  question  of  life.  That  question  could  not 
be  solved  but  by  the  aid  of  the  Vedas.  They  alone  could  unravel  that 
grand  mystery,  and  to  them  the  scientist  must  ultimately  turn.  Already 
there  were  indications  of  such  a  tendency.  The  Vedas  were,  and,  rightly 
too,  regarded  as  the  source,  the  fotin tain-head  of  all  science  by  the  ancient 
Rishis.  They  entirely  gave  themselves  up  to  their  study,  reflected 
aud  pondered  over  the  truths  inculcated  therein,  and  Arya  Varta  enjoyed 
a  state  of  prosperity  and  an  amount  of  happiness,  of  which  we  might  in 
vain  seek  for  a  parallel  in  these  days.  Happiness  in  this  world  as  well  as 
in  the  next  was  the  fruit  of  the  study  of  the  Vedas.  It  was  most 
deplorable  that  Arya  Varta  had  fallen  off  from  the  Vedic  faith.  It  could 
not  but  d-esceud  to  the  depths  of  degradation  to  which  it  had  descended. 
It  had  itself  courted  its  ruin  and  richly  deserved  it.  But  though  gloomy 
the  retrospect,  the  prospect,  was  all  cheering'  The  same  eternal  lumiqary 
of  truth,  the  Vedas,  had  reappeared.  It  had  shattered  and  dispersed  the 
clouds  of  superstition  entirely.  The  darkness,  which  so  ominously  hung 
over  the  globe,  bad  been  dispelled  and  the  luminary  was  shining  with 
greater  effulgence  than  ever.  This  most  happy  state  of  things  had  been 
brought  about  by  the  efforts  of  Sjvami  Daya  Nanda.  It  was  he  who  hatf  led 
us  to  the  light  in  which  the  ancient  Rishis  basked.  But  though,  njany 
iiad  seen  it  and  duly  appreciated  the  blessing,  the  majority,  long  used  to 

,'  (     32     ) 

in  darkness,  had  either  doubted  it  or  obstinately  refused  to  be  led  to 
it.  It  was  the  duty,  the  imperative  duty  of  all  whose  souls  were  no  longer 
enveloped  in  the  gloom  of  superstition,  to  cure  the  sceptic  of  his  scepticism 
and  the  obstinate  and  the  bigoted  of  their  obstinacy  and  bigotry.  This 
could  only  be  done  by  assisting  the  institution  where  the  coming  generations 
were  gradually  and  imperceptibly  being  prepared  to  be  ultimately  led  to  it. 
The  lecturer  did  not  name  any  particular  institution,  the  people  knew 
which  institution  they  ought  to  assist.  The  lecturer  sat  down  amidst  vocifer 
ous  cheering." 

From  the  beginning  of  1883,  the  year  during  which  Pandit  Gu*u  Datta 
was  ceaselessly  active,  dates  the  growth  of  disease  which,  under  a  modified 
form,  ultimately  carried  him  off.  What  with  the  revision,  and  swari&iny  of 
the  Sam  Veda,  what  with  the  both  t  rat  ion  at  the  Ashtadhyai  class,  and 
what  with  constant  and  prolonged  travels  in  the  mufiasil  in  the  interests  of 
the  D.-A.Y.  College,  his  constitution,  though  unusually  strong  had  broken- 
down.  It  could  not  bear  a  heavy  strain.  The  Pandit  was  advised  to  tt.k<3 
a  .little  of  rest  and  recruit  his  health.  At  first  he  took  kindly  to  the  advice, 
but  the  prospect  of  a  brilliant  success  in  the  proselytising  mission  of  the 
Arya  Samaj  took  possession  of  his  entire  soul  and  encompassed  all  other 
•considerations.  He  would  not  withdraw  himself  from  the  field  of  activity, 
come  what  might.  Fortunately  oc  unfortunately  at  that  early  stage  of 
S,amajic  propagandism,  four  Suunyasis,  Achutananda,  Prakshananda,  Swat- 
rnananda,  and  Mahananda — strolling  monks — fell  in  with  him.  They  were 
an  intelligent  lot  and  evinced  a  sincere  desire  to  learn  and  know  about  the 
Vedic  religion,  its  principles  and  dispensation  in  the  world.  Pandit  Guru 
Datta  was  all  kindness  and  courtesy  to  them.  His  superior  learning,  un 
rivalled  wisdom,  and  great  resources  of  information  simply  bewitched  the 
Swamis.  They  would  not  part  company  with  him.  Day  and  night  they 
were  seen  at  his  house.  They  belonged  to  the  Vedantic  persuasion  but  their 
.Vedantism  evaporated  before  Punditji  as  water  does  before  the  sun.  Rest 
less  in  mind,  without  any  settled  conviction  to  guide  and  console  them, 
these  people  yearned  with  the  intense  longing  of  one  parched  with  spiritual 
thirst  for  nectar  and  that  was  ungrudgingly  dispensed  by  the  learned 
Pandit.  Having  been  perfectly  satiated,  they  expressed  a  desire  to  work 
for  the  propagation  of  the  Vedic  religion  and  volunteered  their  services  to 
the  Pratinidhi  Sabha.  For  some  time  they  worked  with  unfaltering  zeal. 
Latterly  two  of  them,  viz.,  Achutananda  and  Prakashananda,  fell  off.  The  con 
version  of  these  Sannyasis  had  not  a  little  affected  the  health  of  Pandit  Guru 

(    SJ   ) 

Datta,  but  they  were  not  the  only    frequenters  of  his  house  at  the  titn*.     A 
large  body  of  Aryas  and  non-Aryas  visited  him  daily,  some   to  learn,  some  to 
amuse  themselves  and  some  to  fathom  his  learning.     Being   a   man  of  oblig 
ing  habits,  he  never  asked  them  to  retire,  but  kept  up   with  them  till  late  in 
the  night.     An  idea  of   these  gatherings  may  be   gained  from  the   following 
.observations  of  Lala  Lajpat  Rai :     "  For  several  days  of  the  year,  I  am  told 
by  a  reliable   witness,  all  the  four   revered  Swamis   remained   with  him   and 
conversed  upon  different  topics  of  religion,  so  the  people  might  well  consider 
hia  house  to   be  an  Ashram  in   the  truest  sense  of  the   term  and  that  many 
did  consider  it  to  be  such  is  a  fact.     Many   souls    did  go   to   that   house   in 
search  of  truth  and  came  back   with  their  minds   treasured   with  the  love  of 
the   Vedio  religion.     All   sorts  of  people,    whether  Grihatthis    (laymen)   or 
Sannyasis  (ascetics),  flocked  to  him  to  solve  the   deep  problems   of  human  life 
and    to  receive   light   from  the   resplendent  luminary  of  knowledge.     With 
brilliant  record  of   valuable  services  in  the  cause  of   the  Arya   Samaj,   he  did 
not  neglect  his  own  intellectual  and  spiritual  advancement.     Among  other* 
too  numerous  to  be  named,  he  went   through   the   ten  principal  UpanishatSj 
Gopath  and  Aitraya  Brahmans,  portions  of  Nirukta,  Charak  (a  medical  book), 
Surya  Siddhant.  Patanjali's  Mahabhashya  he  studied  himself  with  the   aid  of 
Swami  Dayananda's  Vedang  Parkash  and  Swami    Dayananda's  works  were,  of 
course,  his  special  favourites.     Swami's  Satyarth  Parkash,  and  especially  the 
chapter  on  Muktit   he    is   said    to    have   read    many  times  and  the    more 
and  oftener  he  read  them,  the  more  and  deeper  he  believed  in  their  clebrated 
author.     Every    day    his    reverence    and    respect    for     Swamiji's    genius 
was   on  an  increase,  and   towards  the  middle   of  the   year   1889    it   reached 
its  climax.     Though  ever  so   busy  he  never  refused   to  teach   those  who  wanted 
him  to  do  to."     This   hard  strain  brought  on  suffering  and   disease  and   we 
find  the  following  painful  notes  in  his  diary  :— 

12th  January. — Several  discharges  of  blood,  very  sorry. 

14th  January. — Suffering  from  the  discharge  of  blood  from  the  bowels, 

22nd  January. — Got  very  much  sick. 

1st  February. —Begins  my  period  of  sickness, 

12th. — Very  sick,  blood  and  weakness. 

1st  March. — Indigestion  visits  still. 

16th  March. — Suffering  from  levere  nausea  and  two  or  three  drops 
flowed  '  from  the  noitrili,' 

(     34     ) 

1st  October.— Copious  discharge  of  blood  from  bowels. 

2nd  October.— Nausea. 

These  meagre  and  desultory  notes  give  but"  faint  idea  of  the  trouble 
which  was  raging  within  his  constitution.  He  had  a  great  power  of  en 
durance  and  never  breathed  llai,  or  any  other  such  expression  under  the 
severest  pain.  His  constitution  was  almost  completely  wrecked  by  the  end 
of  the  year.  Yet  he  worked  on  with  persistence.  The  people  could  not 
judge  of  his  condition  by  his  external  appearance.  It  \vas  ever  calm  and 

Throughout  the  year  1889.  Pandit  Guru  Datta  was  again  unusually  active. 
Immediately  after  organising  a  movement  for  the  establishment  of  '  Upades-lmk 
class'    he   opened    a    Mahabhashya   class.     Under  the     purifying   influences 
which     Pandit     Guru    .Datta    exercised    on    the  Arya    Samajists,  a    strong 
desire  arose   in    ihe    minds   of   a   Vody    of   earnest   men  to    devote   them 
selves  to  the  cultivation  of  Vedic  literature.     Some   provision  must  be   made 
to  satisfy  this  desire.      There  was  no  body  at  Lahore  who  could  teach    Aryan 
Shastras  to  educated  people  in  a  thoroughly  efficient  and  competent   manner, 
except  Pandit  Guru  Datta,  and  he  undertook   this  grave   duty  upon   himself. 
The  class  was  held  at  his  house,  there  was  a  pretty  large  number ^of  students 
at   first,    but   it   gradually  fell,  for  the  majority^of  the  students  were  clerks, 
and  they  could  not  return  from  their  offices  in  time  to   join   the   class.     The 
class    was  otherwise    a   complete   success.     Every  Arya  felt  its  utility  and  a 
number  of  gentlemen  from  outstations   expressed   a   wish    to  join   it.     Lala 
Narayan    Dass  M.  A..,  Extra  Assistant  Commissioner,  who  at  that  time  had  a 
inscere  and  genuine  respect  for  Panditji,  highly  appreciated   the   service  that 
he  was  doing  to  the  community  at  large  through  the  Mahabhashya  class   and 
determined  to  enroll  himself  as  a  student  for  three  months.     This    is    signifi 
cant  in  itself.     That  a  distinguished  graduate  holding  the  respectable  post  of 
an  Extra  Assistant  should  feel  inclined  to  take  three  months'  leave  simply  for 
Sanskrit  study  under  Pandit  Guru  Datta  is  no  small  testimony   in   favour   of 
the   excellence   of  the   class   and   abilities  of  the  Pandit.     Now,  that  Pandit 
Guru  Datta  is  no  more  in  the  land  of  the  living,  people  might   say    whatever 
they  like  in  regard  to  his  attainments  in  Sanskrit,  but  there  is  no  doubt  that 
during   his   life-time  even  the  most  fastidious  critics   respected  him  as  a  pro 
found  Sanskrit  scholar.     Pandit  Guru  Datta's  knowledge  of  Sanskrit  was  not 
only  deep,  but  extensive.     It  ranged  over  a  very  wide  area.     He  could  speak 

(    35    ) 

in  that  language  with  fluency  and  felicity  of  expression  and  men  were 
simply  struck  when  they  saw  him  lecturing  in  Sanskrit  at  the  Arya  Mandir 
at  Lahore  against  Mahamandalists,  without  any  pause  whatever.  The  Maha- 
bhashya  class  did  not  enjoy  a  long  lease  of  life,  but  during  the  short  span  of 
its  existence,  it  did  solid  good  to  the  students  and  had  it  continued  to  exist  for 
some  time  more,  it  would  certainly  have  turned  out  men  of  sound  knowledge, 
well- versed  in  Ashtadhyai. 

The  study  of  Swami  Dayananda's  works  had  produced  a  wonderful  effect 
on  the  mind  of  Panditji.  He  became  very  calm  and  sober  in  views  and  his 
mental  activity  was  directed  towards  the  subtle,  rather  than  towards  the  gross, 
affairs.  Atmik  Unnati,  or  what  is  known  as  spiritual  advancement,  became 
the  chief  aim  of  his  endeavours ;  he  would  do  nothing  that  did  not  directly  or 
indirectly  conduce  to  that  end.  He  was,  as  it  were,  a  yrikasthi  recluse.  He 
retired  not  from  the  busy  haunts  of  the  work-a-day  world,  yet  the  world 
could  not  influence  him.  Once  or  twice  he  is  said  to  have  expressed 
a  desire  to  enter  into  Banaprastahi,  so  that  he  might  be  able  to 
pursue  his  object  without  interruption  from  any  quarter,  but  the  thought  of 
his  family  restrained  him  from  taking  such  a  step.  Several  persons  wera 
dependent  upon  him,  and  without  his  support  they  might  starve  or  be  reduc 
ed  to  a  miserable  plight.  And  he  was  keenly  sensible  of  this  fact,  and,  there 
fore,  he  did  not  retire  into  jungle. 

Iii  April  1889  he  was  relieved  of  Professorship  in  the  Government 
College  by  Dr.  Oman  who  had  returned  from  his  leave.  Pandit  Guru 
Datta,  though  he  drew  a  handsome  pay,  had  nothing  to  his  credit  in  the 
banks,  as  be  gave  away  to  the  poor  what  was  left  after  meeting  hia 
family  expenses.  He  must  do  some  work,  otherwise  it  was  not  possible 
for  him  to  maintain  his  dependents.  Several  gentlemen  advised  him  to 
go  to  the  Director  of  Public  Instruction  and  request  him  to  give  him  some 
post.  This  he  did  not  like  to  do,  his  object  being  to  hold  aloof,  as  much 
as  possible,  from  a  profession  that  did  not  help  him  in  spiritual  advancement. 
And  what  could  help  him  in  that  direction  except  a  profession  which,  while 
securing  for  him  a  good  monthly  income,  would  enlaige  the  range  of  his 
knowledge  in  the  realm  of  Spirit  ?  This  rare  combination  could  only  be 
met  with  in  the  field  of  religious  journalism  and  Pandit  Guru  Datta 
determined  to  start  a  Magazine  devoted  to  the  discussion  of  philosophical, 
metaphysical  and  theological  questions.  This  determination  took  a  practical 
turn  in  the  middle  of  1889.  A  periodical  under  the  name  of  'Vedic  Maga 
zine' was  launched  into  existence.  The  first  number  appeared  in  July. 
The  appearance  of  this  high-class  periodical  produced  a  great  atir  in  thQ 

(     86     ) 

literary  and  religious  world,  the  July  number  being  luminous  with  the 
most  brilliant  articles.  A  liberal  patronage  was  extended  by  the  Aryan 
•world  and  Aryas  felt  that  in  the  Vedio  Magazine  they  had  a  strong  and 
powerful  exponent  of  the  various  features  of  the  Vedic  dharma,.  In  India 
the  public  gave  a  cordial  reception  to  the  journal  and  abroad  it  wa* 
reviewed  in  highly  eulogistic  terms  by  the  Press. 

The  4Vedie  Magazine'  was  a  stupendous  effort  in  the  direction  of 
religious  reform  and  revival.  It  was  intended  to  meet  "  the  needs  of  the 
ever-increasing  interest  in  the  Vedas,  by  presenting  translations,  abstracts, 
reviews,  and  criticisms  on  different  portions  of  Vedic  literature,  to  picture- 
the  interior  truths  of  the  Vedic  philosophy,  so  needed  in  this  age  of  exter- 
nalism  ;  to  present  the  philanthropic  and'  benevolent  religion  of  the  Vedas,. 
in  contrast  with  the  sectarian  or  communitarian,  but  not  humanitarian* 
religions  of  the  world ;  to  attack  time-honoured  and  ignorance-begotten, 
superstitions ;  to,  teach  the  principles  of  true  reform  as  distinguished  from 
time-serving  and  popular  policies;  to  keep  alive  the  pure  and  simple  truths 
of  the  Vedas,  by  presenting  controversial  articles  and  reviews  ;  to  remove 
wilful  misrepresentations,  or  sincere  misunderstandings  of  selfish  priestcraft,, 
pedantic  philologists  and  shallow  materialists."  The  magnitude  of  this 
task  can  be  easily  imagined.  It  could  not  be  performed  with  any  degree  ol 
success  unless  one  were  thoroughly  at  home  in  the  Vedic  literature  and  in. 
close  and  intimate  touch  with  contemporary  thought.  He  muat  be 
thoroughly  familiar  with  religions  of  the  world,  especially  those  of  India. 
His  knowledge  in  the  realm  of  Philosophy  must  range  over  a  wide  horizon, 
and  he  must  possess  a  deep  acquaintance  with  science.  This  is  a  killing 
business,  in  as  much  as  it  taxes  the  energies  of  an  individual  to  the  utmost,. 
Pandit  Guru  Datta  had  chosen  this  vocation  for  himself.  He  alone  could 
satisfactarily  perform  the  various  duties  connected  with  it,  there  being  no 
other  man  in  the  Samaj  who  could  lend  him  any  substantial  help  in  it. 
Besides,  even  if  there  were,  learned  contributions  could  not  be  secured 
without  monetary  payments  and  that  Pandit  Guru  Datta  waa  not  in  a 
position  to.  do,,  the  whole  burd.en  lay  upon  the  Pandit  himself.  Hit 
1  magazine '  must  be  full  of  learned  articles,  worthy  o£  his  name  and  famo. 
And  he  must  work  for  i.b  as  hard  as  be  could,  Lala  Lajpat  Kai  tells  us. 
that  "he  went  through  all  the  works  of  Professor  Max  Muller,  Nayai,, 
Mimansa,  Vaisheahaka,  and  Yoga  out  of  Aryan  philosophies,  Nirukta  and 
Swarai  Dayananda's  Bhashya  on  Vedas,  Mahabhashya  by  Patanjali,,  Manw. 
a,  host  oZ  other  backs*  toa  r^umfirowa  to  he  mentioned 

The  study  of  so  many  works  threw  a  strain  upon  his  constitution  that  it 
could  not  bear,  and  in  the  latter  end  of  July  (1889)  he  began  to  complain 
of  "  something  like  electricity  going  out  of  him  "  and  in  the  beginning  of 
August  he  caught  cold.  This  cold  was  soon  followed  by  cough  and  fever 
which  continued  to  increase  in  intensity  till  September,  notwithstanding 
the  strong  efforts  made  to  check  them.  At  last  he  was  obliged  to  remove- 
to  hills  ;  Murree  was  selected  as  fit  place  for  him  to  recruit  his  health.  He 
was  received  there  by  Sardar  Umrao  Singh,  a  sincere  and  ardent  admirer 
of  his  and  although  the  best  medical  advice  was  procured  and  every  comfort 
was  provided  under  the  hospitable  roof  of  the  Sardar  Sahib,  the  disease 
showed  no  sign  of  abatement.  His  constitution,  which  was  exceptionally 
strong,  was  undermined  during  a  short  stay  there.  The  anniversary  of 
the  Peshawar  Samaj  coming  off  in  those  days,  he  made  up  his  mind  to  join 
it.  He  could  not  bear  the  trouble  and  inconvenience  of  such  a  long 
journey  but,  when  once  his  resolution  was  formed,  it  was  very  difficult  to 
prevent  him  from  carrying  it  into  effect.  He  left  for  Peshawar  in  spite 
of  the  protests  of  his  friends  and  be  did  not  observe  the  anniversary  as  a 
mere  passive  spectator,  but  took  an  active  part  in  it.  His  speech  upon  the 
Vedas  was  the  most  brilliant  of  addresses  delivered  on  the  occasion,  and 
he  spoke  with  all  the  might  that  he  could  command.  The  result  of  this 
heavy  strain  was  that  the  disease  redoubled  its  force  and  immediately  after 
bis  arrival  at  Lahore  he  was  thoroughly  prostrated,  with  all 'energy  for  work 
having  departed  from  his  body.  Throughout  October  the  disease  kept 
increasing  in  virulence  but  towards  the  end  of  October  there  were  apparent 
signs  of  relief.  And  the  Pandit  himself  began  to  entertain  hopes  of  bia 
recovery.  That  was  a  time  when  he  ought  to  have  allowed  himself  perfect 
rest,  but  no,  he  would  not  sit  still.  He  took  an  active  part  in  the  meetings  of 
the  Managing  Committee,  of  the  D.  A.  V.  College.  Imagine  a  man  reduced 
to  a  mere  skeleton  through  constant  suffering  and  disease,  precipitating 
without  any  discrimination  into  discussions  over  public  affairs.  This  was 
the  besetting  fault  of  Pandit  Guru  Datta.  He  did  such  things  not  because 
he  was  short-sighted  and  unaware  of  consequences  of  such  action  but  because 
there  was  a  very  strong  and  powerful  impulse  from  within. 

This  mental  strain  brought  on  extreme  lassitude  and  exhaustion,  and 
be  lay  for  several  days  on  his  bed,  unable  to  move  out  even  a  small  distance. 
His  strength  began  to  decrease  and  he  grew  more  and  more  lean  every 
day.  At  such  a  critical  juncture  he  was  removed  to  Gujranwala  and  put 
undtr  tht  treatment  of  Dr,  Patch  Chand,  Pandit  Guru  Ddtta  remained 

at  Gujratiwala  for  a  good  period  ;  the  Doctor  bestowed  special  attention  upon 
him  but  to  no  avail.  The  disease  had  passed  that  stage  in  which  cure 
could  be  effected,  There  was  no  improvement  in  the  condition  of  Panditji :, 
on  the  contrary  alarming  symptoms  developed  and  in  consequence  he  was 
brought  back  to  Lahore  and  accommodated  in  a  Bungalow,  specially  hired 
for  the  purpose. 

At  Lahore  he  was  treated  by  Pandit  Narayan  Dass,  a  Vaid  of 
repute  in  the  province.  Pandit  Narayan  Dass  had  cured  many  cases 
of  chronic  consumption  and  his  treatment  effected  improvement  in  the 
•condition  of  Pandit  Guru  Datta,  and  hopes  began  to  be  entertained  of 
his  recovery  in  some  quarters  but  there  was  an  unexpected  relapse. 
Subsequently  "a  Hakim,  named  Slier  Ali,  was  called  from  J  llauduar.  '  Hi  a 
treatment/  says  Mr.  Laj  pat  Rai,  "  worked  wonders  and  in  almost  a  week 
Panditji's  complete  recovery  became  a  matter  of  days."  But  this  was  likely 
the  flicker  of  the  dying  flames.  Thera  was  a  relapse  "from  the  effects  of 
which  Panditji  never  recovered.  " 

The  morning  of  the  18th  March  dawned  bright  and  clear.  The  sun 
shone  in  its  full  splendour.  There  was  not  a  speck  of  cloud  to  be  seen 
in  the  sky.  The  birds  sing  joyfully.  Men  went  to  their  daily 
tasks  with  light  hearts.  There  was  joy  all  around.  Bit  there  was  no  joy  in 
the  hearts  of  the  Aryas.  Sorrow  was  depicted  in  every  face.  'No  hope 
no  hope,'  these  words  seemed  to  escape  from  many  lips. 

Pandit  Guru  Datta  lay  prostate  on  his  sick-bed.  Though  he  was  as 
calm  as  ever,  yet  life  was  slowly  ebbing  away.  There  was  no  help. 
No  one  could  interfere  with  God's  ways.  He  must  go,  his  Father  is  waiting 
him.  He  is  already  beckoning  him  to  come  to  Him.  He  must  obey  his 
Heavenly  Father's  summons.  And  our  Pandit  is  not  sorry.  Why  should  he 
be  sorry.  Is  he  not  going  to  join  his  Divine  Father.  While  all  around  are 
shedding  bitter  tears  of  grief,  while  the  heart-rending  cries  of  the  mother  are- 
rending  the  air,  while  the  children's  eyes  are  bedimmed  with  tears,  Pandit 
Guru  Datta  is  smiling,  thinking  not  of  the  cares  and  anxieties  of  the  world. 

He  is  not  of  this  world  and  so  he  does  not  regret  leaving  it.  Rather  he 
is  glad,  for  who  does  not  rejoice  to  go  back  to  his  home.  He  has  been 
absent  so  long.  He  must  hasten  now.  The  day  wore  on,  the  pain  be 
came  almost  unbearable,  but  our  hero  did  r.ot  utter  any  complaint.  The 
shadows  of  the  night  began  to  fall.  The  anxiety  of  his  friends  is  increasing 

(    39    ) 

AY  ill  he  l>e  spared  to  us,  they  seem  to  question  each  other.  Is  onr  flew 
Pandit  passing  away.  Yes,  he  is  passing  away  and  there  is  110  power  that  now 
can  give  him  back  to  us.  The  midnight  hour  struck  twelve.  Now 
life  be-gan  to  fast  ebb  away.  Pulse  was  felt  every  five  minutes.  Every 
hope  was  lost  now.  Suddenly  the  Pandit  turned  round  on  his  bed  and 
began  to  recite  Vedic  Mantras  and  then  asked  his  friend  Bhagat 
Kemal  Das  to  recite  the  Ishopnishad  to  him.  Amidst  the  chanting  ol  the 
mantras  and  the  singing  of  Bhajans,  time  passed  on. 

One,  two,  three,  four,  five,  six.  It  was  morning  again.  The  morning  of 
the  19th  of  March.  It  was  the  last  day  of  Pandit  Guru  Datta's  sojourn  on 
this  earth.  At  7  A.M.  he  breathed  his  last.  He  died  almost  in  seconds. 
With  his  death,  a  star  of  the  first  magnitude  disappeared  from  the  horizon 
of  the  Arya  Samaj,  leaving  an  impenetrable  gloom  behind. 

T  he  Arya  Patrika  had  a  long  aud  touching  obituary  notice  under  the 
heading  "Our  Loss  :  " 

"  A  man,  an  uncommon  man,  a  man  extraordinary,  a  true,  deep  and 
profound  Sanskrit  scholar, — a  true  descendant  of  the  ancient  Rishis, — has 
passed  away.  Pandit  Guru  Datta  Vidyarthi,  the  pride  and  ornament  of 
the  Arya  Samaj,  the  pride  and  ornament  of  his  country,  the  pride  of 
all  who  value  truth  and  knowledge  for  their  sake,  is  no  more  among  us. 
Yes,  that  noble  soul  is  no  more  in  the  flesh.  We  miss  him*  all,  young  and 
old,  aye,  we  cannot  yet  believe  the  stern  fact  that  he  has  left  us.  The 
very  magnitude  and  the  uncommon  chara  cter  of  our  loss  helps  to  keep 
up  the  impression  that  he  is  yet  with  us.  Oh,  when  shall  we  see  the  like 
of  him  again  !  When  shall  we  see  again  a  man  who  is  pervaded  and 
permeated  to  most  remotest  fibre  of  his  soul  with  a  desire  to  disseminate 
the  light  of  truth, — the  eternal  principles  of  the  Vedic  religion, — with  a 
desire  to  usher  the  world  once  more  into  the  presence  of  the  most  High, 
through  His  Word  and  through  those  who  have  known  and  understood  His 
Word  !  Oh,  Guru  Datta  Vidyarthi,  thine  loss  at  this  hour  is  irreparable. 
In  thine  own  particular  sphere  thou  leavest  behind  not  one  man  who  ean 
take  up  and  do  the  work  that  thou  wouldst  have  done. 

Thine,  0  young  man,  was  soul  truly  noble,  and  thine  short  career 
•was  dazzlingly  brilliant,  though  thou  wert  unconscious  of  it.  And  truly 
and  justly  so,  because  thine  aims  were  high  and  lofty,  thou  looked  to 
Gautama,  Patanjli,  Vyas,  Yajnavalkya  and  Swami  Dayananda  as  thy 
models,  and  thou  wast  ever  pleased  in  their  company  and  in  their  guidance 
of  thee!  So  noble  and  so  promising,  and  yet  to  be  cut  off  so  early  !  What 

hopes  had  We  of  thee,  and  what  wouldst  thou  not  have  achieved  in  the 
cause  of  truth,  if  it  had  pleased  the  Great  Disposer  of  all  things  to  let 
thee  live  longer !  But  His  Will  be  done !  That  thine  soul  is  happier 
infinitely  by  far  now,  that  it  is  free  from  the  bonds  of  flash,  may  be  truei 
but  for  all  that  we  can  not  but  wish  that  thou  hadst  lived  lo&ger  among  us  ! 
And  yet  we  may  not  repine,  for  if  it  is  thine  to  be  born  once  more  before 
the  soul  reposes  in  the  bosom  of  the  Most  High  for  years  countless,  thou 
shalt  surely  come  to  us,  with  thine  powers  hundred-fold  magnified  to 
advance  the  cause  of  truth  ! 

Pandit  Guru  Datta  Vidyarthi  took  leave  of  us  on  the  morning  of  th« 
19th  instant  at  about  half-past  seven.  He  died  of  consumption,  that  terrible 
disease,  which  is  becoming  so  common  in  this  country.  But  if  the  Pandit's 
career  as  long  as  he  was  blessedwith  strength  environed  by  a  halo  of  moral 
grandeur  and  religious  fervor,  and  was  worth  our  study  and  imitation,  its 
closing  scene  was  well  becoming  so  noble  a  soul.  During  the  entire  period 
of  some  six  months,  during  which  he  was  confined  to  his  bed,  he  was  ever 
calm,  serene  and  unmoved  in  the  midst  of  his  sufferings.  Not  all  his  tortures 
could  wring  from  his  heroic  soul  the  slightest  expression  of  inward  pain— 
during  the  fiercest  onslaught  of  the  raging  fever  which  had,  as  it  were,  be 
come  a  part  and  parcel  of  his  body,  he  was  as  dignified  and  resigned,  as  in 
the  hours  and  intervals  of  temporary  relief.  Yes,  he  knew  how  to  suffer 
like  a  true  Aryan  that  he  was.  He  knew  how  to  be  resigned  to  the  Will  of 
his  great  Master  and  Maker,  the  more  so  as  he  had  seen  the  riskily  conduct 
of  Dayananda  in  his  last  moments,  over  \ihich  he  was  wont  to  so  rapturously 
and  reverentially  dwell  whenever  he  found  an  opportunity.  Who  would 
not  covet  to  be  in  death  and  suffering  as  thou  wast,  Guru  Datta  Vidyarthi  I 

The  moment  the  noble  soul  had  quitted  the  mortal  coil,  the  sad  news, 
that  our  dear  brother  was  gone  to  his  Great  Father,  was  known  in  every 
quarter  and  street  of  the  town,  where  an  Aryan  lived,  and  in  a  couple  of 
hours  it  had  travelled  like  wild-fire  all  over  the  city.  Notwithstanding  that 
it  was  not  a  Sunday,  or  any  other  holiday,  some  five  or  six  hundred  men 
had  gathered  before  the  house  of  our  departed  brother  before  it  vras  nine, 
all  sad  and  gloomy — some  dumbfounded  aud  lost  in  thought  at  the  greatness 
of  the  loss,  some  weeping  the  tears  of  bitterness  in  silence,  while  others, 
talking  on  the  accomplishments,  many  and  great,  of  the  noble  young  man. 
Oh  !  who  could  hear  unmoved  the  heart-rending  cries  of  his  aged  mother  ?  Of 
all  her  BODS,  Guru  Datta  Vidyarthi  alone  had  beeu  spared  to  her,  and  be  *&• 


)  PS     >, 

her  last   child,  the  child  that  she  had  obtained  in  her  declining  y< 

deoth  of  a  mother's  love  is  unfathomable,  but  her  love  for  a   child -she   has 

X\    ' 
obtained  in  her  advanced  years,  especially   when  he  is  honored  of  the   m 

cd,  is  still  deeper  and  diviner  !  Oh  !  mother — yes,  thou  art  to  us  more  than 
that,  thou,  who  gavest  birth  to  a  noble  child  like  Guru  Dutta  Vidyarthi, — 
thine  has  indeed  been  a  loss  whose  value  no  one  can  realize  and  feel  but  a 
bother !  But  rest  assured  that  thy  son  is  not  lost,  he  is  happy  in  the 
bosom  of  his  Creator,  or  if  it  is  for  him  to  return  to  the  world  once  again  to 
be  entitled  to  his  bliss  interminable,  he  will  be  a  veritable  Rishi,  who  will  be 

the  saviour  of  millions, 

At  about  ten  preparations  began  to  be  made  for  conveying  the   body   to 

the  burning  ground.     A  good  many  men  in  the   gathering    started   the   pro 
posal  that  the  deceased    might  be  photographed  in  his  death-slumber,  urging 
that  a  photograph    taken  at  this  time  would  be  pregnant  with  an    invaluable 
lespon  to  all, 'as  showing  that  all  human  greatness   has   an    ending  and    that 
God  and  His  greatness  alone  are  for  ever  and  ever  !     This   proposal   was   ob 
jected  to  on  many  important  considerations.     The  proposers  again  urged  that 
the  entire  gathering,    and  the  body,  while   wrapped  in  flame,   might  at   least 
be  photographed.     This,  though  not  objected  to,  was  declared  as  fruitlees,  for 
a  photo  of  the  deceased  already  existed,  and  those  who  were   really   anxious 
to  derive  a  lesson  from  the  fate  of  the  young  man  could  do  so  by  a   contem 
plation   of  the  facts  of  his  life.     The   procession    started   at.  about  half   past 
ten.     The  crowd  had  now  swelled  up  to  about  seven  hundred  men.     It  passed 
through  the  Shah  Almi  Bazar  and  kept  increasing     with   its  progress.     The 
shops  on  both  sides  of  the  Bazar  were  lined  with  men,   who,    while   admiring 
the  appropriateness   of  the  bhajans  and  Veda   Mantra4?  sung    and   recited  by 
the  Samaj    Ihajanmandli    and  the    boys    of   the    D.  A.  V.   Boarding  House 
expressed  sincere  and  genuine  regret  that  so   able  a  man,  so  great  a   Sanskrit 
scholar,  should  have  been  cut  off  at  the  age  of    twenty-five!     Flowers    were 
profusely  rained  on  the  bier  from   the    house    tops    throughtout  the   Bazar 
When  after  full  two   hours,  after  necessary  halts,  the  bier   emerged    into  the 
open  plain,  the  procession  numbered  at  least  one  thousand    men.     It  was  far 
past  twelve,     very  nearly    it  was  one,  when  the  body   was   desposited   in   the 
cremation-ground.     After  the  Vedi  had    been  prepared    according    to  stated 
rules  and  pyre  made,    the  body  was  cremated  in  strict  accordance  with  letter 
of  the  law.     The  samagri— ghee  and  all  burnt    with    the   body— was    worth 
about  sixty   rupees.     After  the  body   had  been   fairly  consumed,   a   short 
prayer,  suited  te  the  occasion,  wqs  offered  up  by  Lala  Hans  Raj,  and  then  the 
people  left  the  burning-ground   with  the  view  to    bathe    and  to   return   to 
their  homes." 














LAHORE  :     } 

*8,  J 

1st  June  1888 



THE  question  of  the  origin,  nature  and  eternity    of   Shabda  —  human 
articulate  and  inspired  speech  —  has  been  a  very  important  question 
in  Sanskrit.literature.  The  highly  philosophical  character  of  this  ques 
tion  cannot  be  doubted,  but  the  peculiar  characteristic,  which  attracts 
the  attention  of  every  Sanskrit  scholar,  is  the  all-pervading   nature  of 
the  influence  it  exerts  on  other  departments  of  human  knowledge.    It 
is  not  only  the  NairuJdikas  and  the   Vaiyakaranis,  the  grammarians,. 
etymologists  and  philologists  of  ancient    Sanskrit  times,  that  take    up 
this  question  ;  but  even  the  acute  and  subtle  philosopher  —  the  last  and 
the  best  Sanskrit  metaphysician  —  the  disciple  of  the  learned  Yyasa  —  the 
founder  of  one  of  the  six  schools  of  philosophy  —  the  religious  aphorist 
Jaimini  cannot  isolate  the  treatment    of  his  subject  from  the   influence 
of  this  question.     He  runs  in  the  very  beginning  of  hjs  Mimansa  (dis 
sertation)    into    this    question     and     assigns     a     very     considerable 
part  (proportionately)  of  his  treatise  to  the  elucidation  of  this   question. 
It  is  not  difficult  for  a  reader  of  modern  philology,  well-  versed    in    dis 
cussions  on  onomatopoeian  and  other  artificial  theories  of  human  speech, 
to  perceive  the  amount  of  wrangling  which  such  questions  give  rise  to. 
We  have  mentioned  the  position  assigned  to  this    question  in  Sanskrit 
literature  not  so  much  with  a  view  to  put  an  end  to  all  this  wrangling, 
which,  perhaps,  is  unavoidable,  but  with  a  view  to  take  up,  in  a    brief 
way,  another  and  a  more  practical  question  involved    therein,  i.  e.,  the 
question  of  the  interpretaion  of  Vedic  terminology. 


Up  to  this  time  all  the  plans  that  have  been  adopted  for  the  inter 
pretation  of  Vedic  terminology  have  been  based  on  some  pre-conceived 
notions.  The  philosophy  of  the  subject  requires  that  these  pre-conceiv 
ed  notions  should  be  carefully  examined,  studied  and  pruned  of  the  ex 
traneous  matter  liable  to  introduce  error,  whereas  new  and  more  ra 
tional  methods  should  be  sought  after  and  interposed  —  methods  such 
as  may  throw  further  light  upon  the  subject. 

To  examine,  then,  the  various  methods  that  have  up  to  this  time 
been  pursued.  Briefly  speaking,  they  are  three  in  number,  and  may, 
for  want  of  better  denomination,  be  called  the  Mythological,  Anti 
quarian  and  Contemporary  methods, 


Firstly,  the  Mythological   method.   This   method   interprets   the 
Vedas  as  myths,  as  an  embodiment  of  simple  natural  truths  in  the  im 
aginative  language  of  religious  fiction,  as  a  symbolic  representation  of 
the  actual  in  the  ideal,  as  an  imbedding  of  primitive  truth  in  the  super 
incumbent  strata  of  non-essential   show  and  ceremony.  Now,  in  so  far 
as  this  concretion  of  thought  in  mythological  network  goes,  it  assumes 
a  comparatively  rude  and  simple  stage  of  human  life  and   experience. 
From  this  basis  of  a  primitive  savage  state   it   gradually  evolves  the 
ideas  of  Grod  and  religion,  which  no  sooner  done  than   mythic   period 
ends.  It  further  argues  thus   : — In   the   ruder   stages   of    civilisation, 
when  laws  of  nature  are  little  known  and  but  very   little   understood, 
analogy  plays  a  most  important  part  in  the  performance  of  intellectual 
functions  of  man,  The  slightest  semblance,  or  visage  of   semblance,   is 
enough  to  justify  the  exercise  of  analogy.  The  most   palpable   of  the 
forces  of  nature  impress  the  human  mind,  in   such   a   period   of   rude 
beginnings  of  human  experience,  by  motions  mainly.  The  wind   blow 
ing,  the  fire  burning,  a  stone  falling,  or  a  fruit   dropping,   affects  the 
senses  essentially  as  moving.  Now,  throughout  the  range  of    conscious 
exertion  of  muscular  power,  will  precedes  motion,  and,  since  even  the 
most  grotesque  experience  of  a  savage  in  this  world  assumes  this  know 
ledge,  it  is  no  great  stretch  of  intellectual  power  to  argue  that  these  na 
tural  forces  also,  to  which  the  sensible  motions  are  due,    are    endowed 
with  the  faculty  of  will.  The  personification  of  the  forces  of  nature  be 
ing  thus  effected,  their   deification  soon   follows.   The    overwhelming 
potency,  the  unobstructible  might,  and  often  the  violence,  with  which, 
in  the  sight  of  a  savage,  the  forces  operate,  strike  him  with  terror,  awe 
and  reverence.  A  sense  of  his  own  weakness,  humility  and   inferiority 
creeps  over  the  savage  mind,  and,  what  was  intellectually  personified, 
becomes  emotionally  deified.  According  to  this  view,   the   Yedas,   un 
doubtedly  books  of  primitive  times,  consist  of  prayers   from   such   an 
emotional  character  addressed  to  the  forces  of  nature  including   wind 
and  rain — prayers  breathing  passions  of  the  savage  for  vengeance   or 
for  propitiation — or,  in  moments  of   poetic   exaltation,    hymns   simply 
portraying  the  simple  phenomena  of  nature  in  the  personified  language 
of  mythology. 

Whilst  deductive  psychology  affords  these  data,  right  or  wrong  as 
they  may  be,  comparative  philology  and  comparative  mythology  con 
siderably  support  these  views.  A  comparison  of  the  mythologies  of 
various  countries  shows  that  the  working  of  human  intellect  is  analo 
gous,  that  this  process  of  mythification  is  not  only  everywhere  univer 
sal,  but  coincident.  The  Scandinavian,  Greek  and  Indian  mythologies 
have  no  clear  line  of  demarcation,  save  the  accidental  one  of  differen 
tiation  due  to  climatic  effects.  Comparative  philology  not  only  admits 
the  universality  and  coincidence  of  these  phenomena,  but  traces  even 
phonetic  identity  in  the  linguistic  garb  with  which  these  phenomena 
are  clothed. 


The  evidence  from  these  three  sources—  comparative  philology, 
deductive  psychology  and  compdmtive  mythology— is  indeed  very  great; 
and  we  have  stated  the  nature  of  this  method  and  the  evidence  upon 
which  its  validity  depends  at  much  greater  length  than  the  short  space 
at  our  disposal  could  allow  us,  so  that,  for  fairness'  sake  at  least,  the 
value  and  merits  of  this  method  may  not  be  under-rated. 

The  results  of  comparative  philology  and  comparative    mythology 
need  not  be  denied.  They  are  the  starting-points  in  our   discussion,  the 
assumed  axioms  in  the  present  subject.  The  caucus  belli,  the  debatable 
land  lies  beyond  them,  in  fact,  below  them.  They  are  the  facts — recog 
nized  matters  of  truth.  How  are  they  to  be   explained?   And   like   ex 
planations  of  all  other  things,  here  too,  there  may  be  alternative  expla 
nations,  rival  hypotheses,  parallel  theories  to  confront    the   same   facts 
and  phenomena.  That    mythologies   of   various   countries    are   similar, 
may  be  explained  as  much  on  the  hypothesis  that  laws  of  psychological 
development  are  everywhere  the  same,  as  on  the  hypothesis   that   they 
are  all  derived  from  a  common  parental  system  of  mythology   or   reli 
gion.  Phonetic  similarities,  apart  from  their  doubtful  and     frequently 
whimsical  character,  may  analogously  be  traced   to  the     operation    of 
analogous  organs  and  phonetic  laws,  or  to  a  common   parent   language 
from  which  ail  the  others  are  derived.   Nor   can    these   methods    have 
any  further  claims  to  settle  the  dispute  between     these  rival  theories. 
As  methods,  they  can  only  discover  mythic  or   phonetic  similarities   or 
affinities,  but  cannot  explain  them.  Even  if  we  leave. out  of    considera 
tion  the  alternative  character  of  the  conclusions  arrived  at,  the  explana 
tions  possess,  considered  from  the  standpoint  of  inductive     validity,  a 
very  low  specific  value.  We  seek  the  explanation  not  from  a   fact   al 
ready  known  to  exist — we  only  inferentially  assume  a  fact  to   have  ex 
isted,  whilst  we  are   at  the   same   time   assuming   the  validity  of   our 
inference.  The  assumed  fact,  from    which     the  desired  explanation    is 
sought,  is  not  inferred  from  any    independent  evidence,  but  is  itself  a 
link  in  the  self-returning  series  of    concatenated    facts.    Further,    the 
growth  of  mythology  is  deductively  inferred  from    some  psychological 
data.  It  might  as  easily  have  been    inferred  as  a  degenerate,    crippled, 
and  then  stitched  and  glossed  remnant    of  a  purer   and  truer  religion. 
An  author  has  well  spoken  of  the  degeneracy  of  things  including  doc- 
trines  pre-eminently,  if  left   alone.  Nor   is   this  fact   in  any    way   an 
obscure  one  to  the  student  of  the  history  of  church  dogmas  and  opinions. 
Who  does  not  know  of  religious  practices  primarily  designed  to   meet 
certain  real  wants,  degenerating,  after  a  lapse  of  time  on  the  cessation 
of  those  wants,  into  mere  ceremonies  and  customs  which  are  regarded, 
not  as    accidents,  but   as    essentials?  Mythologies,    as  well   as    mythic 
practices,  then,  may  arise  either  as   products    of   human   imagination 
working  under  subdued  int'ellect  and  petrified  reason,   or,   as    an    out 
growth  of  a  distorted  remnant  of  a  purer  and  truer  form  of  religion. 

There  is  not  one  hypothesis  in  connection  with  this   subject  that 
not  a  counter-hypothesis,  not  one  theory  whose  claims  are  not  met 


with  by  a  rival  theory.  Independently  of  the  vague  character  of   these 
hypotheses — the  philological  and  mythological   ones — the   uncertainty 
of  the  conclusions  deduced  from  them  cannot  be    lost    sight    of.    Like 
the  conclusions  arrived  at  by  Mr.    Pocock    in  his  '  India    in    Greece/ 
wherein  he  traces  the  origin  of  all  Greek  geographical  names  to   Sans 
krit  Indian  names,  and  whereby  he  infers  the    colonization  of    Greece 
by  the  Indians,  the  conclusions  arrived  at  according  to  the    aforesaid 
hypothesis  constitute  one  full  chain  of  circular  reasonings    continually 
returning  into  themselves.  Admitting  the  cognate  relation  that    exists 
between  the  Greek  and  Sanskrit  languages  it  must  follow  that    Greek 
names  of  localities  must  bear  a  remote  and  far-fetched,,    as    contrasted 
with  a  direct  and  palpable,  identity  to  Indian  names  of  localities.  The 
colonization  of  Greece  by  the  Indians  is  not  the  just  conclusion  to   be 
drawn  from  the  specific  topographical  relations,  which  Mr.  Pocock  has 
traced,  independently  of  the  common  origin    of    Greek    and    Sanskrit 
languages.  The  identity  of   Greek   and    Sanskrit    stock    is    a    genera] 
formula   which    cannot   be  any  further  proved  by  such  specific  con 
nections.  The  fact  of  the  identity  of  several    systems   of  mythologies 
and  languages  also  leads  to  a    distinct   general  proposition — the   uni 
formity  of  human  nature.  Beyond  the  value   of   this   general    proposi 
tion,  the  specific  mythological  and  philological  facts  have  no  indepen 
dent    value.    Their    value    is    subsumed   in    the    general    proposition. 
These  particular  propositions;  when  right,  cannot  add  to  the  value  of 
the  general  proposition  which  they  go  to  form,  but,  when  wrong,  they 
can  materially  vitiate  the  truth  of  the  general  proposition.  A  conclu 
sion  based  upon  the  legitimacy  of   a  general  order  of  nature,  or  a 
universal  law,  can  derive  no  real  independent  logical  strength  from  the 
enumeration  of  particular  instances  of  such  order  or  law,  all   similar   in 
kind.  All  the  remarks  that  have  been  made  above  may  in  one  sense  be 
considered  to  bear  upon  the  question  of  comparative  mythology  in  gene 
ral,  as  having  no  distinct  individualized  influence  on  the    terminology 
of  the  Vedas.  There  is  one  other  point,  however,  which  comes  directly 
into  contact  with  the  mythological  theory  as  concerned  with  the  termi 
nology  of  the  Vedas.  Mythology,  as   already   remarked,    is    the    sym- 
bolization  of  human  thought  in  the  concrete.  The    contrast,    therefore, 
of  mythology  with  the  abstract  is  the  widest  and  the  most   thorough 

Philosophy,  as  analysed  by  Herbert  Spencer,  has  for  its  object  the 
elucidation  of  ultimate  truths  or  laws.  These  truths,  in  so  far  as  ulti 
mate,  must  be  the  most  general.  The  wider  the  group  of  individual 
facts  that  a  law  covers,  or  the  greater  the  distance  of  the  ultimate  law 
from  the  minute  sub-laws  covering  a  very  limited  and  primary  area,  the 
more  abstract  and  the  less  concrete  does  its  expression  become.  Philo 
sophy  and  mythology,  therefore,  stand  contrasted — completely  contrast 
ed  to  one  another  in  this  respect.  Philosophy  is  abstract,  expressed  in 
general  terms  and  ultimate  formula;  mythology  is  concrete,  expressed 
in  gross  material  terms  representing  primary  objects  and  phases  of 


objects.  Nothing,  therefore,  is  so  completely  subversive  of  the  value  of 
the  mythological  method  as  the  existence  of   philosophy    and    philoso 
phic  ideas  in  the  Vedas.  That  the  Vedas  are   books  of  philosophy    and 
not  of  mythology  must  not  be  admitted  merely  because    a  well-known 
professor  and  scholar  of  Sanskrit  acknowledges  that  the  germ  of      hu- 
•  man  thought  and  reason  lies  in  the  Vedas,  whereas,  according  to    him, 
its  culmination  lies  in  the  philosophy  of  Kant,  but  on  other  and    more 
trustworthy    bases    and    authorities.    The    growth   of     philosophy    in 
Sanskrit  literature  is    earlier   than   the   growth   of     mythology.    The 
Upanishads  and  the  Darshanas,  which  are  professedly  books   of  philo 
sophy  and  confessedly  nearer  to  the  Vedas,  chronologically    preceded, 
and  not  followed,  the  Puranas,  the  embodiment  of  mythological  litera 
ture  of  India.  It  was  philosophy  that   was   evolved   from  the    Vedas, 
and  not  mythology.     In  the  history  of  Indian  literature,    at    least,    it 
is   not  mythology  that  gives  birth  to  philosophy,  but  philosophy  that 
precedes  mythology.     How  far  mythology  may  rise    as  an  out-growth 
and   a   distorted   remnant   of   a   purer  and  truer  form  of  religion  or 
philosophy,  might  perhaps  now  have   been   rendered     more   evident. 
Now  the  six  schools  of  philosophy  are,  all  of  them,  based  on   the  Vedas, 
and  support  themselves  by  direct  quotations  from  the  Vedas.    Not  only, 
then,   has  philosophy  been  evolved  from  the  Vedas,  but  substantially 
drawn    out    and   evolved  or   developed   subsequently.    There  is  one, 
and   only     one   objection   that     can    be    raised   against   the    above 
views.      It    is   that   the    different   portions   of  the   Vedas  belong  to 
different  epochs,   for,   whilst   some  portions  are  mythological,  others 
are   decidedly    philosophical.      We      would    not     here   say  what   is 
already  well-known,  that,    however    it   may   be,   not  one  line  of  the 
Vedas  is  later  than  the   Darshanas  or  the    Upanishads,  not  to  speak 
of      the   Puranas.       Howsoever     greatly    wide  apart    may    be  the 
epochs   assigned  to     the  various  portions   of   the  Vedas,  no  stretch 
of   artificial   reasoning   can  make   them  coincide  with  the   Puranic 
period.     Independently  of  these  considerations,  which  are   important 
however,  the  very  assignment  of  different  epochs  to  the  Vedas  proves 
the  insufficiency  and  partial    character  of   the   mythological  system. 
The   truth   of   the  mythological   system  lies  in  the  isolations  of  the 
portions  of  the  Vedas.     It  is  not  the  Vedas  as  a  whole   that   furnish 
an  illustration  of  this  method,  but  in  part.     But  what  reason  have  we 
to  isolate  these  portions  or  to   split   up   the  homogeneous   mass  into 
two  ?     Simply  this,  that   they   belong  to  two  distinct  epochs.     Now 
the  assertion  that  the  portions  belong  to  two  distinct  epochs,  is   itself 
grounded   upon  the   insufficiency  of  the   mythological   method.     If 
they  could  interpret  the  whole  of  the  Vedas  by  the  one   mythological 
method,   there   could   be   no   need  of   separating   them.     This  they 
could    not,   and   therefore  the   isolation.      The   justification   of   the 
partial  character   of   the"  mythological   method  depending  upon  the 
correctness  of  the  assignment  of   the   various   epochs,  such   assign 
ment  has   no  authority   save   the   insufficiency   of  the  mythological 
method.    Thus,  then,  is  the  partial  character  of   the  mythological 


method  unconsciously  regarded  as  self-sufficient.  The  first  method, 
then,  out  of  the  three  enumerated  in  the  beginning  of  this  subject, 
considered  independently,  proves  insufficient ;  considered  in  conjunc 
tion  with  philology,  fares  no  better  ;  and  lastly,  fails  in  contrast  with 
the  philosophic  character  of  the  Vedas.  We  will  now  consider  the 
second  method. 

One  of  the  most  successful  methods  of  unravelling  ancient 
literary  records  is  the  antiquarian  or  the  historical  method.  It 
consists  in  approximating,  in  so  far  as  possible  for  the  interpretation 
and  explanation  of  the  records  in  hand,  to  the  books  and  general 
literature  of  the  period  to  which  it  belongs.  For  the  obvious  reason 
that  direct  evidence  is  always  to  be  preferred  to  second-hand  infor 
mation,  this  method  is  next  in  value  to  none,  but  to  the  direct  evi 
dence  of  the  senses.  Now,  in  so  far  as  in  historical  research,  where 
the  study  of  the  past  epoch  is  concerned,  one  has  inevitably  to  fall 
for  information  on  the  literature  and  historical  record  of  the  period 
with  which  he  is  concerned;  an  examination  of  the  conditions,  which 
render  such  evidence  valid  and  a  labour  on  it  no  unfruitful  task,  is 
essential  to  establish  the  canons  of  historical  research.  The  veracity 
of  our  knowledge  of  past  events  depends  upon  two  factors  on  this 
method ;  firstly,  on  the  faithfulness  of  the  records  we  obtain  of  the 
event  or  events  of  the  period;  and  secondly,  on  the  faithfulness  of 
our  interpretation  of  the  records.  We  would  forego  an  analysis  of 
the  first  factor  as,,  this  factor  is  amenable,  for  the  estimation  of  its 
evidence,  to  laws  which  do  not  come  within  the  compass  of  our 
subject.  The  interpretation  of  the  records  is  what  directly  concerns 

The  excellence  of  the  historical  or  the  antiquarian  method  lies  in 
the  fact  that  it  renders  our  interpretation  of  past  records  less  liable  to 
error.  And  the  reason  may  be  thus  explained.  Language,  like  all 
other  things  that  live  or  are  of  organised  growth,  is  subject  to  con 
stant  variations,  to  variations,  depending  partly  on  the  laws  of 
development  of  phonetic  organs,  partly  on  external  circumstances  of 
fusion  and  introduction  of  foreign  languages,  and  partly  on  the  laws 
of  the  evolution  of  human  thought  itself.  Owing  to  this  and  many 
other  causes,  all  living  languages  are  daily  undergoing  changes, 
which  accumulate  and  appear  after  a  sufficiently  long  interval  to 
have  created  very  different,  though  cognate,  languages.  Any  thing, 
thought  or  philosophic  system  that  is  invested  with  linguistic  garb, 
therefore,  requires  for  its  correct  interpretation  that  the  laws  which 
govern  those  linguistic  variations  and  the  variations  of  the  sense  of 
words  should  be  carefully  studied.  Otherwise,  our  interpretation 
would  suffer  for  misconception  and  anachronism.  To  take  a  concrete 
example,  let  us  consider  the  case  of  the  Roman  Republic.  In  the 
time  of  the  Roman  Republic,  when  public  press  was  unknown,  new* 


unheard  of,  locomotive  engines  undreamt,  and  other  means  that 
engender  or  facilitate  the  communication  of  indelible  impression 
of  human  thought  or  reason,  unthought  of,  and  when  Forum  was  the 
only  place  of  resort  for  all  audience,  and  oratory  had  a  totally 
different  meaning  from  that  of  modern  times,  the  Senate  signified  a 
different  institution  from  what  it  now  is  ;  Republic  or  democracy  of 
the  people — the  people  then  existing — was  what  would  be  to  us  some 
thing  like  oligarchy,  though  very  different  from  it  in  many  essential 
features.  Now  a  reader  studying  the  literature  of  the  period  corres 
ponding  to  the  Roman  Republic  would  find  his  information  of  the 
period  incommensurate  with  facts,  if,  on  account  of  his  being  unguided 
in  his  studies,  the  words  Democracy,  Republic,  and  the  like,  were  to 
call  forth  before  his  mind  what  they  now  signify.  Such  a  knowledge 
would  be  inconsistent  with  itself,  a  medley  of  two  epochs,  and  would 
be  such  as,  on  critical  examination,  would  be  termed  sheer  nonsense. 

Thirdly,  the  Conternporariaii  method.  The  applications  of 
this  method  in  the  domain  of  history  are,  beyond  doubt,  various 
and  mo-t  important.  But  not  the  less  important  are  its  applica 
tions  in  the  fixing  of  the  dates,  or  the  succession  of  periods,  of  the 
Puranas,  the  Darshanas,  the  Upanishads,  Manu,  the  Ramayana, 
the  Mahabharata,  and  so  on.  Various  professors  have  fruitlessly 
tried  to  fix  dates  of  these  writings  by  searching  in  them,  in  most 
cases  in  vain,  for  any  well-established  consistent  historical  facts. 
But  far  more  important  in  the  fixing  of  these  dates  is  the  knowledge 
of  historical  evolution  of  Sanskrit  literature.  The  Sanskrit  of 
the  Puranas  is  so  different  from  the  Sanskrit  of  the  Mahabharata, 
and  that  of  the  Darshanas,  which  again  is  so  different  from  that  of 
the  Upanishads,  that  a  clear  line  of  demarcation  in  each  case  is  easily 
laid  down.  The  one  cannot  be  confounded  with  the  other. 

It  is  a  matter  of  great  surprise  and  Avoiider  that  in  the  case  of 
the  Vedas  the  method,  whose  merits  are  so  evident  and  obvious,  and 
which  is  so  well  recognised  in  the  domain  of  history,  should  not  have 
been  applied,  or,  so  loosely  and  carelessly  applied  as  to  render  modern 
interpretations  of  the  Vedas  by  some  very  well-known  professors  of 
Sanskrit  simply  unintelligible  and  absurd. 

In  the  case  of  the  Vedas  the  learned  professors  of  Sanskrit,  whose 
versions  of  the  Vedas  are  so  extant,  have  all  derived  their  inspira 
tions  from  the  commentaries  on  the  Vedas  by  Mahidhara,  Ravana 
and  Sayana,  writers  of  a  period  decidedly  very  much  later  than  that 
of  the  Vedas,  and  only  well  coinciding  with  our  own  time.  These 
writers  themselves  were  as  much  ignorant  of  the  terminology  of  the 
Vedas,  as  we  are.  Their  interpretations  of  Vedic  terms,  according 
to  their  meanings  extant  in  their  own  times,  were  as  wrong  as 
would  be  those  of  words  like  democracy  in  our  studies  concerning 
ancient  Rome.  Mahidhara  and  Sayana  fare  in  no  way  better  than 
ourselves.  It  seems  astonishing  that  in  adopting  the  interpretation  of 
the  Vedas  by  Sayana  and  Ravana,  our  modern  professors  of  Sanskrit 


should  have  forgotten  the  invaluable  maxim  that  the  nearer  we 
approximate  to  the  literature  of  the  period  to  which  the  Vedas  belong 
for  their  interpretation,  the  greater  would  be  our  chances  of  the  in 
terpretation  being  more  probable  and  more  correct.  According  to 
the  date  assigned  by  these  professors  to  the  Vedas,  their  interpre 
tation  of  the  Vedas  would  be  based  on  the  literature  of  a  period  so 
heterogeneous  to  the  time  and  spirit  of  the  Yedas  as  to  give  rise  t.o- 
nothing  but  confusion  and  error. 

To  the  view  of  any  impartial  reader,  who  has  studied  the  investi 
gations  of  Goldstucker  on  this  point,  the  whole  fabric  of  dates  crum 
bles  to  dust,  and  the  whole  system  of  modern  recognized  chronology 
is  easily  upset.  According  to  the  best  [and  they  are,  as  a  matter  of 
fact,  the  worst]  authorities  on  the  subject,  no  writings  of  date  anterior 
to  five  or  six  thousand  years  before  Christ  seem  to  have  existed.  The 
whole  world  seems  to  have  been  circumscribed  within  8,000  years.  The 
whole  region  of  the  intellectual  activity  of  man  seems  to  have  been 
focussed  in  the  6,000  years  before  Christ. 

Irrespective  of  these  views  let  us  come  directly  to  the  subject  of 
the  Vedas.  The  Shatapatha  and  the  Nirukta  are  confessedly  books  of 
much  anterior  date  to  the  commentaries  of  Sayana,  Havana  and  Mahi- 
dhara.  We  should  rather  resort  to  them  and  the  Upanishads  than  to 
the  times  of  Puranas,  of  Havana  and  of  Mahidhara,  for  the  interpre 
tation  of  the  Vedas, 

The  Upanishads  inculcate  monotheism.  Where,  in  the  Upanishada 
or  the  Shatapatha,  do  Indra,  Mitra,  and  Varuna  signify  the  deities 
and  not  the  Deity  ?  The  Nirukta  even  lays  down  explicit  rules  on 
the  terminology  of  the  Vedas  which  are,  as  yet,  quite  unheeded  by  the 
modern  professors. 

The  Niruktakara,  in  the  very  beginning  of  his  book,  forcibly  in 
culcates  that  the  terms  used  in  the  Vedas  are  Yaugika  (possessing" 
derived  meaning)  as  contrasted  with  Rurhis  (terms  having  conven 
tional,  arbitrary  or  concrete  meaning).  We  will,  on  some  future 
occasion,  quote  at  full  length  from  the  Nirukta,  and  render  a  better 
exposition  of  this  doctrine.  Here,  however,  we  have  simply  said  what 
the  main  assertion  of  the  Nirukta  is.  This  assertion  is  supported  by 
the  Mahabhashya  and  other  older  books  on  the  subject,  including 

If  the  main  line  pursued  in  discussing  the  question  of  the  Termi 
nology  of  the  Vedas  be  correct,  the  conclusion  we  have  arrived  at 
leads  to  the  following  inquiry  ; — 

What  is  the  opinion  of  ancient  Vedic  scholars  on  the  subject?  Are 
the  authors  of  the  Nirukta,  the  Nighantu,  the  Mahabhashya,  and  the 
Sangraha,  and  other  old  commentators,  at  one  with  the  modern  com 
mentators,  i  ",,  Ravana,  Sayana,  Mahidhara  and  others,  who  have,  of 


late,  followed  the  same  line ;  or,  are  they  at  variance  with  the  modern 
writers  ?  That,  if  they  differ,  reliance  must  be  placed  upon  old  com 
mentators,  the  preceding  remarks  would  have  made  clear.  Let  us 
then  examine  the  views  of  ancient  writers  on  this  subject. 

Speaking  broadly,  then,  three  classes  of  words  are  used  in  the 
.Sanskrit  language;  the  yaagika,  the  rarhi  and  the  yoga-rurhi  words. 
A  yaagika  word  is  one  that  has  a  derivative  meaning,  that  is,  one 
that  only  signifies  the  meaning  of  its  root  together  with  the  modi 
fications  effected  by  the  affixes.  In  fact,  the  structural  elements,  out 
of  which  the  word  is  compounded,  afford  the  whole  and  the  only  clue 
to  the  true  signification  of  the  word.  These  being  known,  no  other 
element  is  needed  to  complete  its  sense.  Speaking  in  the  language 
of  modern  logic,  the  word  is  all  connotation,  and  by  virtue  of  its 
connotation  determines  also  its  denotation.  A  r&rki  word  is  the 
name  of  a  definite  concrete  object,  or  answers  to  a  definite  concrete 
technical  sense,  not  by  virtue  of  any  of  its  connotations  but  by  virtue 
merely  of  an  arbitrary  principle.  In  the  case  of  a  yaugi/ca  word,  we 
arrive  at  the  name  of  an  object  by  what  may  be  called  the  process  of 
generalisation.  We  see,  taste,  touch,  smell,  and  operate  upon  the 
object  by  the  multifarious  means  man  possesses  of  investigating  pro 
perties  of  sensible  objects ;  we  compare  the  sensible  impressions  it 
yields  with  sensible  impressions  already  retained  in  our  minds  and 
constituting  our  past  knowledge  ;  we  detect  similarities  between  the 
two,  and  thus  get  a  general  or  a  generic  conception.  To  this  generic 
conception  we  give  an  appropriate  name  by  synthetically  arriving 
at  it  from  a  root,  a  primitive  idea  or  ideas.  The  word,  therefore,  thus 
ultimately  formed,  embodies  the  whole  history  of  the  intellectual 
activity  of  man.  In  the  case  of  a  rurhi  word,  the  process  is  far 
different.  We  do  not  generalise.  Nor  is,  therefore,  any  synthesis 
required  there.  We  only  roughly  discriminate  one  object  or  class  of 
objects  from  other  objects,  and  arbitrarily  place  a  phonetic  postmark, 
as  it  were,  upon  it.  An  individual,  to  roughly  discriminate  him  from 
others,  is  arbitrarily  called  John,  another,  Jones ;  so  an  object  is 
arbitrarily  denominated  Khatva,  another  Mala,  and  so  on.  Here, 
we  only  discriminatively  specify  the  object  we  are  naming,  without 
coming  into  general  contact  with  it. 

A  third  class  of  words,  yoga-rurhi,  is  one  in  which  two  words 
are  synthetically  combined  into  a  compound,  denoting  a  third  object 
by  virtue  of  the  combination  of  these  two  words.  Such  words  express 
any  relation,  or  interaction  of  phenomena.  The  Kamala  stands,  for 
instance,  in  the  relation  of  the  born  to  mud,  the  bearer  ;  hence  Icamala 
is  denominated  as  pankaja,  ($anka,  the  mud,  and  ja  signifying  to 

Now  the  author  of  the  Mahabhashya  maintains  that  fcthe  Vedic 
terminology  is  all  yaugika.. 


"  Nartia  cha  dhatujamah  Nirukte  Vyakarane  Shakatasya  chot, 
tokam.  "  Naigama  rurhi  bhavam  hi  susadhu." — Mahabhash  ya, 
Chap,  iii.,  Sect,  iii.,  Aph.  L 

Which  means  : — 

Etymologically  speaking,  there  are  three  classes  of  words,  the 
yaugika,  the  rurhi  and  the  yoga-rurhi.  But  the  authors  of  the 
Niruktas,  Yaska  and  others ;  and  Shakatayana,  among  the  gram 
marians,  believe  all  the  words  to  be  derived  from  dhdtus,  that  is, 
believe  them  to  be  yaugikas  and  yoga-rurhis,  and  Pdnini  and  others 
believe  them  to  be  rurhis  also.  But  all  the  Rishis  and  Munis, 
ancient  authors  and  commentators,  without  exception,  regard  Vedic 
terms  to  be  yaugikas  and  yoga-rurhis  only  ;  and  the  laukika  terms 
to  be  rurhis  also. 

The  above  is  a  clear  and  definite  statement  of  the  Mahabhashya 
to  the  effect  that  the  Vedic  terms  are*  all  yaugikas.  It  is  not  diffi 
cult  to  prove  by  numerous  and  long  quotations  from  Nirukta,  Sang- 
raha  and  other  older  writings,  that  all  of  them  agree  as  to  the 
nature  of  the  Vedic  terms. 

Without  going,  then,  into  the  details  of  this  subject,  it  may 
be  assumed  that  the  Vedic  writers  of  older  epochs  do  not  agree  with 
those  of  modern  times. 

It  is  a  strange  thing  to  find  our  modern  professors  of  Sanskrit, 
well- versed  philologists,  and  professed  antiquarians  so  forcibly  assert 
ing  the  value  of  the  "  Antiquarian  Method/'  and  yet  blundering  at 
the  very  outset  of  this  momentous  question. 

After  the  remarks  we  have  made,  it  is  not  suprising  to  find 
that  our  modern  scholars  should  think  of  finding  mythological  data 
in  the  Vedas,  or,  of  having  come  across  the  facts  of  ruder  bronze  age, 
or  golden  age,  in  that  "  book  of  barbaric  hymns." 








European  Scholars, 

With  us,  the  question  of  the  terminology  of  the  Vedas  is  of 
highest  importance,  for,  upon  its  decision  will  depend  the  verdict  to 
be  passed  by  the  future  world  respecting  the  great  controversy  to 
rage  between  the  East  and  the  West  concerning  the  supremacy  of 
the  Vedic  Philosophy.  And  even  now,  the  determination  of  this 
question  involves  issues  of  great  value.  For,  if  the  Vedic  philosophy 
be  true,  the  interpretations  of  the  Vedas,  as  given  at  present  by  Pro 
fessor  Max  Miiller  and  other  European  scholars,  must  not  only  be 
regarded  as  imperfect,  defective  and  incomplete,  but  as  altogether 
false.  Nay,  in  the  light  of  true  reason  and  sound  scholarship,  we 
are  forced  to  admit  their  entire  ignorance  of  the  very  rudiments  of 
Vedic  language  and  philosophy.  We  are  not  alone  in  the  opinion  we 
hold.  Says  Schopenhauer— 

"  I  add  to  this  the  impression  which  the  translations  of  Sanskrit 
works  by  European  scholars,  with  very  few  exceptions,  produce  on 
my  mind.  I  cannot  resist  a  certain  supspicion  that  our  Sanskrit 
scholars  do  not  understand  their  text  much  better  than  the  higher 
class  of  school  boys  their  Greek  or  Latin." 

It  will  be  well  to  note  here  the  opinion  of  Swami  Dayananda 
Saraswati,  the  most  profound  scholar  of  Sanskrit  of  his  age,  on  the 
subject.  He  says : — "  The  impression  that  the  Germans  are  the 
best  Sanskrit  scholars,  and  that  no  one  has  read  so  much  of  Sanskrit, 
as  Professor  Max  Miiller,  is  altogether  unfounded.  Yes,  in  a  land 
where  lofty  trees  never  grow,  even  ricinu*  rom munis  or  the  castor- 
oil  plant  may  be  called  an  oak.  The  study  of  Sanskrit  being  alto 
gether  out  of  question  in  Europe,  the  Germans  and  Professor  Max 
Miiller  may  there  have  come  to  be  regarded  as  highest  authori 
ties.  ....... 

I  came  to  learn  from  a  letter  of  a  principal  of  some  German  Uni 
versity,  that  even  men  learned  enough  to  interpret  a  Sanskrit  letter 

*  A  paper  of  this  name  was  submitted  to  the  public  by  the  writer  early  in  1888 
but  it  was  necessarily  brief  and  incomplete.  It  has  now  been  thought  advisable  to 
give  to  the  same  thoughts  and  principles  a  new  garb,  more  suited  to  the  requirements 
of  the  reading  public  of  the  present  day,  to  amplify  the  same  truths  by  interesting 
illustrations,  and  to  supplement  them  by  others  that  are  necessary  to  complete  tho 
treatment  of  the  subject. 


are  rare  in  G-ermany.  I  have  also  learnt  from  the  study  of  Max 
Miiller's  '  History  of  Sanskrit  Literature  '  and  his  comments  on  some 
mantras  of  the  Veda,  that  Professor  Max  Muller  has  been  able  only 
to  scribble  out  something  by  the  help  of  the  so-called  tikas,  or  para 
phrases  of  the  Vedas,  current  in  India."* 

It  is  this  want  of  Vedic  scholarship  among  European  scholars, 
this  utter  ignorance  of  Vedic  language  and  philosophy  that  is  the 
cause  of  so  such  misimpression  and  prejudice  even  in  our  own 
country.  We  are,  indeed,  so  often  authoritatively  told  by  our 
fellow-brethren  who  have  received  the  highest  English  education 
but  are  themselves  entirely  ignorant  of  Sanskrit,  that  the  Vedas  are 
books  that  teach  idol- worship  or  element  worship,  they  contain  no 
philosophical,  moral  or  scientific  truths  of  any  great  consequence, 
unless  they  be  the  commonest  truisms  of  the  kitchen,  It  is,  therefore, 
a  matter  of  greatest  concern  to  learn  to  attach  proper  value  to  the 
interpretations  of  these  European  scholars.  We  propose,  therefore, 
to  present  a  rough  outline  of  those  general  principles  according  to 
which  Vedic  terms  should  be  interpreted,  but  which  European  scho 
lars  entirely  ignore  ;  and  hence  much  of  the  misinterpretation  that 
has  grown  up. 

In  the  discussion  of  philosophical  subjects,  pre-conceived  notions 
are  the  worst  enemies  to  encounter.  They  not  only  prejudicially  bias 
the  mind,  but  also  take  away  that  truthfulness  and  honest  integrity 
from  the  soul,  which  alone  are  compatible  with  the  righteous  pursuit 
and  discernment  of  TRUTH.  In  the  treatment  of  a  question,  such 
as  the  estimation  of  the  value  of  a  system  of  philosophy  or  religion, 
extreme  sobriety  and  impartiality  of  the  mind  are  required.  Nor  is 
it  to  be  supposed  that  a  religious  or  philosophical  system  can  be  at 
once  mastered  by  a  mere  acquaintance  with  grammar  and  language. 
It  is  necessary  that  the  mind  should,  by  an  adequate  previous  dis 
cipline,  be  raised  to  an  exalted  mental  condition,  before  the  recondite 
and  invisible  truths  of  Man  and  Nature  can  be  comprehended  by  man. 
So  is  it  with  Vedic  philosophy.  One  must  be  a  complete  master  of  the 
science  of  morals,  the  science  of  poetry,  and  the  sciences  of  geology 
and  astronomy f  ;  he  must  be  well- versed  in  the  philosophy  of  dharnta, 
the  philosophy  of  characteristics,  the  doctrines  of  logic  or  the  science 
of  evidence,  the  philosophy  of  essential  existences,  the  philosophy  of 
yoga,  and  the  philosophy  of  vedanta  J ;  he  must  be  a  master  of  all  these 
and  much  more  before  he  can  lay  claims  to  a  rational  interpretation 
of  the  Vedas. 

*  Sattyarth  Prakasha,  3rd  Edition,  page  278. 

t  These  are  the  well-known  six  Vedangas  :— 1.  Shiksha,  2.  Vyakarana,  3.  Nirukta, 
4.     Kalpa.  5.  Chhanda,  and  6.  Jyotisha. 

t  These    are   the  well-known,   six    Upangas   or   Darshanas :—  1.    Piirva    Mimansa* 
2.     Vaisheshika,  3.  Nyaya,  4.  Sankhya,  5.  Yoga,  and  6.  Vedanta. 


Such,  then,  should  be  our  Vedic  scholars — thorough  adepts  in 
science  and  philosophy,  unprejudiced  and  impartial  judges  and  seekers 
after  truth.  But  if  impartiality  be  supplanted  by  prejudice,  science 
and  philosophy  by  quasi-knowledge  and  superstition,  and  integrity 
by  motive,  whereas  predetermination  takes  the  place  of  honest  inquiry, 
truth  is  either  disguised  or  altogether  suppressed. 

Speaking  of  the  religion  of  the  Upanishads  and  the  Bible,  says 
Schopenhauer,  who  has  'washed  himself  clean  of  all  early-engrafted 
Jewish  superstitions,  and  of  all  philosophy  that  cringes  before  these 
euperstitions': — 

"  In  India,  our  religion  (Bible)  will  now  and  never  strike  root  ; 
the  primitive  wisdom  of  the  human  race  will  never  be  pushed  aside 
by  the  events  of  Galilee.  On  the  contrary,  Indian  wisdom  will  flow 
back  upon  Europe,  and  produce  a  thorough  change  in  our  knowing 
and  thinking." 

Let  us  now  see  what  Professor  Max  Miiller  has  to  say  against 
the  remarks  of  this  unprejudiced,  impartial  philosopher.  He  says  : — 

"  Here  again,  the  great  philosopher  seems  to  me  to  have  allowed 
himself  to  be  carried  away  too  far  by  his  enthusiasm  for  the  less  known. 
He  is  blind  to  the  dark  Bide  of  the  Upanishat  ;  and  he  wilfully  shuts 
his  eyes  against  the  bright  rays  of  eternal  truths  in  the  Gospel,  which 
even  Ram  Mohan  Roy  was  quick  enough  to  perceive,  behind  the  mist 
and  clouds  of  tradition  that  gather  so  quickly  round  the  sunrise  of 
every  religion." 

With  the  view  that  the  Christianity  of  Max  Miiller  may  be  set 
forth  more  clearly  before  the  reader,  we  quote  the  following  from  the 
"  History  of  Ancient  Sanskrit  Literature",  p.  31,  32  : — 

"  But  if  India  has  no  place  in  the  political  history  of  the  world, 
it  certainly  has  a  right  to  claim  its  place  in  the  intellectual  history  of 
mankind.  The  less  the  Indian  nation  has  taken  part  in  the  political 
struggless  of  the  world  and  expended  its  energies  in  the  exploits  of 
war  and  the  formation  of  empire,  the  more  it  has  fitted  itself  and 
concentrated  all  its  powers  for  the  fulfilment  of  the  important  mission 
reserved  to  it  in  the  history  of  the  Bast.  History  seems  to  teach  that 
the  whole  human  race  required  a  gradual  education,  before  in  the 
fulness  of  time,  it  could  be  admitted  to  the  truths  of  Christianity.  All 
the  fallacies  of  human  reason  had  to  be  exhausted,  before  the  light 
of  a  higher  truth  could  meet  with  ready  acceptance.  The  ancient 
religions  of  the  world  were  but  the  milk  of  nature,  which  was  in  due 
time  to  be  succeeded  by  the  bread  of  life.  After  the  primeval 
physiolatry  which  was  common  to  all  members  of  the  Aryan  family, 
had,  in  the  hands  of  a  wily  priesthood,  been  changed  into  an  empty 
idolatry,  the  Indians  alone,  of  all  the  Aryan  nations,  produced  a  new 


form  of  religion,  which  has  well  been  called  subjective,  as  opposed  to 
the  more  objective  worship  of  Nature.  That  religion,  the  religion  of 
Buddha,  has  spread  far  beyond  the  limits  of  the  Aryan  world,  and,  to 
our  limited  vision,  it  may  seem  to  have  retarded  the  advent  of 
Christianity  among  a  large  portion  of  the  human  race.  But,  in  the 
sight  ot  Him  with  whom  a  thousand  years  are  but  as  one  day,  that 
religion,  like  all  the  ancient  religions  of  the  world,  may  have  but 
served  to  prepare  the  way  of  Christ  by  helping  through  its  very  errors, 
to  strengthen  and  to  deepen  the  ineradicable  yearning  of  the  human 
heart  after  the  truths  of  God." 

Is  not  this  Christian  prejudice?  Nor  is  this  with  Max  Miiller 
alone.  Even  more  strongly  does  this  remark  hold  good  of  Monier 
Williams,  whose  very  object  in  writing  the  book  known  as  "Indian 
Wisdom"  is  to  caricature  the  Vedic  religion,  which  he  calls  by  the 
name  of  "  Brahmanism,"  and  to  hoiai  up  Christianity  by  the  meritorious 
process  of  deliberate  contrasts.  Writes  Monier  Williams: — 

(f  It  is  one  of  the  aims,  then,  of  the  following  pages  to  indicate 
the  points  of  contrast  between  Christianty  and  the  three  chief  false 
religions  of  the  world,  as  they  are  thus  represented  in  India," 
(Monier  Williams'  Indian  Wisdom,  Introduction,  p.  XXXVI, 

Speaking  of  Christianity  and  its  claims  '  as  supernaturally  com 
municated  by  the  common  Father  of  mankind  for  the  good  of  all 
His  creatures/  he  says  : — 

"  Christianity  asserts  that  it  effects  its  aim  through  nothing 
short  of  an  entire  change  of  the  whole  man,  and  a  complete  renovation 
of  his  nature.  The  means  by  which  this  renovation  is  effected 
may  be  described  as  a  kind  of  mutual  transfer  or  substitution,  leadr 
ing  to  a  reciprocal  interchange  and  co-operation  between  God  and 
man's  nature  acting  upon  each  other.  Man — the  Bible  affirms— was 
created  in  the  image  of  God,  but  his  nature  became  corrupt  through 
a  taint,  derived  from  the  fall  of  the  first  representative  man  and 
parent  of  the  human  race,  which  taint  could  only  be  removed  by  a 
vicarious  death." 

"  Hence,  the  second  representative  man — Christ — whose  nature 
was  divine  and  taintless,  voluntarily  underwent  a  sinner's  death, 
that  the  taint  of  the  old  corrupted  nature  transferred  to  him  might 
die  also.  But  this  is  not  all.  The  great  central  truth  of  our  religion 
lies  not  so  much  in  the  fact  of  Christ's  death  as  in  the  fact  of  His 
continued  life.  (Rom.  viii.  34),  The  first  fact  is  that  He  of  Hig 
own  free-will  died ;  but  the  second  and  more  important  fact  is  that 
He  rose  again  and  lives  eternally,  that  He  may  bestow  life  for  death 
and  a  participation  in  His  own  divine  nature  in  place  of  the  taint 
He  has  removed." 


"  This,  then,  is  the  reciprocal  exchange  which  marks  Christianity 
and  distinguishes  it  from  all  other  religions— an  exchange  between 
the  personal  man  descended  from  a  corrupt  parent,  and  the  per 
sonal  God-made  man  and  becoming  our  second  parent.  We  are 
separated  from  a  rotten  root,  and  are  grafted  into  a  living  one.  We 
part  with  the  corrupt  will,  depraved  moral  sense,  and  perverted 
judgment  inherited  from  the  first  Adam,  and  draw  re-creative  force 
— renovated  wills,  fresh  springs  of  wisdom,  righteousness,  and 
knowledge — from  the  ever-living  divine  stem  of  the  second  Adam, 
to  which,  by  a  simple  act  of  faith,  we  are  united.  In  this  manner 
is  the  grand  object  of  Christianity  effected.  Other  religions  have 
their  doctrines  and  precepts  of  morality,  which,  if  carefully  detached 
from  much  that  is  bad  and  worthless,  may  even  vie  with  those  of 
Chirstianity.  -But  Christianity  has,  besides  all  these,  what  other 
religions  have  not — a  personal  God,  ever  living  to  supply  the  free  grace 
or  regenerating  spirit  by  which  human  nature  is  re-created  and  again 
made  God-like,  and  through  which  man,  becoming  once  again  '  pure  in 
heart/  and  still  preserving  his  own  will,  self-consciousness  and  per 
sonality,  is  fitted  to  have  access  to  God  the  Father,  and  dwell  in  His 
presence  for  ever."  (Monier  Williams'  Indian  Wisdom,  Introduction 
P.  XL— XLL) 

Again,  speaking  of  "  Brahmanism,"  he  says  : —  . 

"  3.  As  to  Brahmanism,  we  must  in  fairness  allow  that,  according 
to  its  more  fully  developed  system,  the  aim  of  union  with  God  is  held 
to  be  effected  by  faith  in  an  apparently  personal  God,  as  well  as 
by  works  and  by  knowledge.  And  here  some  of  the  lines  of  Brah- 
manical  thought  seem  to  intersect  those  of  Christianity.  But  the 
apparent  personality  of  the  various  Hindu  gods  melts  away,  on  closer 
scrutiny,  into  a  vague  spiritual  essence.  It  is  true  that  God  becomes 
man  and  interposes  for  the  good  of  men,  causing  a  seeming  combina 
tion  of  the  human  and  divine — and  an  apparent  interchange  of  action 
and  even  loving  sympathy  between  the  Creator  and  His  creatures.  But 
can  there  be  any  real  interaction  or  co-operation  between  divine  and 
human  personalities  when  all  personal  manifestations  of  the  Supreme 
Being — gods  as  well  as  men — ultimately  merge  in  the  Oneness  of  the 
Infinite,  and  nothing  remains  permanently  distinct  from  Him  ?  It 
must  be  admitted  that  most  remarkable  language  is  used  of  Krishna 
(Vishnu),  a  supposed  form  of  the  Supreme,  as  the  source  of  all  life 
and  energy  (see  pp.  144 — 148  and  see  also  pp.  456,  457) ;  but,  if 
identified  with  the  One  God,  he  can  only,  according  to  the  Hindu 
theory,  be  the  source  of  life  in  the  sense  of  giving  out  life  to  re^ 
absorb  it  into  himself.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  he  is  held  to  be  only 
an  incarnation  or  manifestation  of  the  Supreme  Being  in  human  form, 
then,  by  a  cardinal  dogma  of  Brahmanism,  so  far  from  being  a 
channel  of  life,  his  own  life  must  be  derived  from  a  higher  source 
into  which  it  must  finally  be  merged,  while  his  claim  to  divinity 


can  only  be  due  to  his  possessing  less  of  individuality,  as  distinct 
from  God,  than  inferior  creatures."  (Monier  Williams'  Indian  Wis 
dom,  Introduction,  P.  XLIY— XLV.) 

And  lastly,  in  conclusion,  he  says : — 

<e  It  is  refreshing  to  turn  from  such  unsatisfying  systems,  how 
ever  interspersed  with  wise  and  even  sublime  sentiments,  to  th« 
living  energizing  Christianity  of  European  nations,  however  lament 
ably  fallen  from  its  true  standard,  or  however  disgraced  by  the 
inconsistencies  and  shortcomings  of  nominal  adherents — possessors 
of  its  name  and  form  without  its  power." 

"  In  conclusion,  let  me  note  one  other  point  which  of  itself  stamps 
our  religion  as  the  only  system  adapted  to  the  requirements  of  the 
whole  human  race — the  only  message  of  salvation  intended  by  God 
to  be  gradually  pressed  upon  the  acceptance  of  all  His  intelligent 
creatures."  (Monier  Williams'  Indian  Wisdom,  Introduction,  p.  XLV.) 

It  is  clear,  then,  that  Professor  Monier  Williams  is  labouring 
under  hard  Christian  prejudices,  and  cannot  be  viewed  in  any  way 
as  an  unprejudiced,  impartial  student  of  the  Vedas.  No  wonder,  then, 
if  modern  sophisticated  philology,  propped  by  the  entire  ignorance  of 
the  laws  of  interpretations  of  Vedic  terms,  and  fed  by  the  prejudices  of 
Christian  superstitions,  should  raise  its  head  against  Vedlc  philosophy, 
and  gain  audience  among  European  Christian  nations  or  deluded 
educatad  natives  of  India  who  possess  the  high  merit  of  being  innocent 
of  any  knowledge  of  Sanskrit  language  or  literature. 

But  now  to  the  subject.  The  first  canon  for  the  interpretation 
of  Vedic  terms,  which  is  laid  down  by  Yaska,  the  outhor  of  Nirukta, 
is  that  the  Vedic  terms  are  all  yaugika*  The  fourth  section  of 
the  first  chapter  of  Nirukta  opens  with  a  discussion  of  this  very 
subject,  in  which  Yaska,  Gargya,  Shakatayana  and  all  other  Gram 
marians  and  Etymologists  unanimously  maintain  that  Vedic  terms  are 
all  yaugika.  But  Yaska  and  Shakatayana  also  maintain  that  rurhi-f 
terms  are  also  yaugika  inasmuch  as  they  were  originally  framed  from 
the  roots  :  whereas  Gargya  maintains  that  only  the  rurhi  terms  are 
not  yaugika.  The  section  concludes  with  a  refutation  of  the  opinion 
of  Gargya,  establishing  it  as  true  that  all  terms,  whether  Vedic 

*  A  yaugika  term  is  one  that  has  a  derivative  meaning,  that  is,  one  that  only 
signifies  the  meaning  of  its  root  together  with  the  modifications  effected  by  the  affixes. 
In  fact,  the  structural  elements,  out  of  which  the  word  is  compounded,  afford  the 
whole  and  the  only  clue  to  the  true  signification  of  the  word.  The  word  is  purely 

t  A  rurhi  term  is  the  name  of  a  definite  concrete  object,  where  the  connotation 
of  the  word  (as  structurally  determined)  gives  no  clue  to  the  object  denotad  by  the 
word,  Hence,  it  means  a  word  of  arbitrary  significance. 


or  rurhi,  are  yaugika.  It  is  on  this  authority  of  Nirukta  that 
Patanjali  expresses,  in  his  Mahabhashya,  the  same  opinion,  and  dis 
tinguishes  the  Vedic  terms  from  rurhi  terms  by  the  designation  of 

naigvma.  Says  Patanjali,— ''5^  ^Tl^TJUW  f^f^W  c^n^T^  ST^iZTO 
?<Tta?*T/'  and  a  line  before  this, — ?f^  ^f%V[4  f%  ^T^H*  "  Chap.  Ill- 
Sect,  iii.  Aph.  T. 

The  sense  of  all  this  is,  that  all  the  Rishis  and  Munis,  ancient 
authors  and  commentators  without  exception,  regard  all  Vedic  terms 
to  be  yaugika,  whereas  some  laukika  terms  are  regarded  by  some  as 
rarhi  also. 

This  principle,  the  European  scholars  have  entirely  ignored;  and 
hence  have  flooded  their  interpretations  of  the  Vedas  with  forged  or 
borrowed  tales  of  mythology,  with  stories  and  anecdotes  of  historic 
or  pre-historic  personages.  Thus,  according  to  Dr.  Muir/the  following 
historical  personages  are  mentioned  in  the  Rig  Veda,  viz.— the  Rishis 
Kanvas,  in  1.  47.  2  ;  Gotamas,  in  i.  71.  16.;  Gritsamadas,  in  ii.  39.  8; 
Bhrigavas,  in  iv.  16.  23;  and  Vrihaduktha,  in  x.  54.  6.  But  what  is  the 
truth  !  The  words  Kanva  and  Gritsa  only  signify  learned  men  in  gene 
ral  (see  Nighantu  iii.  13)  ;  the  word  Bhrigavah  only  signifies  men  of 
intellect  (see  Nighantu,  v.  5).  The  word  Gotama  signifies  one  who 
praises;  and  Vrihaduktha  is  simply  one  whose  ukthas,  or  knowledge  of 
natural  properties  of  objects,  is  vrihat  or  complete.  It  is  clear,  then, 
that  if  this  principle  is  once  ignored,  one  is  easily  landed  into  anecdotes 
of  historical  or  pre-historic  personages.  The  same  might  be  said  of 
Max  Muller  discovering  the  story  of  Shunah-shepa  in  the  Rig  Veda. 

Shepa,  which  means  "  contact/'  (Nirukta   iii,  2.  — 

being  suffixed  to   sj^;  °r   5[^«T,   which     means      knowledge, 

^ra^Tt  ^fefiWH:  raT?T  ),  means  one  who  has  come  into 
contact  with  knowledge,  i.  e.,  a  learned  person.  It  shall  appear,  in 
the  progress  of  this  article,  how  mantra  after  mantra  is  misinterpret 
ed  by  simply  falsifying  this  law  of  Nir 

To  an  unprejudiced  mind,  the  correctness  of  this  law  will  never 
be  doubtful.  For,  independently  of  the  authority  of  Nirukta,  the 
very  antiquity  of  the  Vedas  is  a  clear  proof  of  its  words  being  yaugika. 
And  even  Professor  Max  Muller,  in  his  mythological  moods,  is  com 
pelled  to  confess,  at  least  concerning  certain  portions  of  the  Vedas, 
that  their  words  are  yaugika.  Says  he  :  — 

"  But  there  is  a  charm  in  these  primitive  strains  discoverable  in 
no  other  class  of  poetry.  Every  word  retains  something  of  its  radical 
meaning  ;  every  epithet  tells  ;  every  thought,  in  spite  of  the  most 

Muir's  Sanskrit  Texts,  Vol.  Ill,   pp.   232-234, 


intricate  and  abrupt  expressions,  is,  if  we  once  disentangle  it,  true, 
correct,  and  complete."  (Max  Muller's  History  of  Ancient  Sanskrit 
Literature,  Page  553.) 

Further  again,  says  Max  Miiller  : — 

"Names.  .  .  are  to  be  found  in  the  Yedas,  as  it  were,  in  a  still  fluid 
state.  They  never  appear  as  appellatives,  nor  yet  as  proper  names;  they 
are  organic,  not  yet  broken  or  smoothed  down."  (Ibid  p.  755.) 

Can  there  be  any  thing  clearer  than  this?  The  terms  occurring  in 
the  Vedas  are  yaugi/ca,  because  "  they  never  appear  as  appellatives, 
nor  yet  as  proper  names,"  and  because  "every  word  retains  something 
of  its  radical  meaning."  It  is  strange  to  find  that  the  self-same  Max 
Muller,  who  has  perceived  the  yaugika  character  of  words  in  some 
mantras  of  the  Vedas,  should  deny  the  same  characteristic  in  other 
portions  of  the  Vedas.  Having  said  that  words  are  yaugika  in  these 
"primitive  strains  "  the  Vedas,  he  proceeds  to  say: — 

"  But  this  is  not  the  case  with  all  the  poems  of  the  Vedas.  It  would 
be  tedious  to  translate  many  specimens  of  what  I  consider  the  poetry 
of  the  secondary  age,  the  Mantra  period.  These  songs  are  generally 
intended  for  sacrificial  purposes,  they  are  loaded  with  technicalities, 
their  imagery  is  sometimes  more  brilliant,  but  always  less  perspicuous, 
and  many  thoughts  and  expressions  are  clearly  borrowed  from  earlier 
hymns."  (Ibid,  p.  558.) 

This  he  calls  the  Mantra  period.  The  "primitive  strains"  belong  to 
what  is  called  the  Chhandas  period.  He  describes  the  characteristics 
of  the  Chhandas  period,  as  distinguished  from  the  Mantra  period  that 
has  been  above  described,  thus  :  "There  is  no  very  deep  wisdom 
in  their  teaching,  their  laws  are  simple,  their  poetry  shows  no  very 
high  flights  of  fancy,  and  their  religion  might  be  told  in  a  few 
words.  But  whatever  there  is  of  their  language,  poetry  and  religion, 
has  a  charm  which  no  other  period  of  Indian  literature  possesses  ; 
it  is  spontaneous,  original  and  truthful."  (Ibid,  p.  526.) 

Professor  Max  Muller  quotes  Big  Veda,  VII.  77,  as  a  specimen 
hymn  of  the  Chhandas  period.  Says  he: — 

"  This  hymn,  addressed  to  Dawn,  is  a  fair  specimen  of  the  original 
simple  poetry  of  the  Veda.  It  has  no  reference  to  any  special  sacrifice, 
it  contains  no  technical  expressions,  it  can  hardly  be  called  a  hymn, 
in  our  sense  of  the  word.  It  is  simply  a  poem,  expressing  without 
any  effort,  without  any  display  of  far-fetched  thought  or  brilliant 
imagery,  the  feelings  of  a  man  who  has  watched  the  approach  of  the 
dawn  with  mingled  delight  and  awe,  and  who  was  moved  to  give 
utterance  to  what  he  felt  in  measured  language."  (Ibid,  p.  552.) 

From  these  quotation  it  will  be  clear  that  Professor  Max  Muller 
regards  different  portions  of  the  Vedas  belonging  to  different  periods. 
There  are  some  earlier  portions,  (according  -to  Max  Muller's  highly 
accurate  calculations,  the  very  exactness  and  infallibility  of  which  Gold- 


stucker  bears  ample  testimony  to)  which  he  calls  as  belonging  to  tho 
Ckkandas  period.  The  word  Ckkandas,  in  lauki/ca  Sanskrit,  means 
spontaneity.  Hence  he  regards  Chhandas  period  to  be  the  one  the 
hymns  of  which  period  only  teach  common  things,  are  free  from  the 
flight  of  fancy  and  are  the  spontaneous  utterances  of  a  simple  (foolish) 
mind.  The  Mantra  period  (2,900  years  older)  is  full  of  technicalities 
and  descriptions  of  elaborate  ceremonies.  Now  we  ask  what  proof  has 
Max  Muller  given  to  show  that  the  different  portions  of  the  Vedas 
belong  to  different  periods.  His  proofs  are  only  two.  Firstly,  the  ill- 
conceived,  confused  idea  of  the  difference  between  Ckkandas  and 
Mantra-,  and  secondly,  the  different  phases  of  thought  represented  by 
the  two  portions. 

We  will    consider  each  of   these    reasons  in  detail. 
Says   Yaska — 

II  ft^ooi^ll  It  means  that  there  is  no 
difference  in  the  meaning  of  mantra  and  Chhandas.  The 
Veda  is  called  the  Mantra,  as  through  it  one  learns  the  true 
knowledge  of  all  existences.  The  Veda  is  also  called  the  Chhandas 
as  it  removes  all  ignorance,  and  brings  one  under  the  protection  of 
true  knowledge  and  happiness.  Or,  more  explicitly  still,  we  read  in 


"The  mantras  are  called  Chhandas,  or  a'  knowledge  of 
all  human  conduct  is  bound  up  with  them.  It  is  through  them  that  we 
learn  all  righteous  conduct."  The  yaugika  sense  of  the  words  will  also 
lead  to  the  same  conclusion.  Mantra  may  be  derived  from  the  root 
man,  to  think,  or  matri,  to  reveal  the  secret  knowledge.  Panini  thus 
derives  the  word  chhandas  :  ^F^H^*^?:  *  Chhandas  is  derived  from 

the  root  chadi  to  delight  or  illumine.  Ckhandas  is  that,  the  know 
ledge  of  which  produces  all  delight,  or  which  illumines  every  thing, 
i.e.,  reveals  its  true  nature. 

The  second  reason  of  Max  Muller,  for  assigning  different  periods 
to  different  portions  of  the  Vedas,  is  that  there  are  two  different 
phases  of  thought  discoverable  in  the  Vedas.  The  one  is  the  truth 
ful  and  simple  phase  of  thought  which  corresponds  to  his  chhandas 
period.  The  other  is  the  elaborate  and  technical  phase  of  thought 
that  corresponds  to  his  mantra  period.  But  what  proof  has  Max 
Muller  to  show  that  the  hymns  of  his  secondary  period  are  full  of 
elaborate  and  technical  thought  ?  Evidently  this,  that  he  interprets 
them  thus.  If  his  interpretations  were  proved  to  be  wrong,  his  dis 
tinction  of  the  two  periods-  will  also  fall  to  the  ground.  Now,  why 
does  he  interpret  the  hymns  of  the  mantra  period  thus  ?  Evidently 

*  LJuadi  Kosha,  iv.  219, 


because,  on  the  authority  of  Sayana  and  Mahidhara,  he  takes  the 
words  of  those  hymns  to  signify  technicalities,  sacrifices,  and  arti-* 
ficial  objects  and  ceremonies,  or,  in  other  words,  he  takes  these 
words  not  in  their  yaugika,  but  in  their  rurhi  sense.  It  is  clear;, 
then,  that  if  Max  Miiller  had  kept  in  view  the  canon  of  interpreta 
tion  given  in  Nirukta,  that  all  Vedic  words  are  yaugilca,  he  would 
not  have  fallen  into  the  f allacious  anachronism  of  assigning  different 
periods  to  different  parts  of  the  Vedas. 

But  there  is  another  prejudice  which  is  cherished  by  many 
scholars  evidently  under  the  impression  of  its  being  a  well-recog 
nised  scientific  doctrine.  It  is,  that  in  the  ruder  stages  of  civiliza 
tion,  when  laws  of  nature  are  little  known  and  but  very  little  under 
stood,  when  mankind  has  not  enough  of  the  experience  of  the  world, 
strict  methods  of  correct  reasoning  are  very  seldom  observed.  On 
the  other  hand,  analogy  plays  a  most  important  part  in  the  per 
formance  of  intellectual  functions  of  man.  The  slightest  semblance 
or  visage  of  semblance  is  enough  to  justify  the  exercise  of  analogy. 
The  most  palpable  of  the  forces  of  nature  impress  the  human  mind  in 
such  a  period  of  rude  beginnings  of  human  experience,  by  motions  main 
ly .  The  wind  blowing,  the  fire  burning,  a  stone  falling,  or  a  fruit  dropp 
ing,  affects  the  senses  essentially  as  moving.  Now,  throughout  the  range 
of  conscious  exertion  of  muscular  power,  will  precedes  motion,  and 
since  even  the  most  grotesque  experience  of  a  savage  in  this  world 
assumes  this  knowledge,  it  is  no  great  stretch  of  intellectual  power 
to  argue  that  these  natural  forces  also,  to  which  the  sensible  mo^ 
tions  are  due,  are  endowed  with  the  faculty  of  will.  The  personifica 
tion  of  the  forces  of  nature  being  thus  effected,  their  deification 
soon  follows.  The  overwhelming  potency,  the  unobstructible  might, 
and  often  the  violence,  with  which,  in  the  sight  of  a  savage,  these 
forces  operate,  strike  him  with  terror,  awe  and  reverence.  A  sense 
of  his  own  weakness,  humility  and  inferiority  creeps  over  the 
savage  mind,  and,  what  was  intellectually  personified,  becomes  emo-* 
tionally  deified.  According  to  this  view,  the  Vedas,  undoubtedly 
books  of  primitive  times,  consist  of  prayers  from  such  an  emotional 
character  addressed  to  the  forces  of  nature  including  wind  and  rain — 
prayers  breathing  passions  of  the  savage  for  vengeance  or  for  pro 
pitiation,  or,  in  moments  of  poetic  exaltation,  hymns  simply  port 
raying  the  simple  phenomena  of  nature  in  the  personified  language 
of  mythclogy. 

It  iff  therefore,  more  agreeable  for  these  scholars  to  believe  that 
the  Vedas,  no  doubt  books  of  primitive  times,  are  records  of  the 
mythological  lore  of  the  ancient  Aryans. 

And   since,    even   according  to   the    confessions  of  Max   Muller, 
higher  truths  ot  philosophy  and  monotheism  are  to  be  found  here  and 
there  in   the    Vedas,  it    has    become    difficult  to   reconcile  the     my 
thological  interpretations   of  the  main   part   of  the   Vedas  with   tho 
philosophical  portions.     Says  Max   Muller  ; — 


"  I  add  only  one  more  hymn  [Rig.  x,  121  ]  in  which  the  idea  of  one 
God  is  expressed  with  such  power  and  decision  that  it  will  make  us 
hesitate  before  we  deny  to  the  Aryan  nations  an  instinctive  monothe 
ism."  (Max  Mullens  History  of  Ancient  Sanskrit  Literature,  p.  568). 

It  is,  therefore,  argued  by  some  that  the  mythological  portions 
are  earlier  than  philosophical  ones ;  for,  the  primitive  faith,  as  al 
ready  indicated,  is  always  mythology, 

The  fundamental  error  of  this  supposition  lies  in  regarding  a 
contingent  conclusion  as  a  necessary  one  ;  for,  although  mythology 
may  be  the  result  of  barbarous  intellect  and  analogical  reasoning,  it 
is  not  necessarily  always  so.  It  may  even  grow  up  as  a  degenerate, 
deformed  and  petrified  remnant  of  a  purer  and  truer  religion.  The 
history  of  religious  practices,  primarily  designed  to  meet  certain  real 
wants,  degenerating,  after  a  lapse  of  time,  on  the  cessation  of  those 
wants,  into.mere  ceremonies  and  customs,  is  an  ample  testimony  of 
the  truth  of  the  above  remarks.  Had  the  European  scholars  never 
come  across  the  mythological  commentaries  of  Sayana  and  Mahi- 
cihara,  or  the  puranic  literature  of  post-Vedic  (nay  anti-Vedic)  period, 
it  would  have  been  impossible  for  them,  from  the  mere  grounds  of 
comparative  mythology  or  Sanskrit  philology,  to  alight  on  such  inr 
terpretations  of  the  Yedas  as  are  at  present  current  among  them, 
May  it  not  be,  that  the  whole  mythological  fabric  of  the  puranas, 
later  as  they  are,  was  raised  long  after  the  vitality  of  true  Yedic 
philosophy  had  departed  from  their  words  in  the  sight  of  the  ignorant 
pedants?  Indeed,  when  one  considers  that  the  Upanishads  inculcate 
tliat  philosophical  monotheism,  the  parallel  of  which  does  not  exist 
in  the  world — a  monotheism  that  can  only  be  conceived  after  a  full 
conviction  in  the  uniformity  of  nature, — and  that  they,  together 
with  the  philosophical  darshanas,  all  preceded  the  puranas  ;  when 
one  considers  all  this,  he  can  hardly  resist  the  conclusion  that,  at 
least  in  India,  mythology  rose  as  a  rotten  remnant  of  the  old  philo 
sophical  living  religion  of  the  Yedas.  When,  through  the  ignorance 
of  men,  the  yaugika  meanings  of  the  Yedic  words  were  forgotten, 
and  proper  names  interpreted  instead,  there  grew  up  a  morbid  my 
thology,  the  curse  of  modern  idolatrous  India.  That  mythology  may 
thus  arise  on  account  of  the  decay  of  the  primitive  meaning  of  old 
words,  even  Professor  Max  Miiller  admits,  when  speaking  of  tKo 
degeneration  of  truth  into  mythology  by  a  process,  he  styles  'dialec 
tic  growth  and  decay,  or  dialectic  life  of  religion.  He  says  : — 

"  It  is  well  known  that  ancient  languages  are  particularly  rich 
in  synonyms,  or,  to  speak  more  correctly,  that  in  them  the  same 
object  is  called  by  many  names — is,  in  fact,  polynymous.  While  in 
modern  languages  most  objects  have  one  name  only,  we  find  in 
ancient  Sanskrit,  in  ancient.  Greek  and  Arabic,  a  large  choice  of 
words  for  the  same  object.  This  is  perfectly  natural.  Each  name 
could  express  one  side  only  of  whatever  had  to  be  named,  and  not 
satisfied  with  one  partial  name,  the  early  framers  of  language  pro- 


duced  one  name  after  the  other,  and  after  a  time  retained  those 
which  seemed  most  useful  for  special  purposes.  Thus  the  sky- 
might  be  called  not  only  the  brilliant,  but  the  dark,  the  covering, 
the  thundering,  the  rain-giving.  This  is  the  polynomy  in  langu 
age,  and  it  is  what  we  are  accustomed  to  call  polytheism  in  religion, 
(pp.  276,  277,  Max  Muller's  History  of  Ancient  Sanskrit  Literature.) 
Even,  in  the  face  of  these  facts,  European  scholars  are  so 
very  reluctant  to  leave  their  pre-conceived  notions  that,  as  an  ex 
ample  of  the  same  influence,  Fredrick  Pincott  writes  to  me  from 
England  : 

"  You  are  right  in  saying  that  the  commentators,  now  so  much 
admired,  had  very  little,  if  any,  better  means  of  knowledge  on  Vedic 
Terminology  than  we  have  at  present.  And  you  are  certainly 
right  in  treating  the  Puranas  as  very  modern  productions ;  but  you 
are  wrong  in  deducing  India's  mythological  notions  from  such  recent 
works.  The  Big  Veda  itself,  undented ly  the  oldest  book  which 
India  possesses,  abounds  in  mythological  matter." 

Does  "  you  are  certainly  right,"  and  "  you  are  wrong  "  amount 
to  any  proof  of  the  Vedas  abounding  in  mythology  ?  But  further  he 
says  : — 

"  After  the  great  shock  which  the  spread  of  Buddhism  gave 
to  the  old  Indian  form  of  faith,  the  Brahmans  began  to  make  their 
faith  seriously  philosophical  in  the  Darshanas.  Of  course,  many 
bold  philosophical  speculations  are  found  in  the  Upanishads,  and 
even  in  the  Sanfiitas  •  but  it  was  at  the  time  of  the  Darshanas  that 
the  religion  was  placed  on  a  really  philosophical  basis." 

Nothing  shows  so  great  a  disrespect  towards  the  history  of  an 
other  nation  as  the  above.  One  is,  indeed,  wonder-struck  at  the  way 
in  which  European  scholars  mistrust  Indian  chronology,  and  force 
their  hypothetical  guess-work  and  conjecture  before  the  world  as  a 
sound  historical  statement  of  facts.  Who,  that  has  impartially  studied 
the  Darshana  literature,  does  not  know  that  the  darshanas  existed 
centuries  before  even  the  first  word  of  Buddhism  was  uttered  in 
India?  Jaimini,  Vyasa  and  Patanjali  had  gone  by,  Gautama, 
Kanada  and  Kapila  were  buried  in  the  folds  of  oblivion  when  Budd 
hism  sprang  up  in  the  darkness  of  ignorance.  Even  the  great 
Shankara,  who  waged  a  manly  war  against  Buddhism  or  Jainism, 
preached  nearly  2,200  years  ago.  Now  this  Shankara  is  a  com 
mentator  on  Vyasa  Sutras,  and  was  preceded  by  Gaudapada  and 
other  Acharyas  in  his  work.  Genarations  upon  generations  had  passed 
away  after  the  time  of  Vyasa  when  Shankara  was  born.  Further, 
there  is  no  event  so  certain  in  Indian  History  as  Mahabharata, 
which  took  place  about  4,900  years  ago.  The  darshanas,  therefore, 
existed  at  least  4,900  years  ago.  There  'is  a  strong  objection  against 
the  admission  of  these  facts  by  European  scholars,  and  that  ob 
jection  is  the  Bible.  For,  if  these  dates  be  true,  what  will  be 


come  of  the  account  of  creation  as  given  in  the  Bible  ?  It  seems, 
besides,  that  European  scholars,  on  the  whole,  are  unfit  to  com 
prehend  that  there  could  be  any  disinterested  literature  in  the  past. 
It  is  easier  for  them  to  comprehend  that  political  or  religious  revo 
lutions  or  controversies  should  give  rise  to  new  literature  through 
necessity.  Hence  the  explanation  of  Mr.  Pincott  :  — 

"  The  old  Brahmans  were  superstitious,  dogmatic  believers  in 
the  revelation  of  the  Vedas.  When  Buddhism  spread  like  wild  fire, 
they  thought  of  shielding  their  religion  by  mighty  arguments  and 
hence  produced  the  darshana  literature." 

This  assumption  so  charmingly  connects  heterogenous  events 
together  that,  although  historically  false,  it  is  worth  being  believed  in 
for  the  sake  of  its  ingenious  explanatory  power. 

To  return  to  the  subject.  Yaska  lays  down  a  canon  for  the 
interpretation  of  Vedic  terms.  It  is  that  the  Vedic  terms  are 
yaugika.  Mahabhashya  repeats  the  same.  We  have  seen  how  this 
law  is  set  aside  and  ignored  by  the  European  scholars  in  the  inter 
pretations  of  the  Vedas,  whence  have  arisen  serious  mistakes  in  their 
translations  of  the  Vedas.  We  have  also  seen  how  Dr.  Muir,  falling 
in  the  same  mistake,  interprets  general  terms  as  proper  nouns  ;  and 
how  Max  Muller  also,  led  by  the  same  error,  wrongly  divides  the 
Vedas  into  two  parts,  the  Chhandas  and  Mantras.  We  have  also 
seen  how,  due  to  the  ignorance  of  the  same  law,  Mantras  upon 
Mantras  have  been  interpreted  as  mythological  in  meaning,  whereaa 
some  few  Mantras  could  only  be  interpreted  philosophically,  thus 
giving  rise  to  the  question  of  reconciling  philosophy  with  mythology. 
To  further  illustrate  the  importance  of  the  proposition,  that  all  Vedio 
terms  are  yaugika,  I  herewith  subjoin  the  true  translation  of  the 
4th  Mantra  of  the  50th  Sukta  of  Rig  Veda  with  my  comments 
thereon,  and  the  translation  of  the  same  by  Monier  Williams  for 
comparison.  Surya,  as  a  yaugika  word,  means  both  the  sun  and  the 
Divinity.  Monier  Williams  take^  it  to  represent  the  sun  only.  Other 
terms  will  become  explicit  in  the  course  of  exposition.  The  Mantra 
runs  as  follows  :  — 

i       nRwir  T^r  n 

The  subject  is  the  gorgeous  wonders  of  the  solar  and  the  electric 
worlds.  A  grand  problem  is  here  propounded  in  this  Mantra.  Who 
is  there  that  is  not  struck  with  the  multiplicity  of  objects  and 
appearances  ?  Who  that  has  not  lost  thought  itself  in  contemplation 
of  the  infinite  varieties  that  inhabit  even  our  own  planet  ?  Even 
the  varieties  of  plant  life  have  not  yet  been  counted.  The  num 
ber  of  animal  and  plant  species  together  with  the  vast  number  of 
mineral  compounds  may  truly  be  called  infinite.  But  why  confine 
ourselves  to  this  earth  alone.  Who  has  counted  the  host  of  heavens 
and  the  infinity  of  stars;  the  innumerable  number  of  worlds  yet 


made  and  still  remaining  to  be  made  ?  What  mortal  eye  can  mea 
sure  and  scan  the  depths  of  space  ?  Light  travels  at  the  rate  of 
18,0000  miles  per  second.  There  are  stars  from  which  rays  of 
light  have  started  on  their  journey  ever  since  the  day  of  creation, 
hundreds  of  millions  of  years  ago,  the  rays  have  sped  on 
and  on  with  the  unearthly  velocity  of  180,000  miles  per  second 
through  space,  and  have  only  now  penetrated  into  the  atmosphere  of 
our  earth.  Imagine  the  infinite  depth  of  space  with  which  we  are  on 
all  sides  surrounded.  Are  we  not  struck  with  variety  and 
diversity  in  every  direction  ?  Is  not  differentiation  the 
universal  formula?  Whence  have  these  manifold  and  different 
objects  of  the  universe  proceeded?  How  is  it  that  the  same 
Universal-Father- Spirit, permeating  in  all  and  acting  on  all,  produced 
these  heterogenous  items  of  the  universe  ?  Where  lies  the  cause  of 
difference  ?  A  difference  so  striking  and  at  once  so  beautiful ! 
How  can  the  same  God  acting  upon  the  universe  produce  an  earth 
here  and  a  sun  there,  a  planet  here  and  a  satellite  there,  an 
ocean  here  and  a  dry  land  there,  nay,  a  Swami  here  and  an  idiot 
there  ?  The  answer  to  this  question  is  impressed  in  the  very  solar 
constitution.  Scientific  philosophers  assure  us  that  colour  is  not 
an  intrinsic  property  of  matter  as  popular  belief  would  have  it. 
But  it  is  an  accident  of  matter.  A  red  object  appears  red,  not 
because  it  is  essentially  so,  but  because  of  an  extraneous  cause. 
Red  and  violet  would  appear  equally  black  when  placed  in  the  dark. 
It  is  the  magic  of  sunbeams  which  imparts  to  them  this  special  in 
fluence,  this  chromatic  beauty,  this  congenial  coloration.  In  a 
lonely  forest,  mid  gloom  and  wilderness,  a  weary  traveller,  who 
had  betaken  himself  to  the  alluring  shadow  of  a  pompous  tree,  lay 
down  to  rest  and  there  sank  in  deep  slumber.  He  awoke  and 
found  himself  enveloped  in  gloom  and  dismal  darkness  on  all  sides. 
No  earthly  object  was  visible  on  either  side.  A  thick  black  firma 
ment  on  high,  so  beclouded  as  to  inspire  with  the  conviction  that 
the  sun  had  never  shone  there,  a  heavy  gloom  on  the  right,  a 
gloom  on  the  left,  a  gloom  before  and  a  gloom  behind.  Thus  labour 
ed  the  traveller  under  the  ghastly,  frightful  windspell  of  frozen 
darkness.  Immediately  the  heat-carrying  rays  of  the  sun  struck 
upon  the  massive  cloud,  and,  as  if  by  a  magic  touch,  the  frozen  gloom 
began  to  melt,  a  heavy  shower  of  rain  fell  down.  It  cleared  the- 
atmosphere  of  suspended  dust  particles ;  and,  in  a  twinkling  of  the 
eye,  fled  the  moisture-laden  sheet  of  darkness,  resigning  its  realm  to 
awakened  vision  entire.  The  traveller  turned  his  eyes  in  ecstatic  won 
der  from  one  direction  to  the  other,  and  beheld  a  dirty  gutter  flowing 
there,  a  crystalline  pond  reposing  here,  a  green  grass  meadow  more 
beautiful  than  velvet  plain  on  one  side,  and  a  cluster  of  variegated  fra 
grant  flowers  on  the  other.  The  feathery  creation  with  peacock's 
train,  and  deer  with  slender  legs,  and  chirping  birds  with  plumage 
lent  from  Heaven,  all,  in  fact  all,  darted  into  vision.  Was  there 
naught  before  the  sun  had  shone  ?  Had  verdant  forests,  rich  with 
luxuriant  vegetation,  and  filled  with  the  music  of  birds,  all  grown  in  a 

AND   fiUROPEAN  SCfiOLAttfl  27 

moment  ?  Where  lay  the  crystalline  waters  ?  Where  the  blue 
canopy,  where  the  fragrant  flower  ?  Had  they  been  transports) 
there  by  some  magical  power  in  a  twinkling  of  the  eye  from  dark 
dim  distant  region  of  chaos  ?  No  !  they  did  not  spring  up  in  a 
moment.  They  were  already  there.  But  the  sunbeams  had  not  shed 
their  lusture  on  them.  It  required  the  magic  of  the  lustrous  sun  to 
shine,  before  scenes  of  exquisite  beauty  could  dart  into  vision.  It 
required  the  luminous  rays  of  the  resplendent  orb  to  shed  their 
influence,  before  the  eyes  could  roll  in  the  beautiful,  charming, 
harmonious,  reposeful  and  refreshing  scenes  of  fragrant  green. 
Yes,  thus,  even  thus,  is  this  sublimely  attractive  Universe, 

ffa»f  ft*of,  illuminated  by  a  sun  *nrsnVTTf%,  the  Sun  that 
knows  no  setting,  the  Sun  that  caused  our  planets  and  the  solar  orb 
to  appear  s'sftfassi^,  the  Sun  that  evolves  the  panorama  of 
this  grand  creation,  f^sccT^sfrT,  the  eternal  Sun  ever  existing 

through  eternjty  in  perpetual  action  for  the  good  of  all.  He  sheda 
the  rays  of  His  Wisdom  all  around ;  the  deeply  thirsty,  parching  and 
blast  dried  atoms  of  matter  drink,  to  satiation,  from  the  ever-flowing, 
ever-gushing,  ever-illuminating  rays  of  Divine  wisdom,  their  appro 
priate  elements  and  essences  of  phenomenal  existence  and  panoramic 
display.  Thus  is  this  Universe  sustained.  One  central  Sun  produc 
ing  infinity  of  colours.  One  central  Divinity,  producing  infinity  of 
worlds  and  objects.  Compare  with  this  Monier  Williams'  trans 
lation  : — 

:t  With  speed  beyond  the  ken   of  mortals,  thou,  0  sun, 

Dost  ever  travel  on,  conspicuous  to  all. 

Thou  dost  create  the  light,  and  with  it  illume 

The  entire  universe." 

We  have  shown  why  we  regard  Ckkandas  and  Mantra  as  synonymous, 
Wo  have  also  seen  how  Max  Muller  distinguishes  between  Ckhandas 
and  Mantra,  regarding  the  latter  as  belonging  to  the  secondary  age, 
as  loaded  with  technicalities,  and  as  being  less  perspicuous  than 
the  former.  He  points  out  its  chief  character  to  be  that  "  these 
songs  are  generally  intended  for  sacrificial  purposes."  Concerning 
this  Mantra  period,  he  says,  "  One  specimen  may  suffice,  a  hymn 
describing  the  sacrifice  of  the  horse  with  the  full  detail  of  a  super 
stitious  ceremonial.  (Rig  Ye  da,  i.  162)." 

We  shall,  therefore,  quote  the  162nd  Sukta  of  Rig  Veda,  as  it 
is  the  specimen  hymn  of  Mux  Muller,  with  his  translation,  and 
show  how,  due  to  a  defective  knowledge  of  Vedic  literature  and  to 
the  rejection  of  the  principle  that  Vedic  terms  are  all  yaugilta,  Pro 
fessor  Max  Muller  translates  a  purely  scientific  hymn,  distinguish 
able  in  no  characteristics  from  the  chhandas  of  the  Vedas,  as  re 
presentative  of  an  artificial  and  cumbersome  and  highly  superstitious 
ritual  or  ceremonial, 


To  our  thinking,  Max  Muller's  interpetation  is  so  very  incongruous' 
unintelligible  and  superficial,  that  were  the  interpretation  even  re 
garded  as  possible,  it  could  never  be  conceived  as  the  description  of 
an  actual  ceremonial.  And  now  to  the  hymn.  The  first  mantra  runs 
thus : — 

fa*  ^*  WWnif^S'  ^W^T  TROT  tjf?^Z««T  I 

ft^i  €UsTfa[  II  *  II 

Max  Muller  translates  it,  "  May  Mitra,  Varuna,  Aryaman,   Ayu, 

Indra,  the  Lord   the  Ribhus,  and  the  Maruts  not  rebuke  us,  because 

we  shall  proclaim  at  the  sacrifice  the  virtues  of  the  swift  horse  sprung 

from  the  gods."  (Max  Muller's  History  of  Ancient  Sanskrit  Literature, 

•p.  553.) 

That  the  above  interpretation  may  be  regarded  as  real  or  as  true, 
let  Professor  Max  Muller  prove  that  Aryans  of  the  Vedic  times  enter 
tained  the  superstition  that  at  least  one  swift  horse  had  sprung  from 
the  gods^  also  that  the  gods  Mitra,  Varuna,  Aryaman,  Ayu,  Indra,  the 
Lord  of  'Ribhus,  and  the  Maruts  did  not  like  to  hear  the  virtues  of 
the  swift  horse  proclaimed  at  the  sacrifice,  for,  if  otherwise  they  would 
have  no  reason  to  rebuke  the  poet.  Not  one  of  these  positions  it  is 
ever  possible  to  entertain  with  validity.  Even  the  most  diseased  con 
ception  of  a  savage  shrinks  from  such  a  superstition  as  the  "  swift 
horse  sprung  from  the  gods."  It  is  also  in  vain  to  refer  for  the  veri 
fication  of  this  position  to  the  ashwamedha  of  the  so-called  Puranas. 
The  whole  truth  is  that  this  mythology  of  ashwamedha  arose  in  the 
same  way  in  which  originates  Max  Muller's  translation.  It  originates 
from  an  ignorance  of  the  dialectic  laws  of  the  Vedas,  when  words 
having  a  yaugika  sense  are  taken  for  proper  nouns,  and  an  imaginary 
mythology  started. 

To  take,  for  instance,  the  mantra  quoted  above.  Max  Muller  is  evi 
dently  under  the  impression  that  Mitra  is  the  'god  of  the  day/  Varuna 
is  the  'god  of  the  investing  sky/  Aryama  the  'god  of  death/  Ayu  the 
'god  of  the  wind/  Indra  the  'god  of  the  watery  atmosphere/  Ribhus  the 
1  celestial  artists/  and  Maruts  are  the  'storm-gods/  But  why  these  gods. 
Because  he  ignores  the  yaugika  sense  of  these  words  and  takes  them  as 
proper  nouns.  Literally  speaking,  mitra  means  a  friend;  varuna,  a 
man  of  noble  qualities  ;  aryama,  a  judge  or  an  administrator  of  justice; 
ayu,  a  learned  man ;  indra,  a  governor  ;  ribhuksha,  a  wise  man  ; 
marutdhs,  those  who  practically  observe  the  laws  of  seasons.  The  word 
ashwa,  which  occurs  in  the  mantra,  does  not  mean  horse  only,  but  it 
also  means  the  group  of  three  forces — heat,  electricity  and  magnetism. 
It,  in  fact,  means  anything  that  can  carry  soon  through  a  distance. 
Hence  writes  Swami  Dayananda  in  tke  beginning  of  this  Sukta  : — 
(Rv.  Bhashyam  Vol  :  11.  p.  533.) 



"This  Sukta  is  an  exposition  of  asTiica  ridya  which  means  the 
science  of  training  horses  and  the  science  of  heat  which  pervades 
everywhere  in  the  shape  of  electricity." 

That  'ashwa'  means  heat  will  be  clear  from  the  following  quota 
tions  :  — 

^TSCcf  cfc^T  ^K^=fW  f^UT  ^rfcT  ^fa:  II  Rig  Veda. 

The  words  ashwam  agnim  show  that  ashiva  means   agni    or    Heat 
And  further  :—  (Rv.  i.  27,  I.) 

which  means  :  "Agni,  the  ashwa,  carries,  like  an  animal  of  conveyance, 
the  learned  who  thus  recognize  its  distance-carrying  properties."  Or, 
further  :—  (Shatapatha  Br.  1.  iii.  3.  29-30) 

The  above  quotations  are  deemed  sufficient  to  show  both  the  mean 
ings  of  ashwa  as  above  indicated. 

Professor  Max  Miiller  translates  the  "devajata"  of  the  mantra  as 
"sprung  from  the  gods."  This  is  again  wrong,  for  he  again  takes 
dew  i  in  its  popular  (laukiki)  sense,  god  ;  whereas  devajata  means  "with 
brilliant  qualities  manifested,  or  evoked  to  work  by  learned  men,  " 
the  word  deva  meaning  both  brilliant  qualities  and  learned  men.  Again, 
Max  Muller  translates  "virya"  merely  into  virtues,  instead  of  "power- 
generating  virtues."  The  true  meaning  of  the  mantra,  therefore,  is  :  _ 

"  We  will  describe  the  power-generating  virtues  of  the  energetic 
horses  endowed  with  brilliant  properties,  or  the  virtues  of  the  vigorous 
force  of  heat  which  learned  or  scientific  men  can  evoke  'to  work  for 
purposes  of  appliances  (not  sacrifice).  Let  not  philanthropists,  noble 
men,  judges,  learned  men,  rulers,wise  men  and  practical  mechanics 
ever  disregard  these  properties." 

With  this  compare   Max  Muller's   translation  :  — 

"May  Mitra,  Varuna,  Aryaman,  Ayu,  Indra,  the  Lord  of  Ribhus, 
and  the  Maruts  not  rebuke  us,  because  we  shall  proclaim  at  the  sacri 
fice  the  virtues  of  the  swift  horse  sprung  from  the  gods." 

We  come  now  to   the   second    mantra    which  runs  thus  :  — 

II  ^  n 

Max  Muller    translates    it   thus  :  — 

"When  they  load  before  the  horse,  which  is  decked  with  pure  gold 
ornaments,  the  offering,  firmly  grasped,  I  lie  spotted  goat  bloats  while 
walking  onwards  ;  it  goes  the  path  beloved  by  Iiidra  and  Pushaii." 

Here  a.gain  there  is  no  sense  in  the  passage.  The  bleating  of  the 
joat  has  no  connection  with  the  leading  of  the  offering  before  the  horse 


nor  any  with  its  walking  onward.  Nor  is  the  path  of  Indra  and  Pushan 
in  any  way  denned.  In  fact,  it  is  very  clear  that  there  is  no  definite 
specific  relation  between  the  first  mantra  and  this,  according-io  Miiller's 
translation,  unless  a  far-fetched  connection  be  forced  by  the  imagina 
tion  bent  to  discover  or  invent  some  curious,  inconceivable  mythology. 
And  now  to  the  application  of  the  principle  that  all  Yedic  terms  are 
yaugika.  Max  Muller  translates  reknasas  into  '  gold  ornaments',  whereas 
it  only  means  '  wealth  (see  Nighantu,  ii.  10).  Rati,  which  signifies  the 
mere  act  of  'giving/  is  converted  into  an  '  offering;'  vishvarupa  which 
only  means  '  one  having  an  idea  of  all  forms'  is  converted  into  '  spott.ed'; 
aja,  which  means  '  a  man  once  born  in  wisdom,  being  never  born  again' 
is  converted  into  a  '  goat  ;'  memyai,  from  root  mi  to  injure,  is  given  to 
mean  '  bleating  ;'  suprang,  which  means,  from  root  prachh  to  question, 
'  one  who  is  able  enough  to  put  questions  elegantly,'  is  translated 
as  '  walking  onward'  ;  pathah,  which  only  means  drink  or  food,  is  trans 
lated  into  'path  '  ;  and,  lastly,  the  words  indra  and  pushan,  instead  of 
meaning  the  governing  people  and  the  strong,  are  again  made  to  signify 
two  deities  with  their  proper  names  '  Indra  '  and  l  Pushan.'  Concerning 
the  word  patha,  writes  Yaska,  vi.  7:  — 


Mukhato  nayanti,  which  means,  'they  bring  out  of  the  organ  of 
speech',  or  'they  explain  or  preach,'  is  translated  by  Max  Muller  into 
'  they  lead  before.' 

It  is  thus  clear  that,  in  the  one  mantra  alone,  there  are  nine  words 
that  have  been  wrongly  translated  by  Max  Muller,  and  all  is  due  to 
this  that  the  yaugika  sense  of  the  words  has  been  ignored,  the  rurhi 
or  the  laukika  sense  being  everywhere  forced  in  the  translation.  The 
translation  of  the  mantra,  according  to  the  sense  of  the  words  we 
have  given,  will  be  : 

"  They  who  preach  that  only  wealth  earned  by  righteous  means 
should  be  appropriated  and  spent,  and  those  born  in  wisdom,  who 
are  well-versed  in  questioning  others  elegantly,  in  the  science  of 
forms  and  in  correcting  the  unwise,  these  and  such  alone  drink  the 
potion  of  strength  and  of  power  to  govern." 

The  connection  of  this  mantra  with  the  foregoing  is  that  the 
ashwa  vidya,  spoken  of  in  the  first  mantra,  should  be  practised  only 
by  those  who  are  possessed  of  righteous  means,  are  wise,  and  havo 
the  capacity  to  govern  and  control. 

We  come  now  to  the  3rd  mantra  of  162nd  Sukta. 

n  ^  n 

Max  Muller  translates  it  thus  ;—  y 



"  This  goat,  destined  for  all  the  gods,  is  led  first  with  the  quick 
,  horse,  as  Pushan's  share ;  for  Tvashtri  himself  raises  to  glory  this 
pleasant  offering  which  is  brought  with  the  horse." 

Here,  again,  we  find  the  same  artificial  stretch  of  imagination 
which  is  the  characteristic  of  this  translation.  How  can  the  goat  be 
destined  for  all  gods/  and  at  the  same  time  be  '  Pushan's  share ' 
alone  ?  Here  Max  Miiller  gives  a  reason  for  the  goat  being  led  first 
as  Pushan's  share;  the  reason  is  that  ( Tvashtri  himself  raises  to 
glory  this  pleasant  offering.'  Now,  who  is  this  Tvashtri,  and  how  is 
he-  related  to  Pushan  ?  How  does  Tvashtri  himself  raise  to  glory  this 
pleasant  offering  ?  All  these  are  questions  left  to  be  answered  by 
the  blank  imagination  of  the  reader.  Such  a  translation  can  only  do 
one  service.  It  is  that  of  making  fools  of  the  Vedic  rishis  whom 
Max  Miiller  supposes  to  be  the  authors  of  the  Vedas. 

The  word  vishwadevyas,  which  Max  Miiller  translates  as  '  destined 
for  all  the  gods/  can  never  grammatically  mean  so.  The  utmost  that 
one  can  make  for  Max  Miiller  on  this  word  is  that  vishwadevyas 
should  mean  '  for  all  the  devas,'  but  '  destined '  is  a  pure  addition 
unwarranted  tby  grammar.  Vishwadevya  is  formed  from  vishwadeva 
by  the  addition  of  the  suffix  yat  in  the  sense  of  tatra  sadhu.  (See 
Ashtadhyayi,  IV.  4,  98) .  The  meaning  is : — 

or  vishwadevyas  is  whatsoever  is  par  excellence  fit  to  produce  useful 
properties.  We  have  spoken  of  Max  Miiller  translating  pushan,  which 
means  strength,  into  a  proper  noun.  Tvashtri,  which  simply  means 
one  who  befits  things,  or  a  skilful  hand,  is  again  converted  into  a 
proper  noun.  Purodasha,  which  means  food?  well-cooked,  is  transla 
ted  into  '  offering.'  The  words  '  which  is  brought  with  '  are,  of  course 
Max  Miiller's  addition  to  put  sense  into  what  would  otherwise  be 
without  any  sense.  Arvat  which,  no  doubt,  sometimes  means  a 
horse,  here  means  (  knowledge/  For,  if  horse  were  intended,  some 
adjective  of  significance  would  have  so  changed  the  meaning.  Saush- 
ravasaya  Jinvati,  which  means  "  obtains  for  purpose  of  a  good  food/' 
Shravas  (in  Vedic  Sanskrit,  meaning  food  or  anna,)  is  translated  by 
Max  Miiller  into  '  raises  to  glory.'  The  true  meaning  would  be  :  _ 

''  The  goat  possessed  of  useful  properties  yields  milk  as  a  streng 
thening  food  for  horses.  The  best  cereal  is  useful  when  made  into 
pleasant  food  well-prepared  by  an  apt  cook  according  to  the  modes 
dictated  by  specific  knowledge  of  the  properties  of  foods." 

We  have  criticised   Max  Miiller's  translation   of 
mantras  of  the  sukta  in  detail,  to  show  how  he 

every  case  the  error  consisting  in  taking  the  rurhi  meaning  instead  of 
the  yaugika  one  of  the  word.  It  will  not  be  difficult  to  pass  from 
mantra  to  mantra  till  the  hymn  is  finished,  and  show  that  the  true 
origin  of  all  errors  lies  in  not  recognising  the  yaugika  sense  of  Vedic 
terms.  But  we  deem  the  above  three  mantras  as  sufficient.  We 

the   first   three 
errs  at  every  step    in 


however,  subjoin  herewith  Max  Miiller's  translation  of  the  remaining! 
mantras  of  this   hymn,  with  our  occasional  remarks  in  the  foot-notes.   I 

Max  Miiller's  translation  : — 

4.  "  When  thrice   at  the  proper  seasons,    men    lead   around  the 
sacrificial  horse  which  goes  to  the  gods,   Pushan's    share  comes  first, 
the  goat,  which  announces  the  sacrifice*  to  the  gods. 

5.  Hotri,     Adhvaryu,     Avaya      (Pratiprasthatri),    Agnimindha' 
(Agni  dhra),  Gravagrabha    (Gravastut),  and  the  wise    Sanstri  (Pras-' 
astri),  may  you  fill    the   streams    (round  the  altar)    with    a   sacrifice 
which  is  well-prepared  and  well-accomplished.t 

6.  They  who    cut  the   sacrificial  post,  and  they  who   carry  it, 
they  who  make  the  ring  for  the  post  of  the  horse,    and   even  they 
who  bring  together  what  is   cooked  for  the   horse,    may  their  work 
be  with  us. 

7.  He   came   on — (my  prayer   has   been    well   performed),  the 
bright  backed    horse   goes  to  the  region    of   the  gods.     Wise   poets 
celebrate  him,   and   we  have  won  a  good  friend  for  the   love  of  the 

8.  The  halter  of  the  swift  one,    the  heel-ropes  of  the  horse,  the 
head-ropes,  the   girths,  the  bridle,  and  even  the  grass  that   has    been 
put   into  his  mouth  may   all    these    which    belong    to   thee   be  with 
the  gods. 

9.  What  the  fly  eats  of  the    flesh,  what  adheres  to  the  stick,  or 
to  the  axe,   or  to  the  hands  of  the  immolator   and   his   nails,    may  all 
these  which  belong  to  thee  be  with  the  gods.  J 

10.  The    ordure    that   runs    from  the  belly,     and   the    smaller 
particles  of  raw  flesh,  may  the  immolators  well  prepare   all   this,  and 
dress  the  sacrifice  till  it  is  well-cooked. § 

*  The  word  yajna  which  originally  indicates  any  action  requiring  association  of 
men  or  objects,  and  productive  of  beneficial  results,  is  always  translated  by  European 
scholars  as  '  sacrifice.'  The  notion  of  sacrifice  is  a  purely  Christian  notion,  and  has  no 
place  in  Vedic  philosophy.  It  is  foreign  to  the  genuine  religion  of  India.  Heuce 
all  translations  in  which  the  word  '  sacrifice'  occurs  are  to  be  rejected  as  fallacious. 

f  Max  M tiller  herein  puts  five  words  as  proper  nouns,  and  thus  does  not  accept 
their  yauyika  sense.  The  words  '  round  the  altar'  are  supplied  by  Miiller's  imagination 
on  the  ground  that  sacrifices  are  conducted  at  the  altar.  Both  ideas  are  foreign  to 
Vedic  philosophy. 

£  Here  Max  M  tiller  does  not  understand  the  structure  of  the  sentence.  The 
original  words  are  ashvasya  krarisho  which  he  takes  to  mean  '  the  flesh  of  the  horse,' 
but  kravisho  is  an  adjective  qualifying  ashvasya,  the  whole  really  means,  '  of  the  pacing 
horse.'  Kravisho  does  not  mean  '  of  the  flesh  '  but  '  pacing  '  from  the  root  kram,  to 
pace.  The  meaning  would  be.  "  What  the  fly  eats  of  whatever  dirty  adheres  to  the 
horse,"  &c.  Again  the  words  s>carau  and  swadhitlu  are  translated  into  stick  and  axe 
which  is  never  their  meaning. 

§  Amasya  kravisho,  which  means  '  raw  food  yet  undigested  and  disposed  to  come 
out '  is  similarly  translated  by  Mtiller  into  '  raw  flesh  '  here.  Ama  is  the  state  of  the 
undigested  food  in  the  belly.  Here  again,  Miiller  does  not  follow  the  structure  of  the 


11.  The  juice  that  flows  from  thy  roasted  limbs  on  the  spit  after 
tlmu  hast  been  killed,  may  it  not   run  on  the  earth  or  the   grass;  may 
it  be  given^to  the  gods  who  desire  it.* 

12.  They  who  examine   the  horse  when  it  is  roasted,    they    who 
say  "  it  smells  well,  take  it  away,"  they  who  serve  the   distribution  of 
the  meat,  may  their  work  also  be  with  us.f 

13.  The  ladle  of  the    pot  where  the    meat   is   cooked,    and    the 
vessels   for  sprinkling  the  juice,    the  vessels  to  keep  off  the  heat,  the 
covers   of-the  vessels,    the  skewers,  and   the    knives,   they    adorn  tho 

14.  Where  he  walks,   where  he  sits,    where    he    stirs,    the    foot- 
fastening  of  the  horse,  what  he  drinks,  and  what  food  he    eats,    may 
all  these  which  belong  to  thee,  be  with  the  god  ! 

15.  May  not  the  fire  with  smoky  smell  make  thee  hiss,  may  not 
the  glowing  cauldron    swell  and  burst.     The  gods  accept  the  horse  if 
it  is  offered  to  them  in  due  form. 

16.  The  cover  which  they  stretch  over  the  horse,  and  the  golden 
ornaments,  the  ^head-ropes  of  the  horse,  and  the   foot-ropes,    all  these 
which  are  dear"  to  the  gods,  they  offer  to  them. 

17.  If  some  one   strike  these  with  the  heel  or  the  whip  that  thou 
mayst  lie  down,  and  thou    art  snorting  with   all   thy    might,    then    I 
purify  all  this  with  my  prayer,  as  with    a  spoon   of  clarified  butter  at 
the  sacrifice. 

18.  The  axe  approaches  the  34  ribs  of  the  quick  horse,   beloved, 
of  the    gods.     Do  you  wisely  keep  the  limbs  whole,  find  out  each  -joint 
and  strike.  J 

19.  One  strikes  the  brilliant  horse,  two  hold  it,  thus,  is   the   cus 
tom.     Those  of   thy  limbs  which  I  have  seasonably  prepared,  I  sacri 
fice  in  the  fire  as  balls  offered  to  the  gods.§ 

20.  May  not  thy  dear  soul  burn  thee  while  thou  art  coming  near, 
may  the  axe  not  stick  to   thy   body.     May    no    greedy    and  unskilful 
immolator,  missing  with  the  sword,  throw  thy  mangled  limbs  together. 

Ayain pachyamauad,  which  means  'forced  by  the  heat  of  anger,'  is  translated 
Jv  Muller  as  «  roasted,'  and  hatasya,  which  means  '  propelled,'  is  here  translated  by 
Muller  as  "  killed." 

t  Tho  translation   of  this  mantra  is  especially   noteworthy.     The   word   wajinam 
•om  waja,    cereals,  is  here  taken  as  meaning  «  horse,'  and  Professor  Max   Muller  is   BO 
xious  to  bring  forth   the  sense  of  the  sacrifice  of  the   horse  that,   not   content   with 
Ins,  he  interprets  mansa  bhiksham  iip«*t<',  which  means  '  he  serves  the  absence,  of  meat 
into  «  serves  the  meat.'     Can  there  be  anything  more  questionable  ? 

t  The  number  of  ribs  mentioned  by    Muller  is   worth    being   counted  and    verified 
Vankri  which  means  '  a  zigzag  motion  '"  is  here  translated  as  '  rib.'     This  requires  proof! 
§  Twashtu  ra*hva*ya  is  here  translated  as  '  brilliant   horse,  '  as  if   tvthra    were   the 

pun  and  tvaahta  its  qualifying  ad jectfve.    The  reverse  is  tho  truth.  Twaxfha  is  the  noun 
ignifying  electricity,  and  ashua  is  the  qualifying  adjective  signifying  all-pervading.   Tho 

rds,  "offered  to  the  gods,  "  in  the  end  of  the 

ullcr,  to  give  the  whole  a  mythological  colorin 


21.  Indeed  thou  diest  not  thus,  thou  sufferest  not ;  thou  goest  to  ] 
the  gods  on  easy  paths.     The  two  horses  of  Indra,  the  two  deer  of  the 
Maruts  have  been  yoked,  and  the  horse  come  to  the  shaft  of  the  ass  (of 

the  aswins)** 

22.  May  this  horse  give  us  cattle  and  horses,  men,  progeny   and 
all-sustaining   wealth.     May  Aditi  keep  us  from  sin,  may  the  horse  of 
this  sacrifice  give  us  strength  !  " — pp*  553 — 554. 

We  leave  now  Max  Miiller  and  his  interpretations,  and*  come   to 
another   commentator   of   the  Yedas,    Sayana.     Sayana  may  truly  be 
called  the  father  of  European  Vedic  scholarship.     Sayana  is  the  author 
from  whose  voluminous  commentaries  the   Europeans   have   drunk   in 
the  deep  wells  of  mythology.  It  is  upon  the  interpretation  of  Madhava 
Sayana  that  the  translations  of  Wilson,  Benf  ey  and  Langlois  are  based. 
It  is  Sayana  whose  commentaries  are  appealed  to  in  all  doubtful  cases* 
"  If  a  dwarf  on  the  shoulders  of  a  giant  can  see  further  than  the  giant, 
he  is  no  less  a  dwarf  in  comparison  with  the  giant."  If  modern  exegetes 
and  lexicographers  standing  at  the  top  of  Sayana,  i.e.,  with  their  main 
knowledge  of  the  Yedas  borrowed  from  Sayana  should   now  exclaim, 
"  Sayana  intimates  only  that  sense  of  the  Vedas  which  was  current  in 
India  some  centuries   ago,    but  comparative  philology   gives   us  that 
meaning  which  the  poets  themselves  gave  to  their  songs  and  phrases  "; 
or,  if  they  should  exclaim  that  they  have  the  great  advantage  of  put 
ting  together  ten  or  twenty  passages  for  examining  the  sense  of  a  word 
which  occurs  in  them,  which  Sayana  had  not :  nothing  is  to  be  wondered 
at.     Madhava  Sayana,  the  voluminous  commentator  of  all  the   Vedas. 
of  the  most  important  Brahmanas  and  a  Kalpa  work,  the  renowned  Mi- 
mansist, — he,  the  great  grammarian,  who  wrote  the  learned  commentary 
on    Sanskrit   radicals :    yes,    he  is    still    a   model    of  learning   and  a 
colossal  giant  of  memory,  in  comparison  to  our  modern  philologists  and 
scholars.     Let  modern  scholars,  therefore,  always  bear  in   mind,   that 
Sayana  is  the  life  of  their  scholarship,  their  comparative  philology,  and 
their  so  much  boasted  interpretation  of  the  Vedas.  And  if  Sayana  was 
himself    diseased — whatsoever   the   value    of  the   efforts    of     modern 
scholars — their    comparative    philology,  their  new  interpretations,  and 
their  so-called  marvellous  achievements  cannot  but  be  diseased.  Doubt 
not   that  the    vitality  of   modern    comparative   philology    and  Vedic 
scholarship  is  wholly  derived  from  the  diseased  and  defective    victuals 
of   Sayana' s  learning.     Sooner   or   later,  the    disease  will  develop  its 
final  symptoms  and  sap  the  foundation  of  the  very  vitality  it    seemed 
to  produce.     No  branch  of   a  tree  can  live  or  flourish  when  separated 
from  the  living  stock.     No  interpretations  of  the    Vedas    will,    in   the 
end,   ever   succeed  unless   they  are  in  accord  with  the  living  sense  of 
the  Vedas  in  the  Nirukta  and  the  Brahmanas. 

*  Hari  is  again  as  a  rurhi  word  translated  into  "  two  horses  of  Indra  "  andprishati 
into  "two  deer  of  maruts."  The  '  shaft  of  the  ass  '  is,  perhaps,  the  greatest  curiosity 
Max  Muller  could  present  as  a  sign  of  mythology. 


I  quote  here  a  mantra  from  Rigveda,  and  will  show  how  Sayana's 
interpretation  radically  differs  from  the  exposition  of  Nirukta.  The 
mantra  is  £rom  Rigveda,  ix.  96.  It  runs  thus  :  — 


Says  Sayana  :  — 

"  God  himself  appears  as  Brahma  among  the  gods,  Indra,  Agni, 
&c:  He  appears  as  a  poet  among  the  dramatists  and  writers  of  lyrics; 
He  appears  as  Vashishtha,  &c.  among  the  Brahmanas  ;  He  appears  aa 
a  buffalo  among  quadrupeds  ;  He  appears  as  an  eagle  among  birds  ; 
He  appears  as  an  axe  in  the  forest  ;  He  appears  as  the  soma-juice 
purified  by  mantras  excelling  in  its  power  of  purification  the  sacred 
waters  of  the  Ganges,  &c.,  &c." 

The  translation  bears  the  stamp  of  the  time  when  it  was  produced. 
It  is  the  effort  of  a  Pandit  to  establish  his  name  by  appealing  to 

superstition  had  so  far  increased  that  the  waters  of  the  Ganges  were 
regarded  as  sacred  ;  incarnations  were  believed  in  ;  the  worship  of 
Brahma,  Vasishtha  and  other  rishis  was  at  its  acme.  It  was  probably 
the  age  of  the  dramatists  and  poets.  Sayana  was  himself  a  resident  of 
gome  city  or  town.  He  was  not  a  villager.  He  was  familiar  with  the 
axe  as  an  instrument  of  the  destruction  of  forests,  &c.,  but  not  with 
the  lightning  or  fire  as  a  similar  but  more  powerful  agent.  His 
translation  does  not  mirror  the  sense  of  the  Vedas  but  that  of  his  own 
age.  His  interpretation  of  brahma,  kavi,  devd,  rishi,  vipra,  mahisha, 
mriga,  shyena,  gridhra,  vana,  soma,  pavitra  —  of  all  these  words,  without 
one  exception,  is  purely  rurhi  or  laukika. 

Now  follows  the  exposition  of  Yaska  in  his  Nirukta,  xiv.  13. 
There  is  not  a  single  word  that  is  not  taken  in  its  yangika  sense. 
Says  Yaska  :  — 




We  will  now  speak  of  the  spiritual  sense  of  the  mantra  as  Yaska 
gives  it.  It  is  his  object  to  explaic  that  the  human  spirit  is  the 
central  conscious  being  that  enjoys  all  experience.  "  The  external 
world  as  revealed  by  the  senses  finds  its  purpose  and  object,  and, 
therefore,  absorption,  in  this  central  being.  The  indriyas  or  the 
senses  are  called  the  devas,  because  they  have  their  play  in  the  ex-  ! 
ternal  phenomenal  world,  and  because  it  is  by  them  that  the  external  : 
world  is  revealed  to  us.  Hence  Atma,  the  human  spirit,  is  the  brahma 
devanam,  the  conscious  entity  that  presents  to  its  consciousness  all 
that  the  senses  reveal.  Similarly,  the  senses  are  called  the  kavayas, 
because  one  learns  by  their  means.  The  Atma,  then,  ispadavi  kavinam 
or  the  true  sentient  being  that  understands  the  working  of  the  senses. 
Further,  the  Atma  is  rishir  vipranam,  the  cognizor  of  sensations ; 
vipra  meaning  the  senses  as  the  feelings  excited  by  them  pervade  the 
whole  body.  The  senses  are  also  called  the  mrigas,  for  they  hunt 
about  their  proper  aliment  in  the  external  world.  Atma  is  mahisho 
mriganam,  i.e.,  the  great  of  all  the  hunters.  The  meaning  is  that  it 
is  really  through  the  power  of  Atma  that  the  senses  are  enabled  to 
find  out  their  proper  objects.  The  Atma  is  called  shyena,  as  to  it 
belongs  the  power  of  realization ;  and  gridhras  are  the  indriyas,  for 
they  provide  the  material  for  such  realization.  The  Atma,  then, 
pervades  these  senses.  Further,  this  Atma,  is  swadhitir  vananam,  or 
the  master  whom  all  indriyas  serve.  Swadhiti  means  Atma,  for  the 
activity  of  Atma  is  all  for  itself,  man  being  an  end  unto  himself.  The 
senses  are  called  vana,  for  they  serve  their  master,  the  human  spirit. 
It  is  this  Atma  that,  being  pure  in  its  nature,  enjoys  all."  Such,  then, 
is  the  yaugika  sense  which  Yaska  attaches  to  the  mantra.  Not  only 
is  it  all  consistent  and  intelligible  unlike  Sdyana's  which  conveys  no 
actual  sense  ;  not  only  ip  each  word  clearly  defined  in  its  yaugika 
meaning,  in  contradistinction  with  Sayana  who  knows  no  other  sense 
of  the  word  than  the  popular  one,  but  there  is  also  to  be  found  that 
simplicity,  naturalness  and  truthfulness  of  meaning,  rendering  it  in 
dependent  of  all  time  and  space,  which  contrasted  with  the  artificiality, 
.burdensomeness  and  localisation  of  Sayana's  sense,  can  only  proclaim 
Sayana' s  complete  ignorance  of  the  principles  of  Vedic  interpretation. 

This  is  Sayana,  upon  whose  commentaries  of  the  Vedas  are 
based  the  translations  of  European  scholars. 

We  leave  now  Max  Muller  and  Sayana  with  their  rurki  trans 
lations,  and  come  to  another  question,  which,  though  remotely  con 
nected  with  the  one  just  mentioned,  is  yet  important  enough  to  be 
separately  treated.  It  is  the  question  concerning  the  Religion  of  the 
Vedas.  European  scholars  and  idolatrous  superstitious  Hindus  are  of 
opinion  that  the  Vedas  inculcate  the  worship  of  innumerable  gods 
and  goddesses,  Devatas.  The  word  devata  is  a  most  fruitful  source 
of  error,  and  it  is  very  necessary  that  its  exact  meaning  and  applica 
tion  should  be  determined.  Not  understanding  the  Vedic  sense  of 
the  word  devata,  and  easily  admitting  the  popular  superstitious  in- 


terpretation  of  a  belief  in  mythological  gods  and  goddesses,  crumbling 
into  wretched  idolatry,  European  scholars  have  imagined  the  Vedas 
to  be  fuli  of  the  worship  of  such  materials,  and  have  gone  so  far  in 
their  reverence  for  the  Vedas  as  to  degrade  its  religion  even  below 
polytheism  and  perhaps  at  par  with  atheism.  In  their  fit  of  benevo 
lence,  the  European  scholars  have  been  gracious  enough  to  endovr 
this  religion  with  a  title,  a  name,  and  that  is  Henotheism. 

After  classifying  religions  into  polytheistic,  dualistie,    monothe 
istic,  remarks  Max  Muller  : — 

,  "  It  would  certainly  be  necessary  to  add  two  other  classes— 
the  henotheistic  and  the  atheistic.  Henotheistic  religions  differ  from- 
polytheistic,  because,  although  they  recognize  the  existence  of 
various  deities  or  names  of  deities,  they  represent  each  deity  as 
independent  of  all  the  rest,  as  the  only  deity  present  in  the  mind  of 
the  worshipper  at  the  time  of  his  worship  and  prayer.  This  character 
v,v  eery  prominent  in  the  religion  of  the  Vedic  poets.  Although  many 
gods  are  invoked  in  different  hymns,  sometimes  also  in  the  same  hymn, 
yet  there  is  no  rule  of  precedence  established  among  them ;  and,, 
according  to  the  varying  aspects  of  nature,  and  the  varying  cravings 
of  human  heart,  it  is  sometimes  Indra,  the  god  of  the  blue  sky,  some 
times  Agni,  the  god  of  fire,  sometimes  Varuna,  the  ancient  god  of  the 
firmament,  who  are  praised  as  supreme  without  any  suspicion  of 
rivalry,  or  any  idea  of  subordination.  This  peculiar  phase  of  religion, 
this  worship  of  single  gods  forms  probably  everywhere  the  first  stage 
in  the  growth  of  polytheism,  and,  deserves,  therefore,  a  separate 
I  name."* 

To  further  illustrate  the  principles  of  this  new   religion,  henothe- 
ism,  says  Max  Muller  : — 

"  When  these  individual  gods  are  invoked,  they  are  hot  conceived 
as  limited  by  the  power  of  others  as  superior  or  inferior  in  rank. 
Kach  god  is  to  the  mind  of  the  supplicant  as  good  as  all  the  gods. 
He  is  felt,  at  the  time,  as  a  real  divinity,  as  supreme  and  absolute, 
in  spite  of  the  necessary  limitations  which,  to  our  mind,  a  plurality 
I  of  gods  must  entail  on  every  single  god.  All  the  rest  disappear  for  a 
moment  from  the  vision  of  the  poet,  and  he  only  who  is  to  fulfil  their 
lesires  stands  in  full  light  before  the  eyes  of  the  worshippers.  '  Among 
,  0  gods,  there  is  none  that  is  small,  none  that  is  young;  you  are 
ill  great  indeed, '  is  a  sentiment  which,  though  perhaps  not  so  dis 
tinctly  expressed  as  by  Manu  Vaivasvata,  nevertheless,  underlies  afl 
ihe  poetry  of  the  Veda.  Although  the  gods  are  sometimes  distinctly 
invoked  as  the  great  and  the  small,  the  young  and  the  old  (Rv.  i.  27-13)r 
ihis  is  only  an  attempt  to  find  out  the  most  comprehensive  expression 
cor  the  divine  powers,  and  nowhere  is  any  of  the  gods  represented  as  , 
she  slave  of  others."  t 

As  an  illustration  : — 

*  Max  Muller  :  Lectures  on  the  Science  of  Religion,  London,  1873,  pp.  141-142. 
+  Max  Mailer  :  History  of  Ancient  Sanskrit  Literature,  pp.  532-533. 


"  When  Agni,  the  lord  of  fire,  is  addressed  by  the  poet,  he  is 
spoken  of  as  the  first  god,  not  inferior  even  to  Indra.  While  Agni  isj 
invoked,  Indra  is  forgotten  ;  there  is  no  competition  between  the  twoj 
nor  any  rivalry  between  them  and  other  gods.  This  is  a  most  import-| 
ant  feature  in  the  religion  of  the  Veda,  and  has  never  been  taken! 
into  consideration  by  those  who  have  written  on  the  history  of  ancient! 

We  have  seen  what  Max  Miiller's  view  of  the  Religion  of  the 
Vedas  is.  We  may  be  sure  that  the  review  of  other  European 
scholars  also  cannot  be  otherwise.  Is  henotheism  really,  then,  the 
religion  of  the  Vedas  ?  Is  the  worship  of  devatas  an  essential  feature 
of  Vedic  worship  ?  Are  we  to  believe  Max  Miiller  and  assert  that 
the  nation  to  which  he  hesitates  to  deny  instinctive  monotheism,  has 
so  far  uprooted  its  instincts  as  to  fall  down  to  an  acquired  belief  in 
henotheism  ?  *  No,  not  so.  Vedas,  the  sacred  books  of  the  primitive 
Aryans,  are  the  purest  record  of  the  highest  form  of  monotheism 
possible  to  conceive.  Scholars  cannot  long  continue  to  misconstrue 
the  Vedas,  and  ignore  the  laws  of  their  interpretation.  Says 

ll—  Nirukta,  vii,  1. 

Devata  is  a  general  term  applied  to  those  substances  whose 
attributes  are  explained  in  a  m<mtra.  The  sense  of  the  above  is  that 
when  it  is  known  which  substance  it  is  that  forms  the  subject  of 
exposition  in  the  mantra  the  term  signifying  that  substance  is  called 
the  devata  of  the  mantra.  Take,  for  instance,  the  mantra  :  — 

II  *  II 

"  I  present  to  your  consideration  agni  which  is  the  fruitful  source 
of  worldly  enjoyments,  which  is  capable  of  working  as  though  it  were 
a  messenger,  and  is  endowed  with  the  property  of  preparing  all  our 
foods.  Hear  ye,  and  do  the  same." 

Since  it  is  agni  that  forms  the  subject-matter  of  this  mantra,  agni 
would  be  called  the  devata  of  this  mantra.  Hence,  says  Yaska,  a 
mantra  is  of  that  devata,  with  the  object  of  expressing  whose  pro 
perties,  God,  the  Omniscient,  revealed  the  mantra. 

We  find  an  analogous  sense  of  the  word  devata  in  another  part 
of  Nirukta.  Says  Yaska  : — 

^fflPJJ  ^tfFJjf^ij^^ft  §^  II     Nirukta,  i.  2. 
*  Max  Muller  ;  History  of  Ancient  Sanskrit  Literature,  p.  546. 


1  Whenever  the  process  of  an  art  is  described,  the  mantra  that 
completely  describes  that  process  is  called  the  devata  (or  the  index)  of 
that  procQSS.' 

It  is  in  this  sense  that  the  devata  of  a  mantra  is  the  index,  the 
essential  key-note  of  the  meaning  of  the  mantra.  There  is  in  this 
analysis  of  the  word  no  reference  to  any  gods  or  goddesses,  no 
mythology,  no  element  worship,  no  henotheism.  If  this  plain  and 
simple  meaning  of  devata  were  understood,  no  more  will  the  mantras 
having  marut  or  agni  for  their  devatas  be  regarded  as  hymns  address 
ed,  to  "  the  storm-god  "  or  "  the  god  of  fire  ;  "  but  it  will  be  perceiv 
ed  that  these  mantras  treat  respectively  of  the  properties  of  marut  and 
of  the  properties  of  agni.  It  will,  then,  be  regarded,  as  said  else 
where  in  Nirukta  :  — 

*1\  ^RTST  iffa*TT3T  *3\rRTST  *TCWft  Wrftfa  ^T  \\  Nirukta  vii.  15 
that  whatsoever  or  whosoever  is  capable  of  conferring  some  advan 
tage  upon  us,  capable  of  illuminating  things,  or  capable  of  explaining 
them  to  us,  and  lastly,  the  Light  of  all  lights,  these  are  the  fit  objects 
to  be  called  devatas.  This  is  not  in  any  way  inconsistent  with  what 
has  gone  before.  For,  the  devata  of  a  mantra,  being  the  key-note  of 
the  sense  of  the  mantra,  is  a  word  capable  of  rendering  an  explana 
tion  of  the  mantra,  and  hence  is  called  the  devata  of  that  mantra. 
Speaking  of  these  devatas,  Yaska  writes  something  which  even  goes 
to  show  that  people  of  his  time  had  not  even  the  slightest  notion  of 
the  gods  and  goddesses  of  Max  Miiller  and  superstitious  Hindus  — 
gods,  and  goddesses  that  are  now  forced  upon  us  under  the  Vedic 
designation,  devata.  Says  Yaska  :  — 

vii.  4. 

1  We  often  find  in  common  practice  of  the  world  at  large,  that 
learned  men,  parents,  and  atithis,  (those  guest-missionaries  who  have 
no  fixed  residence,  but  wander  about  from  place  to  place  benefiting 
the  world  by  their  religious  instructions),  are  regarded  as  devatas  or 
called  by  the  names  of  devatas.'  It  is  clear  from  the  above  quotation, 
that  religious  teachers,  parents  and  learned  men,  these  alone,  or  thelike, 
were  called  devatas  and  no  others,  in  Yaska's  time.  Had  Ydska  known 
of  any  such  idolatry  or  henotheism  or  devata  worship,  which  supersti 
tious  Hindus  are  so  fond  of,  and  which  Professor  Max  Miiller  is  so 
intent  to  find  in  the  Vedas,  or  had  any  such  worship  prevailed  in  his 
time,  even  though  he  himself  did  not  share  in  this  worship,  it  is 
impossible  that  he  should  not  have  made  any  mention  of  it  at  all, 
especially  when  speaking  of  the  common  practice  among  men  in 
general.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  element  worship,  or  nature 
worship,  is  not  only  foreign  to  the  Vedas  and  the  ages  of  Y&ska  and 
P&nini  and  Vedic  rishis  and  munis,  but  that  idolatry  and  its  parent 
mythology,  at  least  in  so  far  as  Aryavarta  is  concerned,  are  the  pro 
ducts  of  recent  times, 


To  return  to  the  subject.  We  have  seen  that  Yaska  regards  thej 
names  of  those  substances  whose  properties  are  treated  of  in  the  mantral 
as  the  devatas.  What  substances,  then,  are  the  devatas?  They  are  allj 
that  can  form  the  subject  of  human  knowledge.  All  human  knowledge 
is  limited  by  two  conditions,  i.e.,  time  and  space.  Our  knowledge  of 
causation  is  mainly  that  of  succession  of  events.  And  succession  is 
nothing  but  an  order  in  time.  Again,  our  knowledge  must  be 
a  knowledge  of  something  and  that  something  must  be  somewhere. 
It  must  have  a  locality  for  its  existence  and  occurrence.  Thus 
far,  the  circumstances  of  our  knowledge  —  time  and  locality.  Now  to  the 
essentials  of  knowledge.  The  most  exhaustive  division  of  human  know 
ledge  is  between  objective  and  subjective.  Objective  knowledge  is  the 
knowldge  of  all  that  passes  without  the  human  body.  It  is  the 
knowledge  of  the  phenomena  of  the  external  universe.  Scientific  men 
have  arrived  at  the  conclusion  that  natural  philosophy,  i.e.,  philosophy 
of  the  material  universe,  reveals  the  presence  of  two  things,  matter  and 
force.  Matter  as  matter  is  not  known  to  us.  It  is  only  the  play  of 
forces  in  matter  producing  effects,  sensible,  that  is  known  to  us.  Hence 
the  knowledge  of  external  world  is  resolved  into  the  knowledge  of  force 
with  its  modifications.  We  come  next  to  subjective  knowledge.  In 
speaking  of  subjective  knowledge,  there  \sfirstly,  the  ego,  the  human 
spirit,  the  conscious  entity  ;  secondly  the  internal  phenomena  of  which 
the  human  spirit  is  conscious.  The  internal  phenomena  are  of  two 
kinds.  They  are  either  the  voluntary,  intelligent,  self-conscious 
activities  of  the  mind,  which  may  hence  be  designated  deliberate 
activities  :  or  the  passive  modifications  effected  in  the  functions  of  the 
body  by  the  presence  of  the  human  spirit.  These  may,  therefore,  be 
called  the  vital  activities. 

An  apriofi  analysis,  therefore,  of  the  knowable  leads  us  to  six 
things,  time,  locality,  force,  human  spirit,  deliberate  activities  and 
vital  activities.  These  things,  then,  are  fit  to  be  called  devatas.  The 
conclusion  to  be  derived  from  the  above  enumeration  is,  that  if  the 
account  of  Nirukta  concerning  Vedic  devatas,  as  we  have  given,  be 
really  true,  we  should  find  Vedas  inculcating  these  six  things  —  time, 
locality,  force,  human  spirit,  deliberate  activities  and  vital  activities 
ag  devatas,  and  no  others.  Let  us  apply  the  crucial  test. 

We  find,  however,  the  mention  of  33  devatas  in  such  mantras  as 
these  :  — 

Yajur,  xiv.  31 

X.xxii.    4-27. 

"  The  Lord  of  all,  the  Ruler  of  the  universe,  the  Sustainer  of   all, 
holds  all  things  by  33  devatas  " 


"  The  knowers  of  true  theology  recognize  the  33  devatas  perform 
ing  their  proper  organic  functions,  as  existing  in  and  by  Him,  the  One 
and  Only.." 

Let  us,  therefore,  see  what  these  33  devatas  are,  so  that  we  may  be 
able  to  compare  them  with  our  a  priori  deductions  and  settle  the 

We  read  in  Shatapatha  Brahmana  :  — 

II      II 

I  8  II  ^nfi  ^?T  *f?T  I 


fi^t  ft 

n  c  n 

ff?T  ^3«I,  Rrf^r^ir^^^  II  xiv.     16  Fic/e  p.  66, 

'Veda  Bhashya  Bhumika  by  Swami  Dayanand  Saraswati). 

The  meaning  is  :  —  Says  Yajnavalkya  to  Shakalya,  "there  are  33 
levatas  which  manifest  the  glory  of  God;  8  vasus,  11  rudras,  12 
Idityas,  1  indra  and  1  prajdpati  ;  33  on  the  whole.  The  eight  vasus 
ire  1.  heated  cosmic  bodies,  2.  planets,  3.  atmospheres,  4.  superter- 
estrial  spaces,  5.  suns,  6.  rays  of  ethereal  space,  7.  satellites,  8 
tars.  These  are  called  vasus  (abodes),  for,  the  whole  group  of  ex- 
stences  resides  in  them,  viz.,  they  are  the  abode  of  all  that  lives, 
loves,  or  exists.  The  eleven  rudras  are  the  ten  prdnas  (nervauric 
orces)  enlivening  the  human  frame,  and  the  eleventh  is  dfma  (the 
iiman  spirit).  These  are  called  the  rudras  (from  root  rud  to  weep), 
>ecause  when  they  desert  the  body  it  becomes  dead,  and  the  relations 
>f  the  dead,  in  consequence  of  this  desertion,  begin  to  weep.  The 


The  twelve  adit y as  are  the  twelve  solar  months,  marking  the  course  of 
time.  They  are  called  ddityas  as,  by  their  cyclic  motion,  they  produce 
twelve  ddityas  are  the  twelve  solar  months,  marking  the  "course  of 
changes  in  all,  objects,  and  hence  the  lapse  of  the  term  of  existence  for 
each  object.  Aditya  means  that  which  causes  such  a  lapse.  Indra  is  ' 
the  all-pervading  electricity  or  force.  Prajdpati  is  yajna  (an  active 
voluntary  association  of  objects  on  the  part  of  man,  for  the  purposes 
of  art,  or  association  with  other  men  for  purposes  of  teaching  or 
learning).  It  also  means  Pushtis  (the  useful  animals).  Yajna  and 
useful  animals  are  called  prajdpati,  as  it  is  by  such  actions  and  by 
such  animals  that  the  world  at  large  derives  its  materials  of  susten 
ance.  What,  then,  are  the  three  devtaas"  ?  Asks  Shakalya.  "  They 
are,"  replies  Yajnavalkya,  "  the  3  lolcas  ;  (viz.,  locality,  name  and 
birth)."  What  are  the  two  devatas  ? — asked  he.  Yajnavalkya  re 
plied,  "  pranas  (the  positive  substances)  and  anna  (the  negative  sub 
stance).  What  is  the  Adhyardha  ?  He  asks."  Yajnavlkya  replies, 
"  Adhyardha  is  the  universal  electricity,  the  sustainer  of  the  universe, 
known  as  sutrdtmd."  Lastly,  he  inquired,  "  Who  is  the  one  Devata,  ?  " 
Yajnavalkya  replied,  "  God,  the  adorable." 

These,  then,  are  the  thirty-three  devatas  mentioned  in  the  Vedas. 
Let  us  see  how  far  this  analysis  agrees  with  our  a  priori  deduction. 
The  eii^ht  vasus  enumerated  in  Shatapatha  Brahmana  are  clearly  the 
localities ;  the  eleven  rudras  include,  firstly,  the  ego,  the  human  spirit, 
and  secondly,  the  ten  nervauric  forces,  which  may  be  approximately 
taken  for  the  vital  activities  of  the  mind ;  the  twelve  ddityas  comprise 
time }  electricity  is  the  all-pervading  force;  whereas  prajdpati,  (yajna 
or  pashus,)  may  be  roughly  regarded  as  comprising  the  objects  ofi 
intelligent  deliberate  activities  of  the  mind. 

When  thus  understood,  the  33  devatas  will  correspond  with  the 
six  elementsof  our  rough  analysis.  Since  the  object  here  is  not  so 
much  as  to  show  exactness  of  detail  as  general  coincidence,  partial 
differences  may  be  left  out  of  account. 

It  is  clear,  then,  that  the  interpretation  of  devatas  which  Yaska 
gives  is  the  only  interpretation  that  is  consistent  with  the  Vedas  and 
the  Brahmanas.  That  no  doubt  may  be  left  concerning  the  pure 
monotheistic  worship  of  the  ancient  Aryas,  we  quote  from  Nirukta 
again:—  ^ 


II  Nirukta,  vii.  4.  This  means:— 


"  Leaving  off  all  other  devatas  it  is  only  the  Supreme  Soul  that  ia 
worshipped  on  account  of  His  omnipotence.  Other  devatas  are  but 
the-  pratyangas  of  this  Supernal  Soul,  i.  e.3  they  but  partially  mani- 


fest  the  glory  of  God.  All  these  devas  owe  their  birth  and  power 
to  Him.  In  Him  they  have  their  play.  Through  Him  they  exercise 
their  beneficial  influences  by  attracting  properties,  useful,  and  re 
pelling  properties,  injurious.  He  alone  is  the  All-in- All  of  all  the 

From  the  above  it  will  be  clear  that,  in  so  far  as  worship  is  con 
cerned,  the  ancient  Aryas  adored  the  Supreme  Soul  only,  regarding 
Him  as  the  life,  the  sustenance  and  dormitory  of  the  world.  And 
vet  pious  Christian  missionaries  and  more  pious  Christian  philologists 
are  never  tired  of  propagating  the  lie  before  the  Avorld,  that  the 
Vedas  inculcate  the  worship  of  many  gods  and  goddesses.  Writes  a 
Christian  missionary  in  India  :-- 

"  Monotheism  is  a  belief  in  the  existence  of  one  God  only,  poly- 
theism  is  a  belief  in  the  plurality  of  gods.  Max  Mulior  says,  '  If  we 
must  employ  technical  terms,  the  religion  of  the  Veda  is  polytheism, 
not  monotheism,'  The  27th  hymn  of  the  1st  Ashtaka  of  the  Rigveda 
concludes  as  follows  :  '  Veneration  to  the  great  jrods,  veneration  to 
the  lesser,  veneration  to  the  young,  veneration  to  the  old  •  we  worship 
the  gods  as  well  as  we  are  able  :  may  I  not  omit  the  praise  of  the  older 

The  pious  Christian  thus  ends  his  remarks  on  the  religion  of  the 
Vedas.  "  Pantheism  and  polytheism  are  often  combined,  but  mono 
theism,  in  the  strict  sense  of  the  word,  ist  not  found  in  Hinduism." 
Again  says  the  pious  missionary  : — 

"  Ram  Mohan  Roy,  as  already  mentioned,  despised  the  hymns  of 
the  Vedas,  he  spoke  of  the  Upanishads  as  the  Vedas,  and  thought 
that  they  taught  monotheism.  The  Chh&ndogya  formula,  eka  meva- 
dwitiyam  brahma,'  was  also  adopted  by  Keshub  Chander  Sen.  But 
it  does  not  mean  that  there  is  110  second  God,  but  that  there  is  no 
second  anything — a  totally  different  doctrine." 

Thus  it  is  obvious  that  Christians,  well  saturated  with  the  truth 
of  God,  are  not  only  anxious  to  see  monotheism  off  the  Vedas,  but 
even  off  the  Upanishads.  Well  might  they  regard  their  position  as 
safe,  and  beyond  assail  on  the  strength  of  such  translations  as  these: — 

"  In  the  beginning  there  arose  the  Hiranyagarbha  (the  golden 
germ] — He  was  the  one  born  lord  of  all  this.  He  established  the 
earth  and  the  sky  : — Who  is  the  God  to  whom  we  shall  offer  our 
sacrifice  ?"  Max  Muller. 

"  He  who  gives  breath.  He  who  gives  strength,  whose  command 
all  the  bright  gods  revere,  whoso  shadow  is  immortality,  whose 
shadow  is  death  : — Who  is  the  God  to  whom  we  shall  offer  our  sacri 
fice  ?"/6  id. 

John  Murdoch  :  Religious  Reform*  Part  III,  Vcdic  Hinduism. 


Hiranyagftrbha,  which  means  '  God  in  whom  the  whole  luminous  j 
universe  resides  in  a  potential  state  '  is  translated  into  the  golden 
germ.  The  WOrd^'cUaA  is  detached  from  its  proper  construction  and 
placed  in  apposition  with  pat  ir,  thus  giving  the  sense  of  "  the  one 
born  lord  of  all  this."  Perhaps,  there  is  a  deeper  meaning  in  this 
Christian  translation.  Some  day,  not  in  the  very  remote  future,  ] 
these  Christians  will  discover  that  the  golden  germ  means  '  conceived 
by  the  Holy  Ghost,'  whereas  'the  one  born  lord  of  all '  alludes  to  Jesus 
Christ.  In  one  of  those  future  happy  days,  this  mantra  of  the  Veda 
will  be  quoted  as  an  emblematic  of  a  prophecy  in  the  dark  distant 
past,  of  the  advent  of  a  Christ  whom  the  ancients  knew  not.  How 
could  they,  then,  adore  him,  but  in  the  language  of  mystic  interro 
gation  ?  Hence  the  translation,  "  Who  is  the  God  to  whom  we  shall 
off er  our  sacrifice  ?"  Even  the  second  mantra,  Max  Mailer's  trans 
lation  of  which  we  have  subjoined  above,  has  been  differently  transla 
ted  by  an  audacious  Christian.  What  Max  Miiller  translates  as  "  He 
who  gives  breath,"  was  translated  by  this  believer  in  the  word  of  God, 
as  "  He  who  sacrificed  Himself,  i.  e.t  Jesus  Christ"  The  original 
words  in  Sanskrit  are 

Let  us  pass  from  these  mantras  and  the  misinterpretations  of 
Christians  to  clear  proofs  of  monotheism  in  the  Vedas.  We  find  in 
Rigveda  the  very  mantra,  which  yields  the  golden  germ  to  European 
interpreters.  It  runs  this: — 

li  Which  means — 

1  God  existed  in  the  beginning  of  creation,  the  only  Lord  of  the  un 
born  universe.  He  is  the  Eternal  Bliss  whom  we  should  praise  and 

In  Yajur  Veda,  xvii,  19,  we  find  : — 

II  Which  means  :  — 

•"  Being  all-vision,  all-power,  all-motion  in  Himself,  He  sustains  with 
His  power  the  whole  universe,  Himself  being  One  alone." 

And  in  AtLarva  Veda,  XIIL  iv  16  —  21,  we  find  :  — 

means  :  — 

"There  are  neither  two  gods,  nor  three,  nor  four,  .......  ..nor  ten.     He 

is    one    and    only    one    and    pervades   the  whole  universe,     All  other 
tilings  live,  muye  and  have  their  being  in  Him," 




C  R  I  T  I  C  I  S  M 




WE  have  mentioned  the  Preface,  the  Introduction  and  the  review 
«»f  the  Vedas.     We  now  come  to  the  Brahmanas  and  the    Upanishads. 
The    very   ancient   theological   and  religious  records  also  find  a  place 
here.     They  occupy  21  pages.     Then  come  the  Six  Schools  of  Philoso 
phy, — the  Niyaya,  the  Sankhya,the  VaiVheshaka,  the  Yoga,  the  Purva 
Mimansa  and    the    Vedanta   schools.     This   chapter  runs  through  78 
pages.     Then  we  come  to  Jainism  and  Bhagwat  Gita.     Bhagwat  Gita 
has  been,   with    great  truth,  styled  the  eclectic  school  of  philosophy, 
and  why    not   so,    the    Sankhya    Marga,   the    Yoga    Marga   and    the 
Bhakti    Marga,    the    three   royal   roads  to  salvation,   are  equally  re 
cognised.  This  occupies  28  pages.  We  come  now  to  the   Yedangas, — 
Siksha,    Yyakarana,     Nirukta,     Chi,  and  a     and      Jyotish, — alphabet, 
grammar,    etymology,    prosody    and    astronomy.       This    occupies    40 
pages.     Then    come    the    Smritis ;   they  .occupy    114   pages.      Manu 
Smriti    and   Yajnavalkya  are  thoroughly  reviewed.  §   The  author  is  at 
home  here.     He  is  well  pleased  to  find   matters   of   condemnation  in 
Manu   and   Yajnavalkya.     We   come,  then,  to  Ramayana   and  Maha- 
bharta.     Bulky  as  these  books  are,  a  bulk  of  140  pages   of   the   book 
is    devoted  to  these  epic  poems.     The  later  dramas,  Puranas,  &c.,  only 
deserve  a  passing  notice.     They  occupy  70  pages.     The   following  is 
the  summary : — 

Preface  and  Introduction  ...  ...  ...     48 

Vedas  ...  ,.,     26 

Brahmanas  arid  Upanishads         ...  ...  ...     21 

Six  Schools  of  Philosophy  ...  ...  ...     78 

Jainism  and  Eclecticism  .  .  ...  ...     28 

Rhetoric,  Grammar  and  Astronomy  ...  ...     40 

Smritis  .  .  ...114 

Epics  (Ramayana  and  Mahabharta)  ...  .  .   140 

Puranas  and  Dramas      . .  .  .  ...  ...     70 

Alphabetical  Index        ...  ...  ...  ...     23 

TOTAL     .  .    588 

*  The  Manuscript,  about  3  pages,  is  missing  except  these  last  few  words  : — "  cou. 
<  weting  of  th«  author'*  emarkfl  aptly  ntereporeed  by  long  quotations  and  translations 
•  .  irom-othej  authors  >J 

48  CRITICISM    Otf 

It  is  evident,  then,  that  the  author  is  obviously  a  man  of  vast 
study,  of  wide  information,  and  possessed  of  encyclopedic  knowledge) 
at  least  in  so  far  as  Sanskrit  goes.  It  is  well  for  us  to  avail  of  the 
information  that  can  be  derived  from  such  a  source?  as  such  chances 
are  not  often  to  be  found,  they  are  exceptional  and  very  rare.  The 
more  we  proceed  with  the  review  of  the  book,  the  more  impatient  we 
become  to  learn  the  scope  and  the  contents  of  the  book.  This  infor-' 
mation  I  shall  now  no  longer  withhold  from  you.  I  proceed  directly 
to  the  scope,  the  aims  and  objects  of  the  book. 

Says  Professor  Monier  Williams  at  page  3  of  his  Preface  : — 
"  The  present  volume  attempts  to  supply  a  want,  the  existence  of 
which  has  been  impressed  upon  my  mind  by  an  inquiry  often  address 
ed  to  me  as  a  Baaen  Professor  : — Is  it  possible  to  obtain  from  any 
one  book  a  good  general  idea  of  the  character  and  contents  of  San 
skrit  literature  ? }> 

Further  on,  he  says  : — 

"  Its  pages  are  also  intended  to  subserve  a  further  object.  Thev 
aim  at  imparting  to  educated  Englishmen,  by  means  of  translations 
and  explanations  of  portions  of  the  sacred  and  philosophical  literature 
of  India,  an  insight  into  the  mind,  habits  of  thought,  and  customs  of 
the  Hindus,  as  well  as  a  correct  knowledge  or  a  system  of  belief  and 
practice  which  has  constantly  prevailed  for  at  least  3,000  years,  and 
still  continues  to  exist  as  one  of  the  principal  religions  of  the  non- 
Christian  world." 

Then,   on  page  36  of  the   Introduction,  we  have  : — 
"  It  is  one  of  the  aims,  then,  of  the  following   pages   to  indicate 
the  points  of  contrast  between  Christianity   and  the  three  chief  false 
religions  of  the  world,  as  they   are    represented   in    India." — (Please 
mark  the  word  false.) 

Then,  on  page   38  of  the  Introduction,  we  have : — 

"  It  seems  to  me,  then,  that  in  comparing  together  these  four 
sostems — Christianity,  Islam,  Brahminism  aud  Buddhism — the  crucial 
test  of  the  possession  of  that  absolute  Divine  truth  which  can  belong 
to  only  one  of  the  four,  and  which — if  supernaturally  communicated 
by  the  common  Father  of  mankind  for  the  good  of  all  His  creatures — 
must  be  intended  to  prevail  everywhere,  ought  to  lie  in  the  answer 
to  two  questions :  1st. — What  is  the  ultimate  object  at  which  each 
aims  ?  2ndly. — By  what  means  and  by  what  agency  is  this  aim  to  be 
accomplished  ?  " 

It  is  clear,  then,  the  objects  of  the  book  are : — 
I. — In  one  book  to  give  a  general  idea  of  the  character  and  con- 
ients  of  Sanskrit  literature, 

II. — To  draw  for  Englishmen  a  picture  of  our  manners,  habits, 
Customs,  institutions  and  "beliefs,  not  a  distorted  picture,  a  naiwepre* 


eentation,  but  a  true  one,  for  the   picture  is  to  be  drawn  by  means  of 
translations  and  explanations  of  portions  of  our  sacred  literature  !  !    > 

III. — To  indicate  the  points  of  community  between  Christian  and 
other  non-Christian  religions. 

IV. — That  Islam,  Buddhism  and  Brahminitm  (mark  the  last) 
,  are  the  three  false  religions  of  the  world — or  that  Christianity  is  the 
only  true  religion. 

V. — That  taking  Christianity,  Brahminism,  Islam  and  Buddhism, 
the  possession  of  absolute  divine  truth  can  only  belong  to  one  of 
the  four. 

VI. — That  the  absolute  divine  truth  as  supernaturally  communi 
cated  by  the  common  Father  of  mankind  (remember  this  trtth  is 
Christianity)  is  one  that  is  intended  to  prevail  everywhere. 

VII.  —That  firstly  this  absolute  truth  is  the  only  religion,  that 
gives  a  correct  answer  to  the  question,  what  is  the  ultimate  object 
or  aim?  And  secondly  that  this  absolnte  truth  or  Christianity 
alone  gives  the  true  scheme  by  which  the  common  end  or  object  of  all 
is  to  be  accomplished. 

How  far  the  last  four  articles  of  Professor  Monier  Williams' 
claims  are  right  will  just  appear  in  the  sequel. 

A  brief  sketch  of  the  answer  to  the  first  article  has  already  been 
given  in  an  enumeration  of  the  book.  L^t  me  only  point  out  that 
the  four  books,  esteemed  only  next  to  the  Vedas,  and  generally  called 
the  Upa- Vedas,  find  no  mention  anywhere  throughout  the  list.  It 
is  especially  upon  the  subject-matter  of  these  books  that  a  true 
estimate  of  Indian  and  occidental  civilization  can  be  formed  by 
comparison.  These  four  books  are  the  Artha  Veda,  the  Dhannr  Veda, 
the  Ayur  Veda  and  the  G-andharva  Veda.  The  Artha  Veda  is  the 
Upa-  Vedi  that  deals  with  applied  Mechanics,  Engineering,  Per- 
spection,  Practical  Arts  (Chemical  and  Physical),  aud  Gvolo:.»;v.  The 
Ayur  Veda  is  the  Upd-vedn  that  deals  with  Surgery,  Botanv,  Phy 
siological  Chemistry,  Anatomy,  Physiology,  Materia  Medica  and 
Chemistry  and  cure  of  poison.  The  Gandharva  Veda  is  the  U[»i-  Vedd 
of  Music  or  fine  arts,  whereas  the  Dhanur  Veda  is  the  science  of 
Martial  appliances,  instruments  and  tactics. 

The  second  article,  important  as  it  is,  will  only  be  estimated  at 
its  due  worth,  in  the  progress  of  these  reviews.  In  the  course  of 
these  lectures  it  well  be  shown  how  far  Professor  Williams'  misre 
presents  or  otherwise,  or  rightly  translates  or  mistranslates,  gives 
genuine  explanations  or  forged  ones  of  portions  of  our  sac  rod 

The  third  article  shall  be  reviewed  full  at  the  end  of  the  whole 
course  of  these  reviews. 

We  come  now  to  tho  subject-matter  of  the  Introduction, 


It  deals  with  four  poirits.  Firstly,  it  gives  a  sketch  of  the  past 
and  present  condition.  The  main  portion  consists  of  a  geographical 
political  and  historicol  sketch  of  the  past  condition  of  India  as 
^magined  by  the  so-called  historians  and  philologists  to  be  true.  All 
this  is  foreign  to  the  purpose  of  my  review.  One  point,  however,  is 
worth  pointing  out.  It  is  where  he  gives  his  own  remarks  on  caste 

This  is  what  he  says  at  p.  24  of  his  Introduction  : — 

"  Even  in  districts  where  the  Hindus  are  called  by  one  name  and 
speak  one  dialect  they  are  broken  into  separate  classes  divided  from 
each  other  by  barriers  of  caste  far  more  difficult  to  pass  than  social 
distinctions  of  Europe,"  &c.,  &c.  "  This  separation  constitutes,  in 
point  of  fact,  an  essential  doctrine  of  their  religion.  The  growth  of 
the  Indian  caste  system  is,  perhaps,  the  most  remarkable  feature  in 
the  history  of  this  extraordinary  people.  Caste,  as  a  social  institution, 
meaning  thereby  conventional  rules  which  eeparate  the  grades  of 
society,  exists,  of  course,  in  all  countries.  In  England,  caste  in  this- 
sense  exerts  110  slight  authority.  But  with  us  caste  is  not  a  religious 

"  On  the  contrary,  our  religion,  though  it  permits  differences  of 
rank,  teaches  us  that  such  differences  are  to  be  laid  aside  in  the  wor 
ship  of  Grod,  and  that  in  His  sight  all  men  are  equal.  Very  different 
is  the  caste  of  the  Hindus.  The  Hindu  believes  that  the  Deity  re 
gards  men  as  unequal,  that  he  created  distinct  kinds  of  men  as  he 
created  varieties  of  birds  or  beasts ;  that  Brahmanas,  Kshatriyas, 
Vaishyas  and  Shudras  are  born  and  must  remain  distinct  from  each 
other ;  and  that  to  force  any  Hindu  to  break  the  rules  of  caste  is  to 
force  him  to  sin  against  God  and  against  nature/' 

Professor  Monier  Williams,  then,  points  out  that  caste  rules  in 
India  hinge  upon: — •  1,  Preparation  of  food;  2,  Inter-marriage ;  3,, 
Professional  pursuits.  Had  the  Baden  Professor  professed  to  base 
these  remarks  upon  personal  observations  or  accounts  of  India  as 
given  by  various  writers  on  the  subject,  we  would  have  nothing  to 
add,  but  the  Baden  Professor  regards  the  sacred  Sanskrit  literature 
to  be  the  only  key  to  "  the  satisfactory  knowledge  of  the  people  com 
mitted  to  our  (he  means  his  or  his  nation's)  rule/'  He  says  :  — 

"  Happily  India,  though  it  has  at  least  twenty  distinct  dialects, 
has  but  one  sacred  and  learned  language  and  one  literature,  accepted 
and  revered  by  all  adherents  of  Hinduism  alike,  however  diverse  ia 
race,  dialect,  rank  and  creed.'7 

And  it  is  upon  the  sacred  Sanskrit  literature  of  India  that  he  bases 
his  remarks.  Let  us  see  how  far  they  are  correct.  The  Professor^ 
asserts  : — 

I.  That  caste  system  in  India  is  a  religious  institution,  whereas 
it  is  only  a  social  institution  in  England.  It  is  good  for  our  brothers 
to  note  down  the  confession  that  there  is  costo  svstem  in  Englnnd 


II, — That,  according  to  Christianity,  all  people  are  alike  to 
but  in  Brahminism,  the  Deity  regards  men  as  unequal,  or 

III. — That  Brahmanas,  Kshatriyas  and  Vaishyas   are   born,  and 
IV. — That   only  people   of   the   same    caste  eat  together,  inter 
marry  and  pursue  the  same  professional  pursuits;  these   three  being 
the  tests  of  caste- 

With  regard  to  the  second  point,  that  according  to  the  doctrines 
of  Brahminism  God  regards  men  as  unequal,  I  quote  the  2nd  Mantra 
of  26th  Adhyaya  of  Yajur  Veda: — 


It  Which  means,  "  I  (God)  have  given  word 

(Revelation)  which  is  the  word  of  salvation  for  all  people,  Brahmanas, 
Kshatriyas/  Vaishyas,  Shudras,  and  even  Ati  Shudras..  Therefore. 
regard  no  one  as  unequal  among  yourselves,  but  try  to  be  loved 
by  all  wise  people,  to  distribute  gifts  among  ail,  and  always  desire 
the  well-being  of  alL" 

The  Mantra  is  very  clear,  and  I  have  quoted  it  to  show  that  the 
first  position  assumed  by  the  Baden  Professor  is  groundless.  We  come 
now  to  his  assertion  that  caste  is  a  religious  institution  and  not  a 
social  one  in  India.  Now  an  institution  is  called  a  religious  one 
when  distinctions  of  the  institution  are  maintained  on  the  ground 
that  they  are  obligatory  by  religion,  but  all  distinctions  maintained 
on  the  ground  of  differences  of  wealth,  learning  <uid  industry  are 
social  distinctions. 

Let  us  read  Manu  :  —  fttrn*TT  WT^  TOSZ  ^fazTOT^fT  ^rtesfrf  :  I 


M  This  means  that  the 

ground  of  distinction  among  Brahmanas  is  from  the  point  of  learning, 
that  among  Kshatriyas  is  on  account  of  physical  powers,  and  that 
among  Vaishyas  is  on  the  ground  of  wealth  and  possessions,  that 
among  Shudras  alone  does  birth  distinction  exist.  Lest  Monier 
Williams  may  mistake  my  sense  and  the  sense  of  Manu  and  assert  on 
the  face  of  these  quotations  that  Brahmanas,  Kshatriyas  and  Vaishyas 
are  born,  let  me  again  quote  Manu  :  —  • 

II     Which  means  that  Shudras  can  become   Brah- 
mans  and  Brahmans  Shudras  and  so  with  Kshatriyas  and  Vaishyas. 

Again  says  Manu,  5FU*r:  SfRffi  iTj:  ^^TTm^^f^or:  II  All 
people  are  born  Shudras*  but  by  ^r^TT  or  by  virtue  of 
^J^rarwWTf,  their  acquisitions  and  accomplishments,  be 
come  Brahmanas,  Kshatriyas  ^TW^  ^fa^T;  &c. 

52  M.  W.'s  INDIAN  WISDOM. 

The  fourth  position  taken  up  by  Monier  Williams  is  that  eating 
together,  inter-marriage  and  similarity  of  pursuits  define  a  caste. 
Among  these  three,  the  second  only  deserves  consideration.  For,  if 
similarity  of  pursuits  be  any  element,  it  might  be  as  reasonable  for 
Monier  Williams  to  regard  all  Professors  of  Schools  and  Colleges  in 
England  to  belong  to  one  caste.  The  same  remark  applies  to  food  and 
drink.  Eating  and  drinking  together  is  absolutely  prohibited  in  Manu 
not  only  for  people  of  different  castes,  but  for  all  individuals  alike. 

Says  Manu  : 

u    u 

Let  no  one  eat  from  the  same  dish  with   any   one  else,   let   none 
overfeed  himself  and  walk  out  after  dinner  without  a  hand-  wash. 

This  point,  therefore,    is  entirely    out    of  question.     What  now 
remains  is  the  question  of  inter-marriages.     We  will  here  again  quote 
Manu  :  — 

f?5frafaf  inren  wwiifa  i  ^roarer 

U  13  II  This  means  that  the  best  form 
of  first  marriage  is  that  in  which  the  male  and  female  are  of  the  same 
g^  or  what  is  wrongly  called  caste,  but  a  Shudra  woman 
should  only  marry  a  Shudra,  a  Vaishya  woman  aVaishya.  The 
Kshatriya  should  marry  a  srS[T  f  *$\  ^fcft  only,  and  the 
Brahmana  any. 

This  shows  that  a  ^*2JT«ft  or  Vaishya  woman  marrying 
a  Brahmana  is  allowable  and  so  for  others.  Professor  Monier  Williams 
asserted  that  caste  system  in  India  is  a  religious  institution,  but  it  is 
a  social  one  in  England.  We  have  proved  that  caste  system  is  not  a 
religious  institution  but  a  social  one  as  it  is  everywhere.  He  asserted 
that  in  Brahminic  religion  Deity  regards  all  men  as  unequal,  but  we 
have  proved  that  He  does  not.  He  asserted  that  Brahmans,  Kshatri- 
yas  and  Vaishyas  are  born.  We  have  proved  that  they  are  not,  but 
Shudras  are.  And  lastly  he  asserted  that  similarity  of  professions, 
inter-marriage  and  eating  together  are  the  characteristics  of  a  caste. 
We  have  shown  that  they  are  not.  We  now  leave  this  point  which 
is  peculiarly  illustrative  of  the  unrivalled  learning  of  the  Professor,  and 
come  to  the  second  part  of  his  Introduction  on  the  religion  of  the 

He  says  that  there  are  3  points  of  view  from  which  any  religion 
may  be  looked  at  —  1,  faith;  2,  work  or  ritual;  3,  doctrinei  or  dogmatic 
knowledge.  He  calls  the  1st  two,  faith  and  work  or  ritual,  the  exoteric 

of  religion;  and  doctrine^  or  dogmatic  knowledge,  the  esoteric 


side  of  religion.  After  laying  down  this  distinction,  he  says  that, 
viewed  from  an  esoteric  point  of  view,  the  Hindu  religion  is  Pantheism. 
He  says : — 

"  It  (Hindu  religion)  teaches  that  nothing  really  exists  but  the 
Universal  Spirit,  that  the  soul  of  each  individual  is  identical  with  that 
Spirit,  and  that  every  man's  highest  aim  should  be  to  get  rid,  for  ever, 
of  doing,  having  and  being,  and  devote  himself  to  profound  contem 
plation  with  a  view  to  obtain  such  spiritual  knowledge  as  should 
deliver  him  from  the  mere  illusion  of  separate  existence  and  force  upon 
him  the  conviction  that  he  is  himself  part  of  the  one  being  constitu 
ting  the  universe." 

We  shall  see  how  far  our  Baden  Professor  of  Sanskrit  is  right  in 
these  assertions.  He  says  that  Hindu  religion  teaches  ;*— 

I. — That  nothing  but  the  Universal  Spirit  exists, 
II. — That  each  individual  is  identical  with  this  Spirit. 

III. — That  every  man's  aim  should  be  to  get  rid  of  doing,  hav 
ing  and  being. 

IV. — That  each  soul  should  free  himself  from  being  in  his  separte 

V, — That  each  soul  is  part  of  the  one  being  constituting  the 

Let  us  now  examine  these  five  propositions; 

His  first  proposition  is  that  nothing  but  the  Universal  Spirit  exists, 

I  quote  here  from  an  Upanishat : — 

The  meaning  is  that  "  God,  matter  and  human  souls,  these  are  the 
three  eternal  substances,  ever  uncreated.  The  eternal  human  souls 
enjoy  the  eternal  matter  while  involved  in  material  existence.  Where 
as  the  third  eternal  substance,  God,  exists  for  ever,  but  is  neither  in 
volved  in  material  existence,  nor  enjoys  the  material  world."  Here  it 
is  said  that  not  universal  spirit  alone  exists,  but  matter  and  human 
souls  also  exist  co- eternally.  If  more  evidence  were  required  on  this 
head,  it  would  be  easy  to  quote  many  other  very  clear  passages,  but  I 
believe  the  above  is  clear  enough. 

Williams'  second  proposition  is  that  each  individual  is  identical 
with  the  Universal  Spirit.  Here,  let  me  quote  from  Brihadarannyaka 

Qpanishat : — q  ^n?*lfa  fos3«=«TTcfl«Tt$»:?f;ftMHl<rW  «T  ^^ 

V  *\  ^ 

;  11 

w.'s  INDIAN 

Says  Yajnavalkya  to  Maitreyi  in  answer  to  her  question,  "  O 
Maitreyi,  the  Universal  Spirit  who  pervades  even  the  human  soul  but 
is  distinct  from  the  human  soul,  whom  ignorant  human  soul  does  not 
know,  who  resides  in  the  innermost  of  the  human  soul,  who  is  distinct 
from  'human  soul  but  witnesses  the  actions  of  human  soul  and 
awards  or  punishes  him,  yes,  He,  even  He,  the  Universal  Spirit,  is  im 
mortal  and  also  pervades  thee." 

Williams'  third  proposition  resprct.W  P-nVmanical  religion  is  that 
it  teaches  every  man  the  duty  of  getting  rid  of  all  doing,  being  and 

having,  I  quote  here  from  the  40th  Chapter  of  the  Yajur  Veda:— 

wriWir  fsi^foiN  WK2  WRT  ;  i  *re  rera  ^sirift1  sfi?R  sra  ftnara 

«f^  (I   This  means  that  each  soul  should  desire  to  live  for  100  years  or 

more,  spending  his  life  in  doing  actions,  always  performing1  good  deeds. 
Thus  alone,  and  not  otherwise,  is  freedom  from  sin  and  pain  possible, 
The  purport  is  that  the  doing  of  action  or  good  deeds  is  the  first 

Williams'  fourth  proposition  i&that  each  should  free  himself  from 
the  delusion  of  separate  existence.  I  need  not  answer  this,  as  it  is 
clear  that,  believing  God  to  be  distinct  from  the  soul,  the  idea  of 
separate  existence  is  not  delusion,  and  if  this  be  not  a  delusion,  it  is 
not  a  proper  object  to  get  rid  of. 

The  fifth  assertion  is  that  each  soul  is  a  part  of  the  being  con 
stituting  the  universe.  If  anything  need  be  said  upon  this  head,  it 
will  suffice  to  say  that  not  in  one  Mantra  but  in  innumerable  Mantras 
of  Upanishads,5  the  Universal  Spirit  is  regarded  as  one  whole  without 

form,  body  or  parts,  ^ig  or  indivisible.     Since  God  has  no  parts,  it 

is  mere  by  absurd  to  believe  that  human  souls  can  be  parts  of  the  Uni 
versal  Spirit  that  is  incapable  of  being  divided  into  parts. 

Then,  in  order  to  reconcile  this  pantheistic  view,  which  does"not 
admit  of  any  necessity  of  faith,  work  or  ritual,  with  the  existence  of 
faiths,  innumerable  works  or  rituals  in  India,  Williams  forges  a  fallaci 
ous  reasoning  which  is  called  in  Sanskrit  logic  by  the  technical  name 
chhaL  He  says  that  believing  God  to  be  identical  with  human  souls 
the  Hindus  were  led  to  believe  that  human  souls  had  only  emanated 
from  God.  English  language  and  English  brain  may,  perhaps,  be 
capable  of  confounding  identity  with  emanation,  but,  unless  a  clear 
proof  of  it  is  given,  I  am  not  in  a  position  to  say  anything  respecting 
the  justification  of  Williams'  position. 

I  now  come  to  the  3rd  part  of  the  Introduction,  i.e.,  the  one 
respecting  the  Languages  of  India, 

CRITICISM  I.N.  .r>;"> 

>v  i 




Says  Monier  Williams  : — 

"  The  name  Sanskrit,  cs  applied  to  the  ancient  language  of  the 
Hindus,  is  an  artificial  designation  for  a  highly  elaborated  form  of  the 
language  originally  brought  by  the  Indian  branch  of  the  great  Aryan 
race  into  India.  This  original  tongue  soon  became  modified  by  con 
tact  with  the  dialects  of  the  aboriginal  races  who  preceded  the  Aryans, 
•and  in  this  way  converted  into  the  peculiar  language  (bhasha)  of  the 
Aryan  immigrants  who  settled  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  seven 
rivers  of  the  Punjab  and  its  outlying  districts  (Sapta  S  indhavas  =  in. 
Zend  Ilapta  Hend'u).  The  most  suitable  name  for  the  original  lang 
uage  thus  moulded  into  the  speech  of  the  Hindus  is  Hindu-i  (=Sindu-i, 
its  principal  later  development  being  called  Hindi,*  just  as  the  Low 
German  dialect  of  the  Angles  and  Saxons,  when  modified  in  Britain 
was  called  Anglo-Saxon.  But  very  soon  that  happened  in  India 
which  has  come  to  pass  in  all  civilized  countries.  The  spoken  lang 
uage,  when  once  its  general  form  and  character  had  been  settled, 
parated  'into  two  lines,  the  one  elaborated  by  the  learned,  the  other 
>pularized  and  variously  provincialized  by  the  unlearned.  In  India, 
owever,  from  the  greater  exclusiveness  of  the  educated  few,  the 
greater  ignorance  of  the  masses,  and  the  desire  of  a  proud  priesthood 
to  keep  the  key  of  knowledge  in  their  own  possession,  this  separation 
became  more  marked,  more  diversified,  and  progressively  intensified. 
Hence,  the  very  grammar  wrhich  with  other  nations  was  regarded 
only  as  a  means  to  an  end,  came  to  be  treated  by  Indian  Pandits 
as  the  end  itself,  and  was  subtilized  into  an  intricate  science, 
fenced  around  by  a  bristling  barrier  of  technicalities.  The  language, 
too,  elaborated  pari  past-it  with  the  grammar,  reje'cted  the  natural 
name  of  Hindu-i  or  '  the  speech  of  the  Hindus/  and  adopted  an  arti 
ficial  designation,  viz.  Suntikrita9  the  perfectly  constructed  'speech* 
(.va7/t  =  ro?i,  ATI  Ja=  fact  us,  '  formed  '),  to  denote  its  complete  severance 
from  vulgar  purposes,  and  its  exclusive  dedication  to  religion  and 
literature;  while  the  name  Prdkrita — which  may  mean  'the  original' 
as  well  as  '  the  derived  '  speech — was  assigned  to  the  common  dialect. 
This  itself  is  a  remarkable  circumstance ;  for,  although  a  similar  kind 
«ic  separation  has  happened  in  Enrope,  we  do  not  find  that  Latin 
.nd  Greek  ceased  to  be  called  Latin  and  Greek  when  they  became  the 
anguage  of  the  learned,  any  more  than  we  have  at  present  distinct 
ames  for  the  common  dialect  and  literary  language  of  modern 
•  tion." 

Herein  Monier  Williams  asserts  6  distinct  propositions  : 

i- — That  Sanskrit  (well-formed)  is  an  artificial  designation. 

It  may  he  thought  by  Pome  that  this  dialect  was  nearly  identical  with  the  Lang 
uage  of  the  Vedic  hyrnns,  and  the  latter  often  gives  genuine  Frakrita  forms  (as  Kvta  for 
krita) ;  but  even  Vedic  Sanskrit  presents  great  elaboration  scarcely  compatible  with  the 
notion  of  its  being  a  simple  original  dialect  (for  example,  in  the  use  of  complicated 
grammatical  forms  like  Intensive*),  and  Panini,  in  distinguishing  between  the  common 
language  and  the  Vedic,  us«-s  t la-  term  Rhcmha  in  contradistinction  lo  C'hhuHfia*  (the 

56  M.  w.'s  INDIAN  WISDOM. 

ii. — That  it  is  highly  elaborate. 

Hi. — That  it  was  modified  by  the  tongue  of  aboriginal   tribes  and 
gave  rise  to  Bhasha. 

•iv. — That  Grammar  is  so  elaborate  that   it  was  regarded    as  an 
end  and  not  as  a  means. 

v. — That  Sanskrit  Grammar  is  an  intricate  science   fenced  by  a* 
bristling  barrier  of  technicalities. 

vi. — That   Prakrit   means  the   original   tongue. 
We   will  take  each  of  his  propositions  turn  by  turn. 

A  designation  is  artificial  when  it  is  arbitrarily  chosen  not  on  the 
ground  of  the  sense  expressed  by  it.  For  an  individual  being  called 
John,  or  Monier  Williams,  John  or  Monier  Williams  is  an  artificial 
designation,  because  it  does  not  signify  any  attribute  or  attributes  of 
the  individual  which  the  word  Monier  Williams  denotes.  Well,  then, 
is  Sanskrit  an  artificial  designation  ?  He  himself  admits  that  Sanskrit 
means  well-formed.  Let  us  see  if  Sanskrit  is  well  formed.  *  *  *  *  * 

*  Manuscript  missing.-  ED. 



Monier  Williams'  "Indian  Wisdom." 



I  COME  now  to  Monier  Williams'  Lecture  on  "  The  Hymns  of  the 
Vedas."     He  proposes  in  this  lecture  to  offer  examples  of  the  most  re 
markable  religious,    philosophical   and  ethical    teachings  of  ancient 
Hindu  authors.     He    can    hardly    convey    '  an    adequate  idea  of    the 
luxuriance  6f  Sanskrit  literature.'     He    complains  of    'the  richness  of 
the  materials  '  at  his  command,  for,  he  confesses   his   inability    to    do 
justice  to  it.     But  let  us  not   think  that  a  man  of  Monier  Williams' 
temper  can  ever  be  too  warm  in  his  panegyrics  on  such  bosh  as  Hindu 
writings.     They  are  '  too  often  marked  by  tedious  repetitions,  redun 
dant  epithets  and   far-fetched  conceits.     In  Sanskrit  there  is  not  to 
be  found  that  coldness  and  severe  simplicity  which  characterizes  an 
Englishman's  writings.     He  lives  in   a  climate  too   cold   to  admit  of 
oriental  warmth  of  style.     He  is  surrounded  by  too  severe  and  simple 
a  civilisation  in  England  to  admit  of  the  gentle  but  complex  civilisation 
of  India.     The  standard  of  judgment  set  upon  India  differs  very  much 
from  that  set  upon  England.     '  With  Hindu  authors  excellence  is  apt 
to  be  measured  by  magnitude/  and  '  quality  by  quantity/     But  he  can 
not  close    his  eyes  against   '  the  art  of   condensation  so  successfully 
cultivated  as  in  some  departments  of  Sanskrit  Literature'    (he  means 
the   Sutras).     And  in  reconciling  his  view  with  the  existence  of  the 
Sutras,  Professor  Williams  offers  an    explanation.     It  is  this,    "  Pro 
bably    the   very  prolixity  natural  to  Indian  writers  led  to  the  opposite 
extreme  of  brevity,  not  merely  by  a  law  of  reaction,   but   by    tho 
necessity  for  providing  the  memory  with  "  aids  and  restoratives"  when 
oppressed  and  debilitated  by  too  great  a  burden."  Professor  Williams 
would  have  been  perfectly  right  in  passing  the  above  remarks,  were 
it  not  that  the  Sanskrit  writings  that  abound  in  prolixity  have  followed 
and  not  preceded  the  condensed  literature  in  point  of  time.     Leaving 
out   of  account  the  Vedas  which  are  the  starting  point  of    Indian 
literature,  the  Upanishats,    the    Upavedas    and    especially    the    six 
Drashanas  may  be  called  the  condensed  literature  of  India;  whereas 
the  later  novels,  dramas,  puranas  and  vrittis  and  tikas  may,  with  per 
fect  truth,  be  styled  the  prolix  literature  of  India.     Now,  not  a  single 
line    of     the    Upanishats   or    the    Upavedas    or  the  Darshanas  was 
written    posterior   to  the  puranas  t   tho    dramas,    &c.  ;   and  Professor 
Williams  also   admits  this.     What   meaning  are    wo,  to  attach,  then,. 

58  M.    NV/S    INDIAN    WISDOM. 

to  Williams'  assertion  that  the  condensed  [literature  was  due  to 
a  law  of  reaction  ?  Does  Monier  Williams  mean  that  long  before 
there  had  occurred  an  action,  i.  e.  long  before  the  prolix  literature 
came  to  be  written,  there  had  set  in  a  reaction,  i.e.  that  of  condensed 
writings  ?  Monier  Williams  is  much  to  be  credited  for  his  logic,  for, 
according  to  him,  a  reaction  precedes  the  action  of  which  it  is  a 
reaction.  Supernatural  Christianity,  which  is  the  religion  of  Monier 
Williams,  finds  a  very  true  advocate  in  him.  A  son  without  a  father 
is  what  Christianity  would  have  us  believe.  But  Monier  Williams 
would  rather  that  the  son  existed  long  before  the  birth  of  his  father. 
We  shall  find,  as  we  proceed  further  on ,  that  this  is  not  in  any  way  a 
startling  proposition  as  compared  with  others  that  Monier  Williams 
has  yet  to  assert.  His  second  reason  is  that  the  ancients  had  recourse 
to  the  condensed  methods  of  writing  as  aids  and  restoratives  to  an 
oppressed  and  debilitated  memory.  Now,  gentlemen,  be  fair  and 
judge  yourselves.  What  was  there  to  oppress  and  debilitate 
the  memory  ?  Was  it  the  Upanishats,  the  Upavedas  or  the  Brah- 
manas  ?  Professor  Williams  must  be  bluntly  ignorant  of  Sanskrit 
literature,  if  he  thinks  that  the  Upanishats,  the  Brahmanas  or  the 
Upavedas  could  oppress  or  debilitate  the  memory.  It  is  one  of  the 
blessings  of  modern  civilisation  to  deteriorate  the  intellect  and  enslave 
memory.  I  here  quote  from  a  number  of  a  well-known  scientific 
paper,  "Nature,"  dated  25th  January,  1883: 

"  Few  students  of  science  can  fail  to  feel,  at  times,  appalled  by  the 
ever-increasing  flood  of  literature  devoted  to  science  and  the  difficulty 
of  keeping  abreast  of  it  even  in  one  special  and  comparatively  limited 
branch  of  inquiry.  Were  merely  the  old  societies  and  long-established 
journals  to  continue  to  supply  their  contributions,  these,  as  they  arrive 
from  all  parts  of  the  country  and  from  all  quarters  of  the  globe,  would 
be  more  than  enough  to  tax  the  energy  of  even  the  most  ardent 
enthusiast.  But  new  societies,  new  journals,  new  independent  works 
start  up  at  every  turn,  till  one  feels  inclined  to  abandon  in  despair 
the  attempt  to  keep  pace  with  the  advance  of  science  in  more  than 
one  limited  department." 

"One  of  the  most  striking  and  dispiriting  features  of  this  rapidly 
growing  literature  is  the  poverty  or  worthlessness  of  a  very  large  part 
of  it.  The  really  earnest  student  who  honestly  tries  to  keep  himself 
acquainted  with  what  is  being  done,  in  at  least  his  own  branch  of 
science,  acquires  by  degrees  a  knack  of  distinguishing,  as  it  were,  by. 
instinct,  the  papers  that  he  ought  to  read  from  those  which  have  no 
claim  on  his  attention.  But  how  often  may  he  be  heard  asking  if  no 
moans  can  be  devised  for  preventing  the  current  of  scientific  litera 
ture  from  becoming  swollen  and  turbid  by  the  constant  impouring  of 
what  he  can  call  by  no  better  name  than  rubbish," 

If  more  evidence  were  required  on  this  head,  I  would  refer  the 
reader  to  the  prevalent  systems  of  education  for  a  verification  of  the 


results.  Who  is  here  that  does  not  acknowledge  the  all-importance  of. 
cramming  in  passing  the  examination  ?  Who  is  here  that  would  not 
evince  to  the  fact  of  mathematics  and  even  philosophy  being  nowadays 
learnt  on  the  cram  system  ?  It  is  not  India  alone  that  is  teeming  with 
these  deformities.  Much  more  so  is  this  the  case  with  England.  There 
the  cry  of  memory  complaints  has  risen  so  high  that  many  professors 
have  set  up  entirely  new  schools  of  memory  training  with  the  ^xpresa 
object  of  saving  poor  English  memories  from  utter  destruction  and 
ruin.  Is  it  not  clear,  then,  that  the  prolixity  of  literature,  the 
"  exuberant  verbosity"  and  the  worthlessness  and  rubbish  character, 
of  which  Monier  Williams  so  much  complains,  are  more  to  be  found 
in  his  own  camp  of  modern  civilisation  than  in  the  natural,  simple, 
and  invigorating  writings  of  the  authors  of  the  Upanishats,  the  Upa- 
vedas  and  the  Darshanas.  To  prove  this,  let  me  quote  here  from  the 
well-known  Upaveda,  Sushruta,  on  medical  science. 

The  meaning  of  which  is  that  "  the  various  physiological  subjects 
called  5c27,  ^r,  ip^,  sftw,  &c.,  &c.,  are  subjects,  which  some 
times  even  puzzle  the  most  clear-headed  intellect.  Let  every  student 
of  medical  science,  then,  apply  his  ff  (^intellect)  in  com 

prehending  or  understanding  these  principles  and  let  him  reflect." 
There  is  no  need  of  multiplying  quotations,  for,  it  cannot  be  doubted 
that  the  Upanishats,  the  Niruktas,  the  Upavedas  and  the  Darshanas 
are  all  addressed  to  the  intellect,  and  the  complaint  is  that  they  often 
puzzle  the  most  clear-headed  intellects  and  not  that  they  cannot  be 
remembered.  It  is  clear,  then,  that  ihe  condensed  literature  of 
Sanskrit,  the  Sutras,  are  not  due  to  reaction,  and  that  "they  are  not 
aids  or  restoratives  to  memory,  but  rather  appeal  to  the  intellect  OP 
the  faculties  of  understanding. 

Professor  Williams  now  passes  from  this,  which  is  a  pure  digres 
sion  from  the  subject,  to  the  proper  subject.  Only  once  before  the 
treatment  of  the  subject,  like  an  impartial  writer,  he  inculcates  tlio 
of  studying  fairly  and  without  prejudice  Hie  other  religions  <>( 

60  M.    TV.'s  INDIAN  WISDOM. 

the  world.  That  his  fairness  and  freedom  from  prejudice  may  not 
be  ill  judged,  I  again  quote  from  the  fair  and  unprejudiced  Christian, 
Professor  Moiiier  Williams  ;  — 

"  For,  may  it  not  be  maintained,  that  the  traces  of  the  original 
t  ruth  imparted  to  mankind  should  be  diligently  sought  for  in  every  re 
ligious  system,  however  corrupt,  so  that  when  any  fragment  of  tlu& 
living  rook  is  discovered,  it  may  at  once  be  converted  into  a  fulcrum 
for  the  upheaving  of  the  whole  mass  of  surrounding  error  ?  At  all 
events,  it  may  reasonably  be  conceded  that  if  nothing  true  or  sound 
can  be  shown  to  underlie  the  rotten  tissue  of  decaying  religious 
systems,  the  truth  of  Christianity  may  at  least  in  this  manner  be  more 
clearly  exhibited  and  its  value  by  contrast  made  more  conspicuous." 

Leaving  Monier  Williams  with  his  hopes  regarding  the  not- 
decaying  but  living  Christianity  aside,  for  the  moment,  we  come  now 
to  the  proper  subject.  Professor  Williams  confesses  that  "the  idea 
of  a  revelation,  though  apparently  never  entertained  in  a  definite 
manner  by  the  Greeks  and  Romans,  is  perfectly  familiar  to  the 
Hindus." '  But  the  Vedas  are  not  a  revelation  in  the  sense  in  which 
the  Bible  is  to  the  Christian  or  the  Qoran  to  the  Mohamedan. 

The  Qoran  is  "a  single  volume  manifestly  the  work  of  one  author, 
descended  entire  from  heaven  in  the  night  called  alqadr,  in  the  month 
of  Ramazan."  "  The  Old  Testament  was  furnished  with  its  accompani 
ments  of  Chaldee  translations  and  paraphrases  called  Targums."  But 
"  the  word  Yedn  "  says  Professor  Williams,  "  means  knowledge  ;  and 
is  a  term  applied  to  Divine  unwritten  knowledge,  imagined  to  have 
issued  like  breath  from  the  Self-existent,  and  communicated  to  no 
single  person,  but  to  a  whole  class  of  men  called  Rishis  or  inspired 
sages.  By  them  the  divine  knowledge  thus  apprehended  was  trans 
mitted,  not  in  writing,  but  through  the  ear,  by  constant  oral  repeti 
tion,  through  a  succession  of  teachers,  who  claimed  as  Brahmins  to 
be  its  rightful  recipients Moreover,  when  at  last,  by  its  con 
tinued  growth,  it  became  too  complex  for  mere  oral  transmission, 
then  this  Veda  resolved  itself,  not  into  one  single  volume,  like  the 
Qoran,  but  into  a  whole  series  of  compositions,  which  had  in  reality 
been  composed  by  a  number  of  different  poets  and  writers  at  different 
times  during  several  centuries." 

Monier  Wiliams  herein  asserts  : — 

1- — That  the  Vedas  are  really  unwritten  knowledge  issuing   like 
breath  from  the  Self-existent. 

IT. — That  they  were  communicated  to  a  whole  class  of  men  called 
Rishis-  or  inspired  sages. 

III. — That  they  continued   to   grow,  hence   their  present   written 
Ibook  form. 

CRITICISM  0!f  6f 

IV. — That  the  Vedas  are  a  series  of  compositions  by  a  number  of 
different  poets  and  writers  at  different  times  during  several  cen 

We  will  take  Professor  Wiliams'  propositions  one  by  one.  His 
first  proposition  is  that  the  Vedas  are  really  unwritten  knowledge 
issuing  like  breath  from  the  Self-existent,  Now,  does  Professor 
Williams  imagine  that  there  can  ever  be  anything  like  a  written 
knowledge  ?  But  it  is  here  clearly  to  be  understood  that  I  am  not 
here  speaking  of  the  knowledge  being  written  down,  but  of  written- 
knowledge.  Professor  Williams  seems  to  imagine  that  the  Vedas 
are  laboring  under  a  very  serious  defect.  The  Christians,  he  seems 
to  think,  have  a  definite  revelation,  as  it  is  put  down  in  black  and 
white ;  and  so  have  the  Mohamedans,  for,  their  book  descended  from 
heaven  in  its  present  form.  He,  therefore  imagines  that  the  Christians 
have  a  settled  revelation,  a  something  definite  to  lay  their  hand* 
upon  as  their  sacred  books,  but  the  Veda  being  unwritten  knowledge 
is  not  tangible,  is  not  a  reality  or  a  something  definite.  In  this  he 
is  entirely  wrong,  and,  if  not  wrong,  he  very  sadly  betraya  a  want  of 
philosophical  culture.  For,  Vedas  being  unwritten  knowledge,  let 
me  ask, — Can  there  be  anything  which  can  with  philosophical  precision 
be  called  written  knowledge  ?  Let  us  be  clear  on  the  subject.  A 
revelation  is  a  revelation  in  so  far  as  it  is  revealed  to  some  body. 
The  Bible  is  alleged  to  be  a  revelation,  it  was  therefore  revealed  to 
some  body.  A  revelation  is  only  a  revelation  in  so  far  as  it  is  re 
vealed  to  the  intellect,  i.e.,  in  so  far  as  tKe  person  to  whom  it  is 
revealed,  becomes  directly  conscious  of  the  facts  revealed.  Admitting, 
then,  that  the  Bible  is  a  revelation,  and  that  there  was  some  body 
to  whom  it  was  revealed,  that  some  body  must  have  been  conscious 
of  the  contents  of  this  revelation.  Is  this,  his  consciousness  of  the 
facts  revealed,  in  any  way  distinct  from  the  knowledge  of  the  facts 
revealed  ?  If  not,  then  the  Bible  is  a  knowledge,  and,  in  so  far  as 
it  lay  in  the  consciousness  of  the  person  to  whom  it  was  revealed, 
which  is  the  true  signification  of  the  word  revelation,  it  was  un 
written  knowledge.  Thus,  then,  the  Bible  revelation  is  also  an  un 
written  knowledge,  and  Professor  Williams  cannot  in  any  way  free 
himself  from  the  dilemma  that  either  Bible  revelation  itself  is  an 
unwritten  knowledge  and  in  that  case  does  not  differ  in  any  way 
from  the  Revelation  of  the  Vedas  which  is  also  unwritten  knowledge, 
or  that  the  Bible  is  a  mere  record  not  felt  in  consciousness,  but  made 
to  descend  just  as  Qoran  descended  to  Mahomed,  Mahomed  himself 
being  illiterate,  not  understanding  it,  but  only  being  specially  directed 
and  empowered  by  God  to  circulate  it  for  the  spread  of  faith.  In 
this  case,  the  Bible  is  no  more  a  revelation.  It  is  a  mere  dead-letter 
book  sent  miraculously  through  some  people  who  themselves  did  not 
understand  it.  Can  Professor  Williams  get  rid  of  this  difficulty  ? 
The  fact  is  that  he  w«ints  to  sing  praises  of  popular  dogmatic 
Christianity,  and  being  afraid  lest  he  should  be  called  a  heretic,  con- 

M.  W.  8  INDIAN  WiS'DOM. 

descends  to  let  tlie  Bible  rot  into  a  mere  dead-letter  book,  rather 
than  accept  a  position  which  should  make  him  to  be  considered  a 
heretic.  Whether  it  is  more  philosophical  to  believe  that  God  sent 
a  sealed  book  which  descended  entire,  or  that  God  only  reveals  to 
the  understanding  of  some  who  thus  illuminated  record  down  what 
they  are  revealed  to,  is  for  you  to  judge.  So  far  with  respect  to  the 
first  part  of  the  1st  proposition  asserted  by  Professor  Williams.  • 

We  now  come  to  the  2nd  part.  This  refers  to  the  mode  of  re-1 
relation  of  the  Veda  or  the  origin  of  the  Veda.  He  says  :  — 

"There  are  numerous  inconsistencies  in  the  accounts  of  the  pro 
duction  of   the  Veda  ......   1.     One  account  makes  it  issue 

from  the  Self-existent  like  breath,  by  the  power  of  adriMa,  without 
any  deliberation  or  thought  on  His  part  ;  2.  another  makes  the  four 
Vedas  issue  from  Brahman  like  smoke  from  burning  fuel  ;  3.  another 
educes  them  from  the  elements  ;  4.  another  from  Gayatri  ;  5.  a  hymn 
in  the  Atharva  Veda  educes  them  from  kala  or  Time  (XIX.  54);  6. 
The  Shatapatha  Brahman  asserts  that  the  Creator  brooded  over  the 
three  worlds  and  thence  produced  three  lights,  the  fire,  the  air  and 
the  sun,  from  which  respectively  were  extracted  the  Big,  Yajur  and 
Sam-Vedas.  Maim  (I.  23)  affirms  the  same.  7.  In  the  Purusha 
Sukta,  the  three  Vedas  are  derived  from  the  mystical  victim  Purusha.  8, 
Lastly,  by  the  Mirnansakas  the  Veda  is  declared  to  be  itself  an  eternal 
Sound  and  to  have  existed  absolutely  from  all  eternity,  quite  inde 
pendently  of  any  utterer  or  revealer  of  its  text.  Hence  it  is  often 
called  Shnda}  "  what  is  heard."  9.  In  opposition  to  all  this,  we  have 
the  rishis  themselves  frequently  intimating  that  the  mantras  were 
composed  by  themselves." 

In  this  little  paragraph  Professor  Williams  points  out  that  there 
are  nine  different  conflicting  theories  maintained  with  respect  to  the" 
production  of  the  Vedas,  and  enumerates  the  nine  theories  and  thinks 
that  he  has  done  enough  to  demolish  the  ground  of  Vedic  revelation. 
But  he  is  sadly  mistaken.  He  simply  betrays  the  woeful  depth  of 
his  ignorance  of  even  the  ordinary  Sanskrit  words,  not  to  speak  of 
the  higher  Sanskrit  literature.  The  fact  is  that  not  only  are  there  no 
nine  conflicting  hypotheses,  but  that  these  are  one  and  the  same 
hypothesis  invariably  maintained  by  each  and  all  of  the  ancient  Vedic 
writers.  The  one  unitary  conception  concerning  the  production  of 
the  Vedas  is  that  the  Vedas  are  a  spontaneous  emanation  from  the 
Deity,  an  involuntary  natural  and  original  procession  of  God's  innate 
wisdom  and  knowledge  principles  into  this  world.  It  is  this  one 
•uniform  idea  which  is  maintained  throughout.  Let  us  take  each  one 
'of  the  theories  enumerated  by  Professor  Williams. 

The  Vedas  issued  from  the  Self  -existent  like  breath.  Says  Shata- 

|patha,  Kanda  14,  Adhyaya  5—  ijcf  m  ^ftsTO  *Jf  <Tt 

I  The   meaning 

CRITICISM    Otf  63 

is  that  Yajnavalkya  replies  to  Maitreyi  in  answer  to  her  question,  "O 
Maitreyi,  the  Vedas  have  proceeded  from  God,  who  is  even  more 
omnipresent  than  ether  and  more  extensive  than  space,  as  naturally  and 
spontaneously  as  the  breath  proceeds  spontaneously  and  involuntarily 
from  the  human  organism,"  and  not  deliberately  and  with  thought  as 
Professor  Williams  will  have  his  own  revelation,  for  the  God  of  Truth 
And  the  God  of  the  Universe,  who  is  also  the  God  of  the  Aryas 
need  not  trouble  the  cerebral  substance  of  his  brain  with  violent 
vibrations  to  produce  the  thought  of  imparting  a  revelation  to  man 
kind.  Wisdom  and  knowledge  flow  from  God  as  naturally  and 
spontaneously  as  the  breath  flows  in  and  out  from  the  human  orga 
nism.  The  power  of  adrihta  to  which  Professor  Williams  refers  in  his 
note,  is  nothing  different  from  the  invisible,  spiritual  potency  of  the 
recipients  of  the  revelation  to  receive  the  revelation  of  the  Vedas. 
This,  then,  is  the  first  account. 

We  come  now  to  the  second.  According  to  this,  the  Vedas 
issue  from  Brahman  like  smoke  from  burning  fuel.  The  meaning  is 
very  clear.  It  is  that  the  Vedas  proceed  from  Brahman,  God,  as 
spontaneously  as  the  smoke  proceeds  from  burning  fuel  silently, 
noiselessly,  naturally  and  without  any  exertion.  The  central  idea  is 
yet  the  same,  but  to  the  jaundiced  eye  of  Monier  Williams  this  is  a 
second  account  inconsistent  with  the  first. 

The  third  hypothesis  accounts  for  the  origin  of  the  Vedas  from 
the  elements.  Here  Professor  Williams  is,  wrong  in  his  translation. 
The  original  word  in  Sanskrit  for  what  he  calls  .the  elements  is 

Now  Wrf   does  not   mean  elements    but   Godhead. 


^rfl  —  God  is    called    Bhuta,    as    all 

things  that  have  ever  existed  exist  in  Him.  To  convey  the  idea  that 
the  Vedas  have  existed  for  ever  in  the  womb  of  the  Divine  Wisdom, 
the  Vedas  are  spoken  of  as  issuing  from  Bhuta,  i.  e.y  God  who  is  tliu 
Universal  Intelligent  repository  of  all  things  past  or  old,  i.  e.,  all 
eternal  essences  and  principles.  This  account  does  not  in  the  least 
conflict  with  the  first  two,  but  the  poetical  use  of  the  word  bhutu,  for 
God  rather  more  sublimely  expresses  the  same  sentiment. 

The  fourth  account  is  that  of  the  Vedas  proceeding  from  Gayatri. 
There  also  Professor  Williams  betrays  his  entire  ignorance  of  Vedic 
literature  by  sayiug  that  this  fourth  account  is  a  different  one,  incon 
sistent  with  the  three  foregoing  ones.  In  3rd  Chapter,  14th  Section 

Nighantu,  which  is  the  lexicon  of  Vedic  terms,  we  have  ?U3fa 

.  the  meanin     of  which  is  that 

the  root  Jimfn  signifies  Wfe  to  worship.      Hence,  th^Being 
*4io  deserves    to  be    adored  and  worshipped    by  all,  is  called 


:.  So  also  says  Nirukta  in  its  7th   Adhyaya,  III  Pad, 
and  6th  Section,  urcnft  iraifc  *fa  WTOfH  TOW  3T   faqftrlT 

The   Vedas,    then,    have 

proceeded  from  Gayatri,  i.  e.t  God  who   is  worshipped   and   adored 
by  all. 

Now  comes  the  5th  account  of  the  same  in  the  3rd  Mantra  of  5th 
Kanda  of  1  9th  Chapter.  cRT*n£^:  *TflH3R  gsr.  cffT^T^tTO?! 
which  Monier  Williams  translates  as  if  meaning  that  Rig  and  Yajur 
Vedas  have  been  produced  by  time  (  ^?ra  )•  Here  again, 

our    learned    Boden    Professor    of    Sanskrit    and    world-renowned 
Oriental    Scholar    does    not  understand    the  meaning    of    the  word 

Says    Nighantu,    Chap.     II,    Kanda  14, 

fTWTff   ^RfT^ft    which   means    that   the    Spirit    that   is 
intelligent  and  pervades  all  is  called  kola   or    3?RRlf?T  jfegfa 
:  that  Infinite  Being  in  whose   comparison 

all  that  exists  is  measurable,  is  called  kola.  Kala,  therefore,  is  the 
name  of  the  same  Infinite  Being,  the  same  God  Gayatri  or  Brahma 
or  Swayambhu  from  whom  the  Vedas  have  been  described  to  proceed 
in  the  first  four  accounts  given  above. 

We  come  now  to  the  sixth.  No  mistake  can  be  more  serious  on 
the  part  of  Monier  Williams  than  the  one  he  has  committed  in  render 
ing  Shatpatha  Brahmana's  account  of  the  origin  of  the  Vedas.  Ac 
cording  to  this  account,  the  Creator  brooded  over  the  three  worlds 
and  thence  produced  three  lights,  fire,  the  air,  and  the  sun,  from 
which  respectively  were  extracted  the  Rig,  Yajur  and  Sama  Vedas. 
Here  also  Williams'  mistake  lies  in  substituting  English  worlds  for 
Sanskrit  ones.  William's  own  translation  only  with  the  modification 
of  putting  the  original  Sanskrit  words  for  which  he  has  put  the  Eng 
lish  ones  will  be  :  God,  the  Creator,  brooded  over  the  three  worlds 

and  thence  produced  the  three  jyotis,   ^rfi»r  ^Ttf    and  ^ft    and 

thence  extracted  the  three  Vedas.     Now  jyoti   does  not    mean    light 
but  illuminated  being,  man  in  the  spiritual  state,  i.  e.,  in  the    superior 

condition,  and    "Sffje?  3THT  and  ^f%  are  no  names    for  fire,   air 

and  sun,  bnt  are  names  of  three  men.  The  meaning  of  the  passage 
then,  is  that  God  in  the  beginning,  created  the  organizations  which 
received  the  spirits  of  ihree  men  known  by  the  names  of  Agni,  Vayn 


and  Ravi.     To  these  three  rishis,  *ffhf:  sntf  and  ^fa,\inen   iii 

the  superior  condition,  God   revealed   the   knowledge   of  Rig, 

and  Sama  respectively.     Now,  in  what    way     does  it    contradict    the 

other  explanations  ?     Nor  does  Manu  prove  what  Williams  says.  Says 

Maim  :— 

This  means  that  the  three  Vedas,  Rig  Yajur  and  Sama  were  re 
vealed  to  the  three  rishis,  Agni,  Vayu  and  Ravi,  to  give  a  knowldege 
of  how  to  accomplish  the  purpose  of  life  in  this  world. 

We  come  now  to  the  7th  account  in  Purusha  Sukta,  where  accord 
ing  to  Monier  Williams,  the  Vedas  are  derived  from  the  mystical 
victim,  Purusha.  I  here  quote  the  Mantra  of  the  Purusha  Sukta  :  — 


The  plain  meaning  of  which  is  that  Rig,  Yajuh,  Sama,  and 
Chhandas  or  Atharva  Vedas  have  proceeded  from  that  Purusha  who  ia 
Yajna  and  Sarvahuta.  Williams  renders  it  into  the  mystical  victim, 
Purusha.  But  he  is  in  the  wrong.  Purusha  is  the  universal  spirit 
that  pervades  all  nature.  Says  Nirukta  II.  1.  5. 


the  meaning  of  which  is  that  God  is  called  Purusha,  because  he  is 
jftwi,  that  is,  hepervads  the  universe  and  even  lives  in  the 

interior  of  the  human  soul.  It  is  in  this  sense  that  the  mantra  of  the 
Veda  is  revealed,  saying  there  is  nothing  superior  to  God, 
nothing  separate  from  him,  nothing  more  refined,  nothing  more  ex 
tended.  He  holds  all  but  is  himself  unmoved.  He  is  the  only  one. 
Yes,  He,  even  Ho,  is  the  spirit  that  pervades  all.  It  is  clear  then 
that  Purusha  means  the  universal  spirit  of  God.  We  come  now  to  tho 
second  word  Yajna.  Says  Nirukta,  III,  4,  2  :  — 


The  meaning  is  this.  Why  is  Yajana  the  name  of  God  ;  Because 
He  is  prime  mover  of  all  the  forces  of  nature  ;  because  He  is  the  only 
being  to  bo  worshipped  ;  and  because  to  Him  the  Yajur  mantras  point 
out.  The  moaning,  then,  of  the  passage  of  Purusha  Sukta  quoted 
by  Williams  is  this  ;  From  that  God  who  i;,  called  Purusha,  i.  c.}  tho 

66  M.  W/S  INDIAN    WISDOM. 

Universal  Spirit,  arid  who   is  also    called   Yajna   for   reasons    given 
above  have  proceeded  the  Rig,  Yajur,  Sama  and  Atharvan. 

Eighthly,  the  Mimansakas  declare  the  Yedas  to  be  eternal  and 
independently  existent,  a  view  which  does  not  at  all  conflict  with 
the  former  ones. 

And  lastly,  says  Williams,  "  We  have  the  rishis  themselves  fre 
quently  intimating  that  mantras  were  composed  by  themselves."  In 
these  days  of  spiritualism,  no  wonder  if  the  spirits  of  the  rishis 
appeared  before  Monier  Williams  and  mystically  whispered  into  his 
ears  the  composition  of  the  Vedas  by  themselves.  But  in  so  far  as 
the  writings  of  the  rishis  themselves  go,  not  only  is  the  assertion  of 
Williams  merely  false  and  baseless  but  positively  injurious  and  very 
perverted.  For  the  rishis  themselves  declare  themselves  to  be  not 
at  all  the  authors  of  the  Vedas.  The  Vedas  are  regarded  by  all  of 
them  as  apaurusheya,  i.  e.,  not  the  production  of  human  beings.  I  will 
quote  here  Nirukta  I,  6,  5  :  — 

TO=cnr^:  I     Also,  Nirukta  II,  3.  2,  as  follows  :  — 


The  meaning  of  these  is  that  rishis  were  those  people  who  had 
realised  the  truths  in  the  ./mantras  and  having  done  so  began  to 
enlighten  those  of  their  fellow-brethren  who  were  ignorant  of  the 
truths  in  the  same.  Further  on,  says  Aupamanyava,  the  rishis  are 
only  the  seers  of  the  mantras,  but  not  the  composers. 

We  have  now  shortly  dismissed  with  the  first  proposition  of 
Williams  and  partly  with  the  second.  The  assertion  of  Williams  that 
the  mantras  of  the  Vedas  were  composed  by  a  whole  class  of  men 
called  rishis  is  entirely  baseless.  Not  only  were  they  not  composed 
by  the  whole  class,  but  not  even  by  one  individual  of  that  class.  The 
reason  why  Williams  regards  this  to  be  so,  is  that  every  mantra  of 
the  Vedas  gives  four  things,  its  Chhanda,  Swara,  Devata  and  Bishi. 
The  name  of  the  rishi  only  indicates  the  man  who,  for  the  first  time> 
taught  the  meanings  of  that  mantra  to  the  world  at  large. 

The  third  proposition  of  Williams  is  that  Vedas  continued  to 
grow  till  they  became  so  bulky  that  their  division  into  the  present 
four  volumes  became  necessary.  Here,  again,  Monier  Williams  be 
trays  his  ignorance  of  Sanskrit.  For,  the  four-  fold  classification  of 
the  Vedas,  which  according  to  Williams  is  due  to  the  accretion  of 
compositional  matter,  and  not  to  any  systematic  and  logical  principle.. 
I  refer  the  reader  to  what  I  once  published  in  the  Arya  Patrika 
dated  13th  July  1886  :— 

"The  word  "  Rig  signifies  the  expression  of  the  nature  and  pro  " 
perties  of,  and  the  actions  and  reactions  produced  by,  substances/ 

rfilTlflSM  ON  67 

Hence,  the  name  has  been  applied  to  Rig  Veda  as  its  function  is  to 
describe  the  physical,  chemical  and  active  properties  of  all  material 
substances  as  well  as  the  psychological  properties  of  all  mental 
substances.  Next  to  a  knowledge  of  things,  conies  the  practice, 
application  of  that  knowledge,  for  all  knowledge  has  some  end, 
that  end  being  usefulness  to  man.  Hence,  Yajur  Veda  comes  next 
to  Rig  Veda,  the  meaning  of  Yajur  being  application.  It  is  upon  this 
double  principle  of  liberal  and  professional  or  technical  education 
that  the  well-known  division  of  the  course  of  study  of  Aryans,  the 
Vedas,  into  Rig  and  Yajur  is  based/7 

After  a  knowledge  of  the  universe  and  the  practice  of  that  know 
ledge,  comes  the  elevation  and  exaltation  of  human  faculties,  which 
alone  is  compatible  with  the  true  Upasna  of  Brahma.  The  Sama 
Veda  has,  for  its  function,  the  expression  of  those  mantras  which 
lead  to  this^exaltation  of  mind,  in  which  one  enters  in  the  superior 
condition  and  becomes  illuminated. 

Let  us  not  mock  at  the  position  taken  by  the  Aryas  with  respect 
to  the  nature  of  the  Vedas,  for  there  are  reasons  enough  to  justify 
this  position.  Not  being  a  novel  position  at  all,  it  is  the  position  that 
is  maintained  even  according  to  the  Hindu  systems  of  mythology, 
which  are  but  gross  and  corrupt  distortions  of  the  Vedic  sense  and 
meaning.  The  broad  and  universal  distinction  of  all  training  into  pro 
fessional  and  liberal,  has  been  altogether  lost  sight  of  in  the  Puranic 
mythology,  and  like  everything  else  has  been  contracted  into  a  narroAv~ 
superstitious  sphere  of  shallow  thought.  The  Vedas]  instead  of  be 
ing  regarded  as  universal  text  books  of  liberal  and  professional 
sciences,  are  now  regarded  as  simply  codes  of  religious  thought 
Religion,  instead  of  being  grasped  as  the  guiding  principle  of  all 
active  propensities  of  human  nature,  is  regarded  as  an  equivalent  of 
certain  creeds  and  dogmas.  So  with  the  Rig  and  Yajur  Vedas.  Yet, 
even  in  this  distorted  remnant  of  Aryan  thought  and  wisdom — the 
Puranic  mythology —  the  division  of  the  Vedas  into  Rig  and  Yajur, 
the  liberal  and  the  professional,  is  faithfully  preserved.  The  Rig.  now 
implies  a  collection  of  hymns  and  songs  in  praise  and  dwrl/tfion  of 
various  gods  and  goddesses ;  whereas  Yajur,  now,  stands  for  tho 
mantras  recited  in  the  ritual,  the  active  part  of  religious  ceremonies. 
This  is  the  view  taken  by  the  so-called  Scholars  of  the  day. 

\Ve  come  now  to  Williams'  account  of  the  Vedas.  He  says  that 
the  Vedas  consist  of  3  parts. — I.  Mantra ;  II.  Brahmana  ;  and  III, 
Upanishad.  We  will  not  dwell  here  upon  the  fact  that  the  mantra* 
only  are  the  Vedas  and  not  the  Brahmanas  and  the  Upanishads,  for 
tho  Brahmanas  and  the  Upanishads  are  mere  commentaries  of  the, 
Vsdas.  He  says  : — 

"They  (the  mantra  portion  of  tho  Vedas  according  to  Williams) 
arc  comprised  in  II  principal  Sanhitas  or  collections  of  Mantras, 
•illed  respectively  Rig,  Atharvan,  Samun,  Tiiitrrya  and  Vajasaneya/' 

63  M.  W.J8  INDIAN  WISDOM. 

In  one  fullstop  we  have  two  assertions  of  Williams  :  — 

I.  —  That  Sanhita  means  a  collection  of  Mantras. 

II.  —  That  there  are  five  such    collections,   Rig,   Atharva,    Sama, 
Taitreya  and  Vajasaneya. 

That  Sanhita  should  mean  a   collection  is    another  indication  of 
Williams'  ignorance  of  Sanskrit    Grammar.     Says    Panini  I,   4,   107. 

'  ¥f%7TF.  which  means  that  the  sannikarsh^of  one 

pad  with  another  is  called  Sanhita.  To  make  the  distinction  clear, 
I  will  refer  the  reader  not  to  Panini  but  to  Oriental  Scholars  them 
selves.  Recently  there  have  been  published  two  editions  of  Rig 
Ye  da  —  I,  Sanhita  Patha,  and  23  Pad  Patha.  Both  are  collections  of 
Mantras,  but  not  Sanhitas.  Now,  had  Sanhita  meant  collection  of 
Mantras,  Max  Muller  would  not  have  unconsciously  refuted  himself 
and  bis  brother  scholar  Monier  Williams.  His  second  assertion  is 

with  respect  to  the  number  of  the  Vedas.   Vajasaneya  ^f 
is  just  what  is  known  by  the  name    of  ?r?pf^,     whereas   Tai 

treya  *ff%?n  is  no    Mantra  ^ff^rfT    but   snU**F  tff%??T..     Could 

Williams,  unless  he  had  a  willingness  to  distort  Sanskrit  words  and 
literature  and  a  conscious  desire  to  misrepresent  and  maliciously 
interpret  every  V.edic  truth,  have  ever  committed  a  greater  blunder 
tiiaa  this?  We  are  ever  reading  of  if^sft  and  if^fis^ift,  but 

i)o  one  not  even  Williams  hirqself,  has  even  heard  or  read  of 
$^^^Wl.  The  fact  is  that  the  reticence  or  abettment  of 

gther  scholars  has  made  Williams  too  bold,  and  there  is  not  one  lie 
regarding  Sanskrit  literature  that  his  omnipotent  sacred  pen  cannot 
ponvert  into  an  authoritative  truth  for  the  blind  followers  of  the 
blind.  Having  defined  the  Vedas  as  prayers,  invocations  and  hymns, 
Williams  then  proceeds  to  the  discussion  of  another  question.  I  shall 
state  it  in  his  own  words. 

"  To  what  deities,  it  will  be  asked,  were  the  prayers  and  hymns 
of  these  collections  addressed  ?  This  is  an  interesting  inquiry,  for 
these  were  probably  the  very  deities  worshipped  under  simila  names 
by  our  Aryan  progenitors  in  their  primeval  home,  somewherer  on  the 
tableland  oi  Central  Asia,  perhaps  in  the  region  of  Bokhara,  not  far 
from  the  sources  of  the  Qxus.  The  answer  is  .  —  They  worship  ped  those 
physical  forces  before  which  all  nations,  if  guided  solely  by  the 
light  of  nature,  have  in  the  early  period  of  their  life  instinctively 
l)owed  down^  and  before  which  evyn  the  more  civilized  and  enlighten 
ed  have  always  been  compelled  to  bend  in  awe  and  reverence,  if  not 
in  adoration.  .  .  .  ."* 

*  Manuscript  missing.—  ED. 



I  COME  now  to  Monier  AVilliams'  criticism   on  the  Vedas    proper. 
Here  is  what  Monier  Williams  has  to  say  on  the  subject  : — 

"  In  the  Veda  this  unity  soon  diverged  into  various  ramifications. 
Only  a  few  of  the  hymns  appear  to  contain  the  simple  conception  of 
one  Divine  Self-existent,  Omnipresent  Being,  and  even  in  these  the 
idea  of  one  God  present  in  all  nature  is  somewhat  nebulous  and  un 
defined.  Perhaps,  the  most  ancient  and  beautiful  deification  was 
that  of  Dyaus,  '  the  sky  '  as  Dayauth-pitar,  f  Heavenly  Fa'ther '  (the 
Zeus  or  Jupiter  of  the  Greeks  and  Romans).  Then,  closely  connected 
with  Dyaus,  was  a  goddess  Aditi,  'the*  Infinite  Expanse/  conceived 
of  subsequently  as  the  mother  of  all  the  gods.  Next  came  a  develop 
ment  of  the  same  conception  called  Varuna,  'the  Investing  Sky/  said 
to  answer  to  Ahura  Mazda,  the  Ormazd  of  the  ancient  Persian  (Zand) 
mythology,  and  to  the  Greek  Ovpavos — but  a  more  spiritual  conception, 
leading  to  a  worship  which  rose  to  the  nature  of  a  belief  in  the  great 
.  .  .  This  Varuna,  again,  was  soon  thought  of  in  connection  witn 
another  somewhat  vague  personification  called  Mitra,  '  god  of  day.' 
After  a  time  these  impersonations  of  the  sky  and  c,elestial  sphere 
were  felt  to  be  too  vague.  Soon  after,  therefore,  the  great  investing 
firmament  resolved  itself  into  separate  cosmical  entities  with  separate 
powers  and  attributes.  First,  the  watery  atmosphere — personified 
under  the  name  of  Indra,  ever  seeking  to  dispense  his  dewy  treasures 
(indu),  though  ever  restrained,  scondly}  the  wind — thought  of  either 
as  a  single  personality  named  Vayu,  or  as  a  whole  assemblage  of 
moving  powers  coming  from  every  quarter  of  the  compass,  and  per 
sonated  as  Maruts  or  (  Storm-gods.'  At  the  same  time  in  this  process 
t)f  decenterlization — if  I  may  use  the  term — the  once  purely  celestial 
Varuna  became  relegated  to  a  position  among  seven  secondary  deities 
of  the  heavenly  sphere  called  Adityas  (afterwards  increased  to 
twelve,  and  regarded  as  diversified  forms  of  the  sun  in  the  several 
months  of  the  year),  and  subsequently  to  a  dominion  over  the  waters 
when  they  had  left  the  air  and  rested  on  the  earth." 

"  Of  these  separately  deified  physical  forces  by  far  the  most 
favourite  object  of  adoration  was  the  deity  supposed  to  yield  the 
dew  and  rain,  longed  for  by  Eastern  cultivators  of  the  soil  with  even 
greater  cravings  than  by  Northern  agriculturists.  Indra,  therefore — 
trie  Jupiter  Pluvius  of  early  Iijdian  mythology — is  undoubtedly  the 
principal  divinity  of  Vedic  worshippers,  in  so  far  at  least  as  th4 
g  reater  nufaer  of  their  prayers  and  hymns  are  addressed  to  him»" 

70  M.    W.'S    INDIAN    WISDOM. 

"  What,  however,  could  rain  effect  without  the  aid  of  heat  ?  A 
force  the  intensity  of  which  must  have  impressed  an  Indian  mind  with 
awe,  led  him  to  invest  the  possessor  of  it  with  divine  attributes. 
Hence  the  other  great  god  of  Yedic  worshippers  and  in  some  respects 
the  most  important  in  his  connection  with  sacrificial  rites,  is  Agni 
(Latin  Ignis),  'the  god  of  fire/  Even  Surya,  'the  sun'  (Greek  hlios), 
who  was  probably  at  first  adored  as  the  original  source  of  heat, 
came  to  be  regarded  as  only  another  form  of  fire.  He  was  merely 
a  manifestation  of  the  same  divine  energy  removed  to  the  heavens, 
and  consequently  less  accessible.  Another  deity,  Ushas,  '  goddess  of 

the    dawn/— the of   the    Greeks,— was  naturally    connected  with 

the  sun,  and  regarded  as  daughter  of  the  sky.  Two  other  deities,  the 
Ashvins,  were  fabled  as  connected  with  Ushas,  as  ever  youiig^  and 
handsome,  travelling  in  a  golden  car  and  precursors  of  the  dawn.  They 
are  sometimes  called  Daxas,  as  divine  physicians,  '  destroyers  of  dis 
eases;  sometimes  Nasatyas,  as  '  never  untrue/  They  appear  to  have 
been  personifications  of  two  luminous  points  or  rays  imagined  to 
precede  the  break  of  day.  These,  with  Yama,  '  the  god  of  departed 
•spirits,'  are  the  principal  deities  of  the  Mantra  portion  of  the  Veda/ 

Herein  there  are  13  points  that  Monier  Williams  brings  in 
and  also  exactly  13  points  that  can  be  disputed,  Williams  points 
out  that  the  Yedas  sanction  the  worship  of  :  — 

1.  Dyauh-pitar,   as  ,  the    father  of  the  sky  Dyauh-pitar,     which 
among  Greeks  ,or  Romans  becomes  Zeus    or    Jupiter. 

2.  Aditi,    the    goddess    of    infinite    expanse  mother  of   all  gods, 
3     Yaruna,     the     God     of     investing     sky,     corresponding     to 

Ahurmuzda  of  Persians  and  Ozr   and  Gos   of  the  Greeks. 

4.  Mitra,  the  God  of  day,  associate   of    Yaruna. 

5.  Indra,  the  god  of  the  watery  atmosphere. 

G.     Yritta,  the  spirit  of  evil  that  opposed  Indra. 

7.  Yayu,  the  god  of  wind. 

8.  Maruts,  the  storm-gods. 

9.  Adityas,  who  were  first  regarded    as   seven  in  number.     The 
number  was  finally  increased  to  12.     The  worship  of  the    sun    and  ifl 
golar   months  being  thus  established, 

10.  Agni,  god  of  fire. 

11.  Ushan,  goddess  of  dawn. 

12.  Ash  wins,   twin   precursors   of   dawn,     called  also  Daxas  or 
doctors  and  nasatyas  or  never  untrue.' 

lo      Yama.  the  god  of  departed  spirits. 


Kach  one  of  these  positions  can  he  disputed,  but  I  have 
neither  time  nor  William's  provocation  to  do  so.  It  would 
take  us  a  long  time  to  run  over  the  list  of  these  13  gods  and  show 
that  Williams  has  not  understood  any  one  of  these.  But  it  would 
be  useless,  as  Williams  only  quotes  the  Vedas  on  the  subject  of  only 
seven  out  of  these  thirteen,  i.,  e.,  Varuna,  Mitra,  Indra,  Aditya,  Agni, 
•Ash win  and  Yama,  and  two  more,  kola  or  Time  and  ratri  or  Night, 
and  leaves  the  remaining  undiscussed. 

In  a  future  lecture  we  shall  take  up  each  of  these  assertions  in 
turns  and  show  the  strength  of  the  proof  on  which  Williams  bases  the 
truth  of  his  assertions.  But  at  present  I  have  neither  time  enongh 
nor  the  disposition  to  perfrom  this  task,  as  another  and  more  im 
portant  question  is  pressing.  Suffice  it  to  say  then  that  in  the 
opinion  of  Monier  Williams  the  Vedas  are  records  of  a  rude  and 
barbarous  age  when  fetish  worship  prevailed,  when  the  various 
objects  and  forces  of  nature,  like  the  sky,  the  firmament,  the  vast 
expanse,  the  day,  the  watery  atmosphere,  the  cloud,  the  wind,  the 
storm,  the  rain,  the  sun  with  its  12-months,  the  fire,  the  dawn,  the 
break  and  the  spirits  of  the  dead  were  worshipped.  Of  course, 
•onier  Williams  asserts  that  the  deified  forces  addressed  in  the 
lantras,  wei*e  probably  not  represented  by  images  or  idols  in  the 
redic  period  ;  but  he  says  that  doubtless  the  early  worshippers 
clothed  their  gods  with  human  form  in  their  imaginations.  Williams' 
panegyric,  then,  on  the  non-idolatrous  character  of  the  Vedas,  is  a 
mere  panegyric  and  no  more.  His  objects  is,  however,  to  show  that, 
notwithstanding  all  allowances  that  made,«the  Vedas  are,  at 
the  best,  books  that  contain  fetish  worship  and  low,  uncivilized 
'neology.  For,  let  me  remind  you  of  the  quotation  that  I  read  in  the 
beginning.  He  says  :  — 

"In  the  Veda,  this  unity  soon  diverged  into  various  ramifications. 
Only  a  few  of  the  hymns  appear  to  contain  the  simple  conception  of 
one  Divine  Self-existent  Omnipersent  Being  and  in  these  the  idea 
of  one  God  present  in  all  nature  is  somewhat  nebulous  and  un 


My  object  to-day  is  simply  to  point  out  that  nowhere  can  these 
remarks  of  Williams  be  so  well  applicable  as  in  the  case  of  the  Bible, 
the  Bible  which  Monier  Williams  holds  in  such  esteem,  the  Bible 
\\hi(-h  he  calls  the  sacred  word  of  God,  teaching  the  only  true 
•vligion,  as  opposed  to  three  false  religions  of  the  world.— 
Brahnaanism,  Islam  and  Uuddhism,  where  as  the  Vedas  do,  not  only  in 
^few  passages,  contain  the  simple  conception  of  a  Divine  Self-existent 
Omnipresent  Being,  bnt  throughout  the  \7edas  we  find  Cod  described 
as  a  Divine  Self-existent  and  Omnipresent  Being,  ami  not  only  is  thi> 
idea  not  cloudy,  nebulous  or  undefined  even  in  these  passages,  hut 
there  can  possibly  be  no  clearer  statemeni  onthe  subject  than  [Jios< 

•  "iilaineil  in  1  he   Ye<iu< 


I  shall  show  that  the  Vedas  only  sanction  pure  unde  filed 
monotheism,  whereas  the  Bible  is  the  book  wherein  the  idea  of  one 
Divine,  Self-existent,  Omnipresent  God  is  most  nebulous  and  extremely 

To  come  to  the  Vedas  : 

T  Pur  fa^ftrarcr  TOT  *ri  i  tnsi  ^  irtf 

fr,  C-- 

*  *  *r<>  $.  *•  u  m  *  u 

the  meaning  of  which  is  :  — 

We  worship  Him,  the  Lord  of  the  universe  of  the  inanimate  and 
animate  creation,  for,  He  is  the  blesser  of  our  intellect  and  our 
protector.  He  dispenses  life  and  good  among:  all.  Him  do  we 
worship,  for  as  He  is  our  preserver  and  benefactor,  so  is  He  our  way 
to  bliss  and  happiness  also. 

II  ^o  ^b  ^  ^o  o  ?T  ^  II    The  wise  people  always  desire  to 

obtain  communion  with  Him  who  pervades  everywhere,  for,  He  is 
everywhere.  Neither  time  nor  space,  nor  substance  can  divide  Him. 
He  is  not  limited  to  one  time  or  one  place  or  one  thing,  but  is  every 
where  just  as  the  light  of  the  sun  prgvade's  everywhere  in  unob 
structed  space. 


irerTOfTfsrTrjj  *tir*u  •T^fSTOf^^sr  11  ^TO  ^  i  \\  \\ 

God  pervades  through  all  matter  and  space,  even  the  distant 
suns,  the  far-off  directions  and  is  consciously  present  everywhere.  He 
is  conscious  of  His  own  powers.  He  made  the  elemental  atoms 
with  which  to  begin  the  creation  of  the  Universe.  He  is  all-bliss  and 
eternal  happiness.  Any  human  sotil  that  perceives  and  realises  the 
existence  of  this  Divine  Being  within  himself  and  lives  in  the  pre 
sence  of  this  God,  is  saved. 

^o     ^fc  ||  JBrahhfia,     \vlvo    is   the   greatest  of  all    and 

worthy  of  being  revered  by  all,  who  is  present  in  all  the  worlds,  and 
fit  to  be  worshipped,  whose  wisdonl  and  knowledge  are  boundless3 
who  is  even  the  support  of  the  infinite  space,  in  whom  all  reside 
and  are  supported,  as  a  tree  resides  in  the  seed  and  is  supported  by  it,- 
so  is  the  world  supported  by  Him, 


II  5fTS£IT[  T    ^       ^Wt  insreq     II 

i^  m  ii  *5f  *rfwr  t^i  ^  s<ft  wfr?r  u  ^<>  ^\TO  *^ 

— ^t  II  He   is  only  one,   there    is    no    second,    no 

third,  no  fourth  God.  There  is  no  fifth,  no  sixth,  no  seventh  God. 
Yes,  there  is  no  eighth,  no  ninth,  no  tenth  God.  In  him,  the  Unitary 
Being,  all  live,  move  and  have  their  being. 

You  have  seen,  then,  what  the  religion  of  the  Vedas  is.  Can 
there  be  any  better,  clearer,  more  distinct  expression  of  monotheism 
than  this  ?  Can  we  better  assert  the  divinity  and  omnipresence  of 

We  come  now  to  the  Bible,  the  pet  darling  of  Monier  Williams, 
the  Christian's  rock  of  ages,  to  prove  the  excellence  of  which 
Monier  Williams  so  misinterprets,  distorts  and  vilifies  the  Vedas. 

Bishop  Watson  in  his  letters  to  Thomas  Paine  said,  "  An  honest 
man,  sincere  in  his  endeavours  to  search  out  truth  in  reading  the 
Bible,  would  examine  first  whether  the  Bible  attributed  to  the  Supreme 
Being  any  attribute  repugnant  to  holiness,  truth,  justice  and  goodness, 
whether  it  represented  Him  as  subject  to  human  infirmities." — B. 
"VVatson,  p.  114. 

I  woulcl  follow  the  same  course.  We  'find  that  the  Bible  does 
represent  God  as  subject  to  human  infirmities  and  that  it  does  attribute 
to  him  attributes  repugnant  to  holiness,  truth,  justice  and  goodness. 

It  represents  God  as  subject  to  human  infirmites.  It  represents 
him  as  having  a  body,  subject  to  wants  and  weaknesses  like  those  of 
ourselves.  When  he  appears  to  Abraham,  he  appears,  according  to 
tbe  Bible,  as  three  angels.  Then  they  talked  to  Abraham  &c.  The 
Bible  runs  thus  : — 

"2.  And  he  (Abraham)  lifted  up  his  eyes  and  looked,  and,  lo,  three 
rnen  stood  by  him  :  and  when  he  saw  them,  he  ran  to  meet  them  from, 
the  tent  door,  and  bowed  himself  toward  the  ground. 

3.  And  said,  my  Lord,  if  now  I  have  found  favour  in  thy    sight 
pass  not  away,  I  pray  thee,  from  thy  servant : 

4.  Let  a  little  water,  I  pray  you,  be  fetched,  and  wash  your  feet,, 
p-nd  rest  yourselves  under  the  tree. 

5.  And  I  will  fetch  a  morsel  of  bread,  and  comfort  ye,  your  hearts; 
after  that  ye  shall  pass  on  :  for,  therefore,  are  ye  come  to  your  servant. 
And  they  said  "  so  do,  as  thou  hast  said." 

6.  And  Abraham   hastened  into  the  tent  unto  Sarah,  (his  wife) 
find  said,  "  Make  ready  quickly  three  measures  of  fine  meal,  knead  it, 
jind  make  cakes  upon  the  hearth," 

74  M.  W.'S  INDIAN  WISDOM. 

7.  And  Abraham  ran    into   the  herd,  and  fetched  a  calf   tender 
and  good,  and  gave  it  unto  a  young  man ;  and  he  hasted  to  dress  it. 

8.  And  he  took  butter,  and  milk,  and  the  calf  which  he  had  dress 
ed,  and  set  it  before  them ;  and  he  stood  by  them  under   the  tree,  and 
they  did  eat. 

9.  And  they  said  unto  him,     Where  is  Sarah  thy  wife  ?  And  he 
paid,  Behold,  in  the  tent. 

10    And  he  said,   I    will     certainly  return  unto     thee   according 
to  the  time  of  life  ;  and  lo,  Sarah,  thy  wife,  shall  have  a    son.  - 
liencsis,  Chap.  XVIII* 

*  The  rest  of  the  criticism  is  missing.— -Ep. 



In  this  lecture,  I  propose  to  deal  with  the  50th  Sukta  of  the  first 
AMaJca  of  the  Rig-veda,  whose  translation  as  well  as  remarks  there 
upon  by  Monier  Williams,  I  subjoin  herewith.  Says  Moaier 
Williams : — 

"  The  next  deity  is  Surya,  the  sun,*  who,  with  reference  to  tha 
variety  of  his  functions,  has  various  names — such  as  Savitri,  Arya- 
man,  Mitra,  Varuna,  Pushan,  sometimes  ranking  as  distinct  deities  of 
the  celestial  sphere,  As  already  explained,  he  is  associated  in  the 
minds  of  Vedic  worshippers  with  fire,  and  is  frequently  described  as 
sitting  in  a  chariot  drawn  by  seven  ruddy  horses  (representing  the 
seven  days  of  the  week),  preceded  by  the  Dawn,  Here  is  an  example 
of  a  hymn  (Rig-veda  1,  50)  addressed  to  this  deity,  translated  almost 
literally  ;  — 

"  Behold  the  rays  of  dawn  like  heralds,  lead  on  high 

The  Sun,  that  men  may  see  the  great  all-knowing  god. 
The  stars  slink  off  like  thieves  in  company  with     Night, 

Before  the  all-seeing  eye,  whose  beams  reveal  his  presence, 
Gleaming  like  brilliant  flames,  to  nation  after  nation. 

With  speed,  beyond  the  ken  of  mortals,  thou,  0  Sun, 
Dost  ever  travel  on,  conspicuous  to  allf 

Thou  dost  create  the  light,  and  with  it  dost  illume 
The  universe  entire  ;  thou  risest  in  the  sight 

Of  all  the  race  of  men,  and  all  the  host  of  heaven. 
Light-giving  Varuna  !  thy  piercing  glance   doth  scan, 

In  quick  succession  all  this  stirring,  active  world, 
"  penetrateth  too  the  broad  ethereal  space, 

Measuring  our  days  and  nights  and  spying  out  all  creatures, 
Burya,  with  flaming  looks,  clear-sighted  god  of  day. 

Thy  seven  ruddy  mares  bear  on  thy  rushing  car. 
With  these  thy  self-yoked  steeds,  seven  daughters  of  thy  chariot, 
Onward  thou  dost  advance.     To  thy  refulgent  orb, 

J3eyond  this  lower  gloom  afid  upward  to  the  light 

Would  we  ascend,  O  Sun,  thou  god  among  the  gods," 

*  Vaska  makes  Indra,  Agni  and  Surya,  the  Vedic  Triad  of  gods. 

76  M.  W/S  INDIAN    WISDOM. 

In  this  paragraph  Monier  Williams  asserts  : 

(i)  That  Surya,  the  sun,  was  worshipped  as  a  deity  under  differ 
ent  names,  Savitri,  Aryaman,  Mitra,  Varuna  and  Pushan. 

(ii)  That  in  the  minds  of  Vedic  worshippers  Surya  was  associated 
with  Fire. 

(iii)  That  Surya  is  described  as  sitting  in  a  chariot  drawn  by 
seven  ruddy  horses  preceded  by  the  dawn. 

(iv)  That  these  ruddy  horses  represent  the  seven  days  of  the 

Monier  Williams  subjoins  an  almost  literal  translation  of  the  50th 
Sukta  of  the  1st  Ashtaka  of  the  Kig-veda,  which  has  been  mentioned 

I  need  not  say  that  Pushan,  Varuna,  Mitra,  Aryaman  and  Savitri 
are  only  other  names  of  the  same  Surya,  and  that  Agni  is  also  another 
name  for  it,  but,  unlike  Williams,  they  are  not  the  different  names 
under  which  Surya,  the  sun,  was  worshipped.  Surya  is  rather  the 

God  of  the  Universe  ^dr  W*U  SfJIeTCrftSJ^:  He    is   the    Urii- 

versal  Spirit  that  pervades  the  whole  animate  and  inanimate  creation. 

The  Sapta  harita  are  not  the  seven  ruddy  horses  of  the  sun  that 
pull  his  chariot,  nor  has  the  sun  any  chariot.  The  Sapta  harita  are 
the  seven  rays  as  shall  appear  further  on.  The  ratha  means  this 
sublime  universe.  The  seven  days  of  the  week  are  not  the  seven 
haritas.  But  the  value  of  Williams'  translation  will  appear  better 
after  the  true  translation  is  given. 

I  shall  now  proceed  with  my  explanation  of  each  one  of  the 
Mantras  giving  Monir  Williams'  translation  of  the  same,  so  that 
both  might  appear  side  by  side  in  a  position  fit  to  be  compared. 
.  .  .  *  the  Divine  essentials  within  the  very  interior  of  ever- 
living  soul. 

Compare  with  the  above  the  Monier  Williams'  translation  of  tha 
same  (3rd)  mantra.  Says  he  :  — 

"(The  Sun),  whose  beams  reveal  his  presence. 

Gleaming  like  brilliant  flames,  to  nation  after  nation.  " 

In  vain  do  we  seek  for  that  purity  of  meaning,  that  sublimity  of 

thought,     that      absorbing     importance     of    the    subject-matter,  in 

Williams'    translation  of  the    Mantra.    5T«n  ^T,  to  William's 


scholarly  mind,  means  nation  after  "nation,  "  The  Ketavah  and  Agna- 
*  Manuscript  missing. 

CRITICISM  Otf.  77 

yah  become  beams  and  brilliant  flames.  In  vain  do  the  philologists  of 
the  West  try  to  distort  the  sense  of  Vedic  Mantras,  and  to  make  it 
correspond  with  the  records  of  a  primitive,  comparatively  savage  and 
mythological  age.  I  say,  in  vain,  do  these  so-called  scholars  of  oriental 
languages  try  to  interpret  the  Vedic  records  according  to  the 
light  of  their  brain-bred,  I  mean,  fancy-bred,  science,  philology.  For, 
p,ll  philologies,  scholarships  and  learnings  melt  away  like  ice  before  the 
concentrated,  penetrative,  heat-pouring  potent  beams  of  truth.  f 

We  come  now  to  the  5th  Mantra  of  this  Sukta,  with  Mor>ier 
Williams'  characteristic  translation  .....  "  Thou  (the  sun) 
risest  in  the  sight  of  all  the  race  of  men,  and  all  the  host  of  heaven." 
Can  Williams  ever  be  said  to  understand  the  meanings  of  Yedic 
Mantras,  or  say  specifically  of  this  Mantra  ?  Where  is  his  conception 
of  Vedic  mythologies  ?  Where  is  his  keen  Christian  sense  which 
smells  of  element-worship  in  the  Vedas  !  Has  it  gone  so  wrong  as  to 
incapacitate'  him  even  from  understanding  the  simplest  things.  The 
sun  never  rises  at  once  in  the  sight  of  all  the  race  of  men  ;  bat  poor 
ignorant  superstitious  Vedic  worshippers  might  have  imagined  so,  but 
can  even  an  idiot,  a  Zulu  savage,  that  has  not  even  the  millionth 
part  of  the  experience  that  Williams  has  —  can  he,  even  he  imagine  the 
sun  to  rise  in  the  sight  of  all  the  host  of  Heaven  —  he  means  the  starry 
firmament.  No  !  Expresssd  in  the  language  of  a  savage,  the  sun  simply 
blinds  the  glittering  sights  of  the  starry  host  of  the  Heaven.  It  simply 
blows  the  night-gems,  the  stars,  into  a  finejDowder  of  nothingness  and 
oblivion.  But  it  never  rises  in  the  sight  of  all  the  host  of  Heaven, 
for,  as  it  rises,  the  stars  get  blinded  and  shrink  into  nothingness. 
Whence,  then,  the  mistake  into  which  Monier  Williams  has  stepped. 

Clearly  it  is  thus.  Williams  translates  $3i»n*j  into  the  starry 
host  of  Heaven.  He  has  forgotten  his  translation  of  dera  into  gods 
and  deities.  But  here  ^3!«jf  means  all  the  host  of  Heaven. 
Monier  Williams'  memory  further  slips  the  words  of  the  Mantra 
I  I  It  seems  that  the  Vedic  poet  had  put  this 

unmeaning  phrase  here  only  to  keep  up  the  poetical  metre  !  But  ano 
ther  explanation  is  possible.  Williams  was  so  much  occupied  with. 
all  the  host  of  Heaven  that  as  the  sun  rose,  with  the  host  of  Heaven, 
departed  his  memory  of  this  phrase  also.  Hence  the  vacum  in  his 

We  have  said  that  God  is  the  cause  of  this  panorama  of  the    uni 
verse.     Is   He  not  fit   to  be    worshipped?   He  who  undoubtedly   live* 

t  "For  Pandit   Guru   Datta's   translation   of   the   4th   Mantra,    see   pp.  30-112  of 
'Termionlogy  of  the  Vedas  and  European  Scholars,"' 


in  us,  mortal  wns?TH  men,  and  in  the  hearts  of  the  wise 

N*  *• 

as  well  as  the  material  objects  of  creation.  He  who  lives  by,  actually 
residing  in  the  interior  of  every  thing  and  being  tfcSi^,  yes  He 

is  the  most  fit  object  of  our  worship.  In  worshipping  Him,  we  dd 
not  worship  a  mere  phantom-picture,  we  dd  not  worship  &  distant  be 
ing  or  existence,  but  the  ever-present,  omniscient  living  God.  It  is  no 
worship  of  Christ,  one,  who,  if  Bible-g'ossip  be  true,  lived  and  died  some* 
1900  years  ago,  who  is  now  no  more  among  us,  who  lived  in  Judea  and 
Jerusalem,  not  in  India  or  America,  who  lived  among  the  Hebrews, 
not  among  the  Aryas  and  the  American  Indians,  and  in  spite  of  all 
this,  who  only  lived,  but  does  not  live  as  he  did  once  in  hunman  form, 
in  flesh  and  blood.  Christ-days  are  gone,  but  God-days  are  ever  alive. 
Compared  with  the  pure  and  sublime  faith  of  the  Vedas,  which  is 
also  the  faith  of  the  Aryas,  compared  with  the  worship  of  the  living 
divinity  in  us,  Christianity  is  but  a  very  crude  form  of  Idolatry. 
Further  more,  the  Vedas  enjoin  a  divinity  worship  not  in  solemn 
words  and  amid  congregation,  in  sky-piercing  churches  and  "  farces 
of  fruitless  prayer,"  but  in  the  living  temple  of  human  heart,  a  wor 
ship  which  consists  only  in  the  realisation  on  earth  and  hereafter  of 

that  Universal  bliss,  that  reigns  calmly  everywhere, 

I  talk  of  no  production  of  my  imagination  when  I  speak  of  the 
worship  of  God  in  the  living  temple  of  the  human  heart.  This  alone 
is  the  true  worship.  It  conducts  itself  as  naturally  and  silently  as 
the  fragrance  of  .flowers.  It  requires  no  set  formulae  of  the  churches, 
no  Bhajans  and  Sangit-malas  of  his  or  her  composition.  True  wor 
ship  is  an  undisturbed  mind,  a  virtuous  life  perpetual.  Says  Krishna  :  — 

"  The   residence  of  God  is 

in  the  innermost  heart  of  man."     Let  me  supplement   this   idea   with 
quotations  from  the  Vedas  and  the  Upanishats. 

"  Any  place  where  the  mind  of  man  can  be  undisturbed  is  suitable 
for  the  worship  of  the  Supreme  Being." 

"  The  vulgar  look  for  their  gods  in  water  ;  the  ignorant  think  they 
reside  in  wood,  bricks  and  stones  ;  men  of  more  extended  knowledge 
seek  them  in  celestial  orbs  ;  but  wise  men  worship  the  Universal  Soul. 

"  There  is  One  living  and  true  God,  everlastnig,  without  parts  or 
passions  ;  of  infinite  power,  wisdom,  and  goodness  ;  the  Maker  and 
Preserver  of  all  things. 

"  That  Spirit,  who  is  distinct  from  matter  and  from  all  beings 
contained  in  matter,  is  not  various.  He  is  One  and  He  is  beyond 
description  ;  whose  glory  is  so  great  that  there  can  be  no  image  of 
him.  He  is  the  Incomprehensible  Spirit,  who  •  illuminates  all  and 
delights  all  ;  from  whom  all  proceed,  by  whom  they  live  after  they 


are  born ;  nothing  but  the  Supreme  Being  should  be  adored  by  a 
wise  man." 

"  Through  strict  veracity,  Uniform  control  of  the  mind  and  senses, 
abstinence  from  sexual  indulgence,  and  ideas  derived  from  spiritual 
teachers,  men  should  approach  God,  who,  full  of  glory  and  perfection, 
works  in  the  heart,  and  to  whom  only  votaries,  freed  from  passion  and 
desire  can  approximate." 

Let  me  not  multiply  quotations  in  proof  of  my  position.  But 
rather,  let  us,  like  sincere  devotees  of  the  truth,  confess  that  formal 
congregational  worship  is  quite  informal,  and  that,  worship,  and  true 
worship,  is  never  offered  in  words,  not  at  all  in  pathetic,  tear-shedding 
sermons.  The  only  true  worship  that  Vedas  enjoin  and  which  we 
also  should  learn  to  conduct  is  the  practice  of  strict  veracity,  of  uni 
form  control  of  mind  and  senses,  of  abstinence  from  sexual  indul 
gence,  of  learning  lessons  from  spiritual  tachers,  and  of  freedom  from 
passion  and 'desire, 

This,  then,  is,  in  brief,  the  Vedic  Worship.  Contrast  with  it,  if 
you  please,  the  worships  of  the  whole  religious  world.  This  worship 
alone  can  lead  us  to  the  realization  of  pure  Divine  wisdom.  No  other 

can.  For,  the  light,  the  intelligent  light  ^¥,  that  shines 
through  the  world  and  through  men,  that  witnessess  all  our  actions 
3Rl<T*qfa,  and  regulates  the  phenomena  of  the  material 
spheres  WC^ro*5?}  ^«T,  is  the  light  that  can  lead. us  to  wisdom 
and  purity  ^nm  WTO?  II  Let  it  be  understood,  then,  that  none 

who  has  not  learnt  to  conduct  this  true  worship  of  the  Universal 
Soul,  can  ever  attain  to  purity  and  wisdom.  This  is  the  true  mode  of 
worship,  for,  this  exactly  is  the  sense  of  the  6th  Mantra  of  the  50th 
Sukta  of  Rig  Veda  which  runs  thus  : 








"^  ff 

II  IIWT«    8,  £  II 

the  human  spirit  it  is  that  sees,  feels,  hears,  smells,  tastes,  znV/.v, 
__,  does  and  understands  everything.     The  human  spirit  is  the    real 
•conscious  mqn. — Prashna  Upanishat.  iv,  9. 

How  painful  is  ignorance.     Pdtanjali  says  that  ignorance    is   the 
only  soil  where  evils  can  grow  and  germinate.  *     And    so    it«is.     All 
the  evil  of  this  world  is  the  result  of    misdirection   of    natural    forces 
.^ultimately  traceable  to    ignorance.     Nowhere   is   ignorance,  however, 
BO  baneful  as  when  it  appertains  to  the  ignorance  of  one's   own    self! 
Under  the  stunning  effect  of  ignorance  people  imagine  themselves    to 
be  deprived    of  their  own  vital  essence.     And  the  so-called  theologies 
of  the  world,  no  less  than  the    materialistic*  objective  externalism   of 
•the  day,  are    busy  in    propagating    scepticism,    and  «ven  downright 
cnihilism,  on  the  subject.     As  a  matter  of    fact,    more    is    due    in    this 
direction  to  the  pious  teachings  of  the  so-called  religious    world    than 
to  the  sincere  and  logically- arrived-at  convictions  of  philosophers  and 
•scientific  men.     The  conclusions  arrived    at    by    sincere  investigators 
>and  unprejudiced,  unbiased  reasoners,  are,  at  the  worst,    only    doubt 
ful  and  fluctuating.     They  terminate  in  the  confession  of    a   mystery, 
or  of  some  indefinite  relation  between  mind  and  body.     But  our  wise 
theologians  of  all  religions  go  further.     Their  assertions  are  positive, 
Bogmatic,  and  leave  no  room  for  doubt.     The  pious    missionary,     who 
believes  in  the  perfected  political  religion  of  the   western   world,  i.  e., 
^popular   Christianity  refined,  returns  this  unequivocal   answer   to    the 
query, — What   is  human  spirit  ?       "  And    the  Lord  God  formed    man 
(Adam  ?)  of  the  dust  of  the  ground,  and    breathed    into    his    nostrils 
•the  breath  of  life ;  and  man  became  a  living  soul."  f     And  Mahomet's 
tdoctrine  of  Nafakht  Fih,  as  given  in  the  Qoran,  is  but  a  reiteration  of 
tin;  same,  an  echo  of  the  biblical   account  in    every    sense.     Thv*    i* 
grand  problem  of  life  and  death  solved    by  the   Mahomedan   nm! 
Christian  worlds  alike;  and  thus  is  the   human  spirit    declared  to   be 

ti,  7. 

82  EVIDENCES      OF 

a  mere  breath.  Faithful  to  the  instincts  of  his  atheistic  Christian 
land,  poet-laureate  Tennyson  thus  puts  the  answer  in  the  mouth  of 
personified  Nature : — 

"  Thou  makest  thine  appeal  to  me  : 
I  bring  to  life,  I  bring  to  death  : 

The  spirit  does  but  mean  the  breath : 
I  know  nc  more."  * 

Not  only  is  the  human  spirit,  then,  deprived  of  its  proper  func 
tions  and  powers,  but  even  scared  out  of  existence.  Apart  from  the 
absurdity  of  the  supposition,  for,  the  Great  Eternal  Being  must  have 
become  almost  tired — so  as  to  require  almost  rest  on  every  ?  seventh 
day — of  so  constantly  blowing  out  of  his  exhausting  lungs  breaths  of 
vital  fire  to  keep  alive  so  many  millions  of  millions  of  millions  of  living 
beings,  living  upon  the  innumerable  worlds,  inhabiting  the  infinite 
space,  the  doctrine  is  in  itself  highly  pernicious  and  misleading.  For, 
what  can  be  more  pernicious  than  this,  that  a  human  being  should 
be  declared  to  be  a  void,  a  phantom,  a  breath,  and  no  more. 

Once  admit  that  the  human  spirit  is  not  a  substance  or  an  identity  as 
real  as  palpable  matter,  (nay  it  is  more  real) ;  once  admit,  like  Budhas, 
that  human  life  is  but  an  evanescent  spark  passing  off  like  a  transient 
meteor  in  the  sky  ;  or,  like  Christians,  that  it  is  a  mere  breath ;  o  r, 
l::kc  modern  subjective  evolutionists,  that '  spirit '  is  only  a  conception 
inherited  by  th#  civilized  races  from  their  savage  progenitors  who 
formed  it,  misled  by  the  delusive  phenomena  of  dreams  wherein  a 
savage  is  represented  to  dream  a  friend  coming  and  talking  'to  him, 
whereas,  on  awakening,  he  finds  that  the  friend  is  nowhere,  thus  giving 
to  the  savage  a  notion,  that  every  human  being  must  have  got  a  cor 
responding  invisible  second  self,  that  appears  in  dreams,  but  is  not 
tangible ;  once  admit  the  airy  nothingness  of  the  human  spirit,  and 
down  goes  with  it  the  whole  fabric  of  all  religion  and  morality.  Can 
supernatural  Christianity,  with  its  gratis  scheme  of  salvation,  be  based 
upon  this  sand-foundation  of  spirit-notion  ?  O  vain  Christian  !  wipe 
off  your  theology  and  your  scheme  of  salvation,  for,  there  is  no 
human  spirit  to  be  saved.  That  which  you  would  save,  is  but  a 
phantom,  a  mere  breath.  It  is  no  substantiality.  And  ye  Mahomedans  ! 
get  rid  of  your  doctrine  of  prophetic  interposition,  for,  interposition 
will  only  save  a  phantom  that  has  already  disappeared,  or  would, 
perhaps,  be  destroyed  the  next  moment.  And  all  ye,  who  believe  in 
the  generationt  of  human  spirit,  i.  e.,  in  its  creation  out  of  nothing  by 

*  In  Memoriam,  56,  2. 

t  '*  Generation,  progress  and  eternal  existence  are  the  characteristics  of  soul.'* 
Brahmo  Samaj  Tract,  '•  Sadharana  Sutrarn,"  translated  by  Navina  Chandra  Rai, 
Chapter  III.  Sutra,  35> 

THE      HUMAN      SPIRIT.  S3 

the  fiat  of  the  Deity,  understand  that  what  sprang  into  existence 
out  of  nothing  will  fall  back  into  the  chaos  out  of  which  it  sprang, 
and  be  resolved  into  nothing  i 

This  superstition,  ©r  misimpression  of  the  non-entity  of  spirit,  ia 
not  confined  to  the  primary  strata  of  religion  alone.  It  has  begun 
*yo  permeate  through  the  civilized  world,  till  it  has  reached  the  margin 
of '  scientific  speculation.' 

f  The  mechanical  theory  of  the  universe  nndertakes  not  only  to 
account  for  all  physical  phenomena  by  describing  them  as  variances 
in  the  structure  or  configuration  of  material  systems/  but  strives 
even  to  appreheud  all  vital  and  physiological  phenomena  by  reducing 
them  to  the  elements  of  mass  and  motion.  Thus,  Wundt,  speaking  of 
physiology,  says,  "  The  view  that  has  now  become  dominant  (in  phy 
siology),  and  is  ordinarily  designated  as  the  mechanical  or  physical 
view,  has  it£  origin  in  the  causal  conception  long  prevalent  in  the 
kindred  departments  of  natural  science,  which  regards  nature  as  a 
single  chain  of  causes  and  effects  wherein  the  ultimate  laws  of  causal 
actions  are  the  laws  of  mechanics^  Physiology  thus  appears  as  a 
branch  of  applied  physics,  its  problem  being  a  reduction  of  vital 
phenomena  to  general  physical  laws,  and  thus  ultimately  to  the  funda 
mental  laws  of  Mechanics."  Again,  says  professor  Haeckel  in 

clearer   terms,    "  The   general   theory    of   evolution assumes 

that  in  nature  there  is  a  great,  unital,  continuous  and  everlasting 
process  of  development,  and  that  all  natural  phenomena,  without 
exception,  from  the  motion  of  the  celestial  bodies  and  the  fall  of  the, 
rolling  stone  up  to  the  growth  ef  the  plant  and  the  consciousness  of  man, 
are  subjeet  to  the  same  great  law  of  causation — that  they  are  ulti 
mately  to  be  reduced  to  atomic  mechanics."  Not  this  alone,  bu^ 
Haeckelt  further  declares  that  this  theory  which  affords  a  rational 
explanation  of  the  universe,  and  satisfies  the  craving  of  the  intellect 
for  causal  connections,  inasmuch  as  it  links  all  the  phenomena  of 
nature  as  parts  of  a  great  unital  process  of  development  and  as  a 
•series  of  mechanical  causes  and  effects."  *  Working  under  the  charms 
ef  this  mechanical  theory  of  the  universe,  Dr.  Biiclmer,  in  his  "  Matter 
sind  Force,"  denies  even  existence  to  psychology  or  subjective  philo 
sophy.  Many  regard  matter  and  its  chemical  workings  as  sufficient 
<to  account  for  all  force  and  all  mind.  The  notion  of  personality,  im-. 
mortality  or  independence  of  matter  are  again  discarded  by  some  as 
superstitious  and  absurd.  Thus  it  is  with  philosophers  and  scientific 
men,  who  live  from  day  to  night  in  dread  of  utter  annihilation. 

Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  such  materialism  has  long  prevail 
ed  and  even  now  prevails  in  the  strongholds  of  Science  and  Religion 
in  Western  countries,  it  is  remarkable  to  note  that  there  have  been 

*  StaiJo's  Concepts   of  Modern  Physics,  pp,   19—20. 

$4  EVIDENCES       OF 

from  time  to  time  men  who  have  fearlessly  explored  the  regions  of 
nature  and  made  attempts  at  understanding  and  stating  the  bare 

Deep  researches  in  physiology  have  revealed  the  fact  that  the 
human  organisation  is  endowed  with  a  self-conservative  energy.  Anfl 
physicians  and  medical  men  in  different  ages  have  come  to  the  con^- 
clusion,  on  the  basis  of  their  medical  experience  with  the  sick  and  the 
diseased,  that  there  is  in  the  human  organisation  a  self-healing  power 
which  goes  to  restore  the  sick  and  throw  off  disease,  and  that  medi 
cines  are  only  aids  to  this  healing  power.  Thus,  Von  Helment  was 
obliged  to  recognise  a  principle  which  he  called  "  Archeus,"  and 
regarded  it  as  independent  of  inert  and  passive  matter — a  principle 
that  presided  over  all  diseases  and  inspired  the  proper  medicines  with 
vitality  enough  to  heal  or  to  restore.  The  same  principle  was  called 
by  Stahl  "anima"  and  was  regarded  as  supplying  losses  and  repairing 
injuries,  besides  overcoming  diseases.  The  same  principle  was  called 
by  Whytt  "  the  sentient  principle."  It  was  differently  styled  by  Dr. 
Cullen,  who  called  it  the  "  vis  medicatrix  naturae"  ;  by  Dr.  Brown, 
who  called  it  the  "Caloric'' ;  by  Dr.  Darwin,  who  named  it  "Sensorial 
energy,"  by  Rush,  who  called  it  "occult  cause" ;  by  Brousais,  who  call 
ed  it  "vital  chemistry" and  by  Hooper,  who  calls  it  the  "  vital  principle" 
Living  power,  Conservative  force,  Economy  of  human  nature,  and 
powers  of  life,  these  and  many  such  others  have  been  the  names  by 
Avhich  the  same  principle  has  been  called. 

Whereas  physicians  and  medical  men  have  proceeded  on  the  one 
•side  to  approach  the  belief  in  a  vital  principle,  theoretic  speculation  oh 
biology  has  advanced  far  enough  to  probe  the  question  of  the  genesis 
of  life.  And  honest  investigators  and  sincere  writers  have  been  com 
pelled  to  recognize  that, "  life,  however,  may  also  be  considered  as  a 
cause,  since  amongst  the  phenomena  presented  by  all  living  beings, 
there  are  some  which  cannot  be  referred  to  the  action  of  known  phy 
sical  or  chemical  laws,  and  which,  therefore,  temporarily,  at  any  rate, 
we  must  term  "vital  "* 

It  has  also  been  maintained  that  there  is  a  plastic  carbon-com 
pound,  called  protoplasm,  composed  of  four  inseparable  elements — Car- 
*bon,  Oxygen,  Hydrogen  and  Nitrogen — which  is  the  physical  basis  of 
life,  and  consequently  very  often  the  doctrine  of  organisation-genesis 
of  life  has  ben  urged.  But  to  do  justice  to  this  physical  basis  of  life, 
it  must  be  remarked  that,  although  the  presence  of  these  four  elements 
apparently  fixes  it  as  a  physical  basis,  that  it  possesses  always 
a  definite  composition,  is  very  much  doubted.  "  It  has  not  yet  been 
shown  that  the  living  matter,  which  we  Designate  by  the  convenient 

*  Nicholson's  Manual  of  Zoology,  6th  Edition,  page   7. 

THE       HUMAN       SPIRIT.  T  g£ 

~~"~~  V*    V"~~ 

term  of  protoplasm,  has  universally  and  in  all    cases    a    constant -mid' 
undeviating    chemical   composition  ;  and   indeed    there  is   reason    to 
believe  that  this  is  not  the   case."*     Furthermore,  in   consideration  of 
the    vital    phenomena   presented    by    tho    lowest     animals,    scientific 
authorities  have  been  obliged  to  confess  that  organisation    is    not    an 
intrinsic  and  indispensable  condition    of   vital   phenomena,    Speakino- 
Of  Amoeba,  remarks  Professor  Nicholson,  "This  animalcule,    which    is 
structurally  little  more  than  a  mobile    lump  ot  semi-fluid   protoplasm 
digests  as  perfectly— as  far  as  the  result  itself  is   concerned— as    does 
the  most  highly  organized  animal  with    the    most    complex    digestive 
apparatus.     It  takes  food  into  its  interior,  it    digests    it   without    the 
presence  of  a  single  organ  for  the  purpose ;  and,  still  more,  it  possesses 
that  inexplicable  selective  power  by  which  it  assimilates  out  of  its  food 
such  constituents  as  it  needs,  whilst  it  rejects  the    remainder.     In  the 
present  state  of  our  knowledge,  therefore,  we  must  conclude  that  even 
in  the  process  of   digestion,    as   exhibited   in   the   Amoeba,    there   is 
something  that  is    not    merely  physical    or    chemical.    Similarlv  any- 
organism,  when  just  dead,  consists  of  the  same  protoplasm   as   before 
m  the  same  form,  and  with  the  same  arrangements  ;  but    it  has    most 
unquestionably  lost  a  thing  by  which   all    its    properties    and    actions 
were  modified  and  some  of  them   were    produced.     What    that    some 
thing  is,  we  do  not  know,  and  perhaps  never  shall  know;  and  it  is  t 
sible,  though  highly  improbable,  that  future  discoveries  may    demon 
£trate  that  it  is  merely  a  subtle  modification  of  some  physical    force 

t    appears,  namely,  in  the  highest  degree  probable,  that    every  vital 
action  has  in  it  something  which  is  not  merely  physical  and  chemical 
but  which  is  conditioned  by  an  unknown  force,  higher   in   its    nature 
and  distinct  in  kind  as  compared  with  all  other  forces.     The  presence 
of  this  vital  "force  "  may  be  recognized  even  in  the    simplest  pheno 
mena  ot  jmtrition ;    aud    no    attempt  even    has    hitherto    been    made 
to  explain  the  phenomena   of   reproduction  by     the    working-  of  an 
known  physical  or  chemical  force. "t 

Speaking  of  the  same,  Professor  Huxley  remarks  :— "  It  scems 
difficult  to  imagine  a  state  of  organisation  lower  than  that  of  Greqari- 
mda,  and  yet  many  of  the  Rhizopoda  are  still  simpler.  Nor  is  there 
any  group  of  the  animal  kingdom  which  more  admirably  illustrates 
a  very  well-founded  docrine,  and  one  which  was  often  advocated  l,v 
John  Hunter,  that  life  is  the  cause  and  not  the  consequence  of  or 
gamsation,  for,  in  these  lowest  forms  of  animal  life  there  is  absolutely 
nothing  worthy  of  the  name  of  organisation  to  be  discovered  by  the 
microscopist,  though  assisted  by  the  beautiful  instruments  that  are 
now  constructed.  In  the  substance  of  many  of  these  creatures,  noth 

•*•  Nicholson's  Zoology  page  9,  note. 

t  Nicholson's  Zoology,  6th  Edition,  pp.  12^ 


ing  is  to  be  discovered  but  a  mass  of  jelly,  which  might  be  represent 
ed  by  a  little  particle  of  thin  glue.  Not  that  it  corresponds  with 
the  latter  in  composition,  but  it  has  that  texture  and  sort  of  aspect  ; 
it  is  structureless  and  organless,  and  without  definitely  formed  parts! 
Neverthelessj  it  possesses  all  the  essential  properties  and  characters 
of  vitality  :  it  is  produced  from  a  body  like  itself,  it  is  capable  of 
assimilating  nourishment  and  of  exerting  movements.  Nay,  morej 
it  can  produce  a  shell,  a  structure,  in  many  cases,  of  extraordinary 
complexity  and  most  singular  beauty. 

:e  That  this  particle  of  jelly  is  capable  of  guiding  physical  forces, 
in  such  ft  manner  as  to  give  rise  to  those  exquisite  and  almost 
mathematically  arranged  structures  —  being  itself  structureless  and 
without  permanent  distinction  or  separation  of  parts  —  is,  to  my  mind, 
a  fact  of  the  profoundest  significance."^ 

The  irresistible  conclusion  to  which  the  above  leads,  land  which 
Haeckel  also  holds,  is  that  "  the  forms  of  their  organisms  and  of  their 
organs  result  entirely  from  their  life."  It  is  clear,  then,  that  by 
whatsoever  name  it  may  be  called,  life,  vital  principle,  organising  prin 
ciple  occult  cause,  sensorial  energy,  vis  medicatrix  nature,  anima  or  so 
many  ather  names,  modern  scientific  world  has  come  face  to  face  with 
a  dynamic  physiological  reality  which  they  call  life.  Is  is  no  more 
a  mere  breath,  a  mere  phantom,  or  a  mere  product  of  organisation. 
It  is  rather  a  subtle,  refined,  dynamic  substance,  a  reality  that  builds 
up  the  organisation,  causes  growth,  vitality,  and  motion,  repairs 
injuries,  makes  up  losses,  feeds,  feels,  is  sentient,  originates  actions, 
resists,  overcomes  and  cures  diseases.  This  is  the  irresistible  con 
clusion  to  which  physiological  researches  have  led  sincere  investi 
gators  and  philosophers  in  western  countries.  Thus  it  is  that  they 
have  been  compelled  to  admit  a  reality,  (call  it  material  if  it  will 
please  you),  yet,  a  reality,  which  the  ancient  philosophers  of  the  east 

styled  Atma  (  *rTr*TT  )• 

If  we  have  purposely  avoided  mentioning  ancient  eastern  authori 
ties  on  the  subject,  it  is  for  the  plain  reason  that  India  of  the  present 
day  derives  its  intellectual  activity,  faith,  belief  and  conviction 
mainly  from  civilized  occidental  England.  Had  we,  in  the  very 
beginning,  culled  evidence  from  ancient  Sanskrit  authors  just  to 
prove  even  these  very  positions  literally,  there  is  no  doubt  that  these 
remarks  would  have  been  unhesitatingly  pronounced  as  super 
stitious,  whimsical,  unscientific  and  old-grown  ;  although,  even  after 
the  best  evidence  from  western  authors  on  the  subject  has  been. 
collected,  there  is  not  to  be  found  that  systematic,  exhaustive  enumera- 

f  An  introduction  to  the  classifications    of  animals,   by  Thomas    Henry    Huxley 
IX.  o.,  F.  R.  s.,  London,  1869,  pp,  10—  H. 


tion  of  evidence  which  is  the  characteristic  of   a  settled   or   decided 

To  come,  however,  to  the  proper  subject,  "  Evidences  of  the 
Human  Spirit  "  from  the  standpoint  of  Vaixheshika  philosophy.  As 
already  pointed  out,  the  ancient  philosophers  of  Aryavarta  styled 
this  vital  principle  Atma.  It  is  one  of  the  nine  dravyas  of  the  Vaishe- 
shika  philosophers.  A  dravya,  in  Vaisheshika  philosophy,  is  something 
in  which  attributes  and  actions  inhere,*  or  what  in  English  philosophy 
would  be  called  a  substance,  or  better  still,  a  substratum,  or  a 
noumenon.  It  is  clear,  then,  that  Atma  is  a  reality,  one  of  the  nine 
noumena  of  the  universe,  a  substance  in  which  attributes  and  actions 

Let  us,  therefore,  divest  ourselves  of  our  previous  notions  con 
cerning  the  human  spirit,  so  that  we  may  the  better  understand  it3 
nature,  according  to  this  philosophy.  English  metaphysicians  having 
generally  regarded  the  human  spirit  as  an  immaterial  nothing  some 
thing,  have  been  unable  to  offer  any  explanation  as  to  how  the  mind 
knows  the  external  univesse  and  acts  on  it.  Regarding  the  human 
mind,  as,  they  did,  as  altogether  immaterial,  i.  e.,  as  divested  of  all 
the  properties  of  matter,  even  of  the  substantiality  and  extension  or 
•space-occupation  of  matter,  they  found  their  intellects  compelled  to 
halt,  when  the  problem  of  the  cognition  of  the  external  world  was 
presented  to  them.  In  vain,  did  they  attempt  to  solve  the  problem 
by  referring  cognitions  to  impressions  of  external  matter  or  to  corres 
pondences  produced  by  the  Divine  energy ;  for  the  problem  still  re 
mained  the  same. 

A  soft,  plastic  melting  bar  of  wax  is  taken,  spread  upon  a 
surface,  and  a  hard,  rigid,  solid  carved  design  imprinted  upon  it.  The 
wax  easily  takes  the  design  upon  it.  This  is  the  impression  on  the 
wax.  It  was  similarly  urged  that  external  objects  which  are  material, 
cannot  be  perceived  by  the  altogether  immaterial  spirit  directly,  for 
we  cannot  conceive  of  any  action  between  things  that  have  no  pro 
perties  in  common,  for  instance,  such  as  mind  and  matter — mind, 
which  is  almost  altogether  ideal,  invisible,  impalpable,  phantom- 
like  airy  nothing;  and  matter,  which  is  independently  existing, 
external,  real,  visible,  tangible  and  perceptible.  It  was,  therefore-, 
asserted  that  what  takes  place  in  the  perception  of  things  is 
this  : — The  sensorium  first  takes  the  impression  of  things  external, 
and  it  is  this  impression  in  the  sensorium  which  is  ultimately 
perceived  by  the  spirit.  But  this  does  not  solve  the  problem. 
For,  if  the  sensorium  takes  the  impression  of  objects  external,  however 
soft,  plastic  and  liquidous  the  sensorium  may  be,  it  must  be  yet  mate* 
rial :  for,  no  matter  what  the  substance  may  be,  a  material  substance 
can  only  leave  impressions  on  a  material  something.  The  sensorium, 

\\  Valsheshika,  Sutra  1.  i.  15, 


therefore,  must  be  itself  material,  if  it  can  be  impressed  by  external 
matter  at  all.  If,  then,  the  sensorium  itself  be  material,  as  we  are 
compelled  to  believe  it  is,  the  problem  has  not  been  solved ;  for,  the 
difficulty  still  remains  as  to  how  the  altogether  immaterial  mind  can 
perceive  the  material  and,  therefore,  external  impressions  on  the 

Some  philosophers  have  maintained  that  Divine  interposition  is  the 
only  means  of  getting  rid  of  this  difficulty.  They,  therefore,  theorize 
that  the  Divine  Being  the  spirit  of  God,  through  omnipotence,  works 
out  the  material  phenomena  of  nature  in  the  physical  external  world 
•on  one  hand,  and  corresponding  internal  mental  changes  directly  in  the 
world  of  mind,  on  the  other ;  that  thus,  we  are  every  moment  conscious, 
not  of  matter  and  material  phenomena,  but  of  corresponding  mental 
•phenomena,  existing  independently  by  the  direct  working  of  the 
Divine  Will.  It  is  needless  to  say  that  this  theory,  instead  of  explain 
ing  the  cognition  of  the  external  world,  cuts  short  the  gordian  knot 
by  utterly  denying  the  very  existence  of  any  such  cognition  at  all.  It 
not  only  robs  us  of  our  cognition,  but  robs  us  of  the  very  external 
world  itself,  for,  if  we  be  not  conscious  of  the  external  world,  but  of 
'mental  changes  only,  say,  correspondingly  worked  out  by  Divine 
interposition,  what  proof  have  we  that  any  such  external  world  exists  ? 

This  difficulty  of  explaining  the  cognition  of  the  external  world 
becomes  augmented  still  further,  when  we  come  to  consider  the  par 
allel  and  correlate  question  of  the  action  of  the  human  spirit  upon 
matter.  Here  may  lie  a  heavy  mass  of  iron,  say,  20  seers  in  weight. 
At  the  command  of  the  spirit,  the  arm  rises,  and  the  weight  is  lifted 
up.  Here  is  another  mystery  to  be  explained.  How  can  the  alto 
gether  immaterial  spirit  lift  up  the  altogether  material  and^  external 
weight  of  twenty  seers  ?  Replies  the  impatient  reader,  the  weight  is 
moved  in  consequence  of  the  hand.  But,  who  moved  the  equally 
material  hand  ?  One  may  go  a  step  further  and  say  that  the  feat 
was  accomplished  by  a  regular  contraction  of  the  muscles,  but  the 
muscles  are  material  still,  and  the  question  still  remains,  who  contract 
ed  the  muscles  ?  Here  the  vain  physiologist  may  say  that  there 
passed  a  nervous  current  from  the  brain  and  straight  contracted  the 
muscles.  But  the  question  still  nutters  before  the  mind,  what  stimula 
ted  the  nervous  currents?  You  answer,  the  will  of  the  spirit.  And 
here  lies  the  question  of  questions,  how  could  the  immaterial  spirit 
stimulate,  by  his  immaterial  will,  the  solid,  white,  fibrous,  silvery 
•'material  nerves  to  yield  up  their  nervous  fluid  and  contract  the 
muscles  ?  It  is  plain,  then,  that  there  can  be  no  escape  from  the  final 
riddle  :  and  whence  this  riddle  ?  Clearly  enough  from  the  pre-conceiv- 
cd  erroneous  notion  that  the  spirit  is  an  altogether  immaterial  airy 
nothing,  phantom-like,  or  breath ly  something. 

THE      HUMAN      SPlfclT. 


Once  admit,  as  the  Vaisheshika  philosophy  teaches,  that  the  Atnia, 
human  spirit,  is  at  least  as  good  a  substance  as 
matter,  as  good  a  noumenon  or  substratum  as  ordinary  external 
objects  are  possessed  of,  and  it  will  be  clear  how  substance  can  act 
upon  substance  or  be  impressed  by  substance.  This  peculiar  sub- 
tance,  Atmb,  is  the  seat  of  two  grand  manifestations,  the  voluntary 
and  the  involuntary.  The  voluntary  or  conscious  functions  of  Atma 
are  the  functions  called  cognition,  feeling  and  will :  also  called  Buddhi 
(consciousness),  sukha  (feeling  of  pleasure),  dukha  (feeling  of  pain), 
ichchhd  (desire),  dwesha  (repulsion),  and  prayatna (conscious  exertion). 
These  voluntary  functions  of  the  spirit  have  formed  the  basis  of 
discussions  of  all  metaphysicians  who  have  ignorantly  or  wilfully 
neglected  the  treatment  of  the  other  set  of  functions—  pranapana  or 
respiration,  nimeshonmesha  or  nictitation,  jivana  or  physiologic  ^build- 
ing  and  animation,  nianas  or  sensation,  gati  or  movement,  indriya  or 
activity  of  the  senses,  and  antaravikara  or  organic  feelings.  The 
result  of  the  separation  of  these  two  sets  of  the  functions  of  the  spirit 
has  been  that  schools  of  metaphysicians  and  scientific  men  have  been 
set  up  in  conflict  with  each  other,  both  denying  the  substantiality  of 
the  spirit.  The  metaphysicians  deny  the  substantiality  of  the  spirit, 
evidently  on  the  ground  that  sensations,  feelings,  wills,  desires  and 
ideas,  perceptions  and  cognitions  have  no  independent  existence  of 
their 'own,  but  seern  to  be  manifested  only  in  organised  structure. 
There  is,  besides,  a  tendency,  among  metaphysicians,  to  regard  what 
soever  is  internal  or  mental  as  imaginary  or  as  phenomenal,  but  not  as 
real  or  substantial.  Hence,  dealing  as  they  do,  with  the  departments  of 
cognition,  feeling  and  will,  they  regard  the  mind  no  more  real  than  its 
phenomena.  Had  they  also  recognised  the  involuntary  functions  of 
the  spirit,  they  would  have  readily  preceived  that  the  real  something 
which  produces  such  tangible,  real  phenomena  as  the  building  up  of 
structures  or  the  animation  of  organism,  or  which  produces  motion 
and  the  co-ordination  of  motion,  is  the  reality  that  sentiently  feels, 
knows  and  wills. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  scientific  world  has  been  prone  to  deny 
substantial; r-  to  spirit  from  the  opposite  ground  that  their  external 
phenomenal  re  .earches  into  the  functions  of  organisms  could  only 
reveal  to  then*,  at  their  best,  the  involuntary  potencies  of  the  spirit, 
and  this  could  not  otherwise  happen.  For,  the  whole  material  world, 
from  the  psychological  point  of  view,  is  merely  objective  existence, 
The  human  spirit  is  the  only  substance  that  is  both  objective  and 
subjective  at  the  same  time.  The  scientific  world,  owing  to  its  m:iteri:il- 
ism  and  the  deep-seated  tendency  of  only  depending  on 
testimony,  hive  only  soufffet  the  objective  side  of  the  human  spirit, 
fcnd  have,  therefore,  landed  themselves  into  a  nihilism  which  denies 
the  subjective  side  of  the  human  spirit.  Not  finding  the  involuntary 


tendencies  of  the  spirit  anywhere  outside  of  organic  matter,  for,  then, 
they  would  not  be  manifest,  they  have  denied  to  consciousness  an 
independent  substratum.  For,  it  is  to  them  more  agreeable  and 
uniform  to  regard  life  also  as  one  of  the  forces,  and  since  conscious 
ness  has  no  place  in  this  list  of  forces,  it  must  be  the  apparent, 
delusive  result  of  the  most  complicated  working  of  natural  forces. 
To  them,  matter  with  its  chemical  affinity  is  all-sufficient.  Had  both 
sets  of  functions,  voluntary  and  involuntary,  of  the  human  spirit, 
been  simultaneously  viewed,  no  darkness  would  have  enshrouded  the 
realm  of  mind.  It  would  have  been  perceived  that  the  human  spirit, 
in  performing  what  are  called  the  involuntary  functions  of  the  mind, 
behaves  just  in  the  same  way  as  different  elements  of  matter  do, 
The  spirit,  too,  with  its  inherent  chemical  affinities  and  dynamic 
activities,  attracts  and  repels  blood  from  the  heart,  air  from  the 
lungs,  and  nervous  currents  or  electricity  from  the  brain.  This 

double-phased  existence  of  Atmd  (w*tT)    is    the    subject  of 

the  following  quotation  from  the  Prashastapada  Bhashya  of 



:    H    I         H    I     MAN       *   F  1   n  I  T.  91. 


n  u  inremT^TTrar  wsus^w  u 

The  following  is  a  rough  and  almost  literal  translation  of  the 
above  passage  :  — 

"  The  next  substance  is  called  Atmd,  as  it  is  endowed  with  the 
property  of  circulating  itself  freely  in  the  organism.  On  account  of 
its  being  a  refined  and  subtle  entity,  it  is  imperceptible  by  the  senses  ; 
and,  hence,  its  existence  has  to  be  inferred  from  the  harmonious 
play  displayed  by  such  instrumental  organs  as  the  eye,  the  ear,  &c., 
for,  it  cannot  be  doubted  that  the  organs  are  merely  the  instruments 
which,  like  all  other  machinery,  require  an  agent  to  work  them  up. 
When,  besides,  the  nature  of  sounds,  colours,  tastes,  &c.,  is  well 
admitted  to  be  cognizable,  the  existence  of  a  cognizing  being  is  a  natural 
inference.  This  cognizing  being  cannot  be  the  body,  the  organs,* 
or  the  ,  raawa.vt,  the  soul  or  spiritual  body,  for  they  are  not 
endowed  with  consciousness.  The  body  is  not  endowed  with 
consciousness,  because  it  is  the  product  of  the  composition  of  dead, 
inert  and  altogether  unconscious  elements  and  atoms  of  matter, 
just  as  such  common  objects  as  the  pitcher,  &c.,  are  devoid  of 
consciousness.  But,  further,  the  body  is  not  the  conscious  being, 
because,  if  consciousness  were  really  due  to  the  body,  the  body 
would  not  be  unconscious  after  death  ;  which  is  not  so.  Nor  are  the 
organs  the  conscious  entities;  because,  firstly,  they  are  mere  instruments 
and,  secondly,  had  it  been  so,  their  destruction  would  be  always  followed 

*  By  the  word  '  organs'  is  here  meant  the  'Iiirlriyas'  or  the  senses.     The 
arc  the  invisible  orgirii.sation  of  the  spirit  as  distinct  from    the    visible   organs  wherein 
these  spiritual  organs  or  powers  reside. 

t  Man  is  viewed  in  Sanskrit  philosophy  as  a  compound  of  three  entities  :  1,  the  gross 
physical  body,  called  the  HthtUa  nhftrira  ;  2,  the  spiritual  body,  hero  called  tho 
manas.  It  is  an  organisation  of,  life  and  sensation  principles  and  is  a  fine  im 
perceptible  intermediate  connecting  link  between  tin;  gross  material  body  ;  and  3,  the 
internal  spirit  who  is  the  true  man,  the  central  reality  that  acts,  feels,  enjoys  and  is 
conscious.  One  of  the  consequences  flowing  from  this  organization  of  the  manan  is  thai 
it  is  impossible  for  the  spirit  to  be  cognizant  of  two  impressions  at  the  same  time. 

92  EVIDENCES       OF 

by  the  loss  of  consciousness,  and  their  existence  by  the  manifestation 
of  consciousness,  whereas  both  alternatives  are  wrong.  Even  when  the 
eye  gets  deranged,  coloured  objects  may  not  be  perceived,  but  they  can 
be  remembered,  so  that  consciousness  in  the  state  of  after-memory  still 
remains  even  on  the  derangement  or  destruction  of  an  organ.  Also, 
when  the  organs  are  all  sound,  consciousness  may  not  exist  when  the. 
objects  of  perception  are  not  presented  to  the  organs.  Hence,  the 
organs  are  not  the  conscious  entities.  .Nor  is  the  manas  (the  spiritual 
body)  the  conscious  being,  for,  it  is  an  instrument  still,  and  were  it  not 
an  instrument  in  the  hands  of  the  spirit,  it  would  be  possible  for  the 
{spiritual  body  to  be  cognizant  at  one  and  the  same  time  of  more 
conscious  impressions  than  one,  which  is  not  so.  Hence  is  clearly 
established  the  existence  of  a  fourth  entity  other  than  the  gross  body 
the  organs,  and  the  manas  the  spiritual  body." 

"  The  primary  inference  with  respect  to  the  human  spirit  is  that 
of  a  controlling  being.  When  the  driver,  by  the  exertion  of  his  mus 
cular  power,  turns  the  reins  of  the  horses  that  pull  the  carriage,  on 
one  side  or  on  the  other,  the  carriage  obeys  the  motion,  and  forthwith 
rolls  on  to  that  side.  Now,  a  similar  turning  of  the  activities  of  the 
body,  called  pravritti  and  nivritti,  i.  e.,  application  to  what  is  deemed 
pleasurable,  and  voluntary  withdrawal  from  what  is  deemed  painful, 
is  perceived  to  take  place  in  our  bodies.  Our  body  is  thus  like  a 
carriage ;  the  driver,  Atmd,  regulating,  by  the  reins  he  holds,  at  his 
will,  the  pravritti  and  nivrilti  of  the  body.  Our  second  inference 
with  respect  to  the  human  spirit  is  that  of  a  blacksmith  given  con 
stantly  to  force  wind  out  of  the  bellows.  The  air  that  enters  the  lungs 
gets  chemically  vitiated,  and  the  Atmd  constantly  forces  it  out  blowing 
it  through  his  bellows,  the  lungs.  Our  third  inference  is  from  the 
natural  nictation  of  the  eye-lashes.  Just  as  a  juggler  makes  the 
puppets  move  at  every  pull  of  the  wires,  so  the  tension  of  the'  proper 
nerves  produced  by  the  exertion  of  Atmd  keeps  the  eye-lashes  execut 
ing  their  movements.  Our  fourth  inference  is  with  respect  to  the 
spirit  as  an  architect.  An  architect-master  of  the  house  soon  builds 
up  an  edifice  of  his  house,  repairs  a  gone-down  ladder  or  a  worn-up 
ceiling,  and  plasters  or  whitewashes  his  dirty  rooms.  So  does  the 
architect — Atmd — cause  the  growth  of  the  yet  undeveloped  body,  re 
pairs  its  wounds  and  its  fractured  or  injured  parts.  Our  fifth  in 
ference  with  respect  to  the  Atmd  is  that  of  a  child  moving  with  a 
stick  the  spider  from  one  corner  of  the  room  to  the  other.  So  does 
the  Atmd  move  the  spiritual  body,  with  the  curiosity  of  a  child,  from 
one  corner  (organ)  of  the  body  to  the  other.  Our  sixth  inference  is 
that  of  a  spectator  standing  in  the  centre  of  a  circular  hall  provided 
•with  windows  on  all  sides,  who  can  see  undisturbed,  from  his  elevated 
position,  through  proper  windows,  what  goes  on  in  each  direction. 
A  fruit  is  presented  to  the  se^vse  of  sight.  The  colour  only  is  seen 
but  the  taste  of  it  is  soon  remembered  and  outflows  the  saliva 

!    11    I        II    I     M    A    X        S   I'   I    K    I   T.  93 

the  tongue  in  the  luxuriance  of  deliciousness.  Besides,  we  infer  the 
existence  of  a  substratum  from  such  attributes  as  pleasure,  pain, 
desire,  hatred,  will  and  knowledge.  These  attributes  do  not  belong  to 
the  body  or  the  organs.  For,  the  ego  identifies  itself  with  these 
attributes  but  not  with  the  body  or  the  organ.  "  I  feel,  I  desire,"  are 
true  interpretations  of  consciousness,  but  not  that  the  body  or  the 
organs  feel,  desire  or  are  conscious." 

"  These  attributes  refer  to  a  substance  wherein  they  inhere,  are 
not  to  be  found  in  any  and  every  substance,  and  are  not  cognizable  by 
the  outer  senses.  Hence  they  are  the  attributes  of  a  third  something, 
Atmd.  The  attributes  of  Atmd  are  knowledge,  feeling  of  pleasure, 
feeling  of  pain,  desire,  hatred,  exertion,  morality  and  immorality,  im 
pressibility,  number,  magnitude,  separate  existence,  connectibility  and 
separability.  The  first  six  attributes  have  been  already  dealt  with, 
Morality  and  immorality  are  attributes  of  Atmdj  for,  the  human  spirit 
is  a  responsible  agent.  The  spirit  is  also  impressible,  for  such  impres 
sions  alone  can  be  the  cause  of  memory.  The  ego  of  each  individual 
being  conscious  of  a  different  set  of  enjoyments  from  the  others,  and 
bein^  unable  to  present  to  his  consciousness  the  states  and  feelings  of 
another  individual,  it  is  clear  that  each  human  spirit  has  a  distinct 
entity  and  is,  therefore,  in  itself  a  unit,  i.  e.,  possesses  the  attribute 
"  number."  As  freely  circulating  itself  in  the  body,  it  has  magnitude. 
The  feelings  of  pleasure  and  pain  all  rise  in  the  spiritual  body,  and 
the  spirit  is  only  conscious  of  them  by  its  contact  with  the  spiritual 
body  and  through  it  with  the  object  of  feeling.  Hence  its  attributes 
of  connectibility  and  separability." 

To  illustrate  the  reasonings  in  the  above-mentioned  passage  : — • 

Firstly,  it  should  be  pointed  out  that  Atmd  is  there  viewed  as  a  re 
fined  and  subtle  entity,  imperceptible  by  the  senses.  There  exists  a  pre 
judice  against  this  view,  which  it  will  be  well  to  clear  out  before  pro 
ceeding  further.  The  prejudice  is  to  disbelieve  all  that  is  invisible,  im 
perceptible  oruncognizable  by  the  senses.  This  prejudice  arises  either  from 
too  superficial  an  experience,  or  from  an  exclusive  devotion  to  material 
or  physical  pursuits  and  to  purely  experimental  or  empirical  sciences, 
whsre  tha  faculties  of  observation  are  constantly  in  demand,  but  the 
faculties  of  reflection,  imagination  or  abstraction  are  seldom,  if  ever, 
used.  An  intimate  acquaintance,  however,  with  the  phenomena  of  these 
very  sciences  will  prove  that  the  true  causes  of  these  phenomena,  and 
therefore  the  true  realities,  are  always  hidden,  invisible  and  impercepti 
ble.  Take,  for  instance,  the  most  familiar  case  of  Gravitation.  Every 
particle  of  matter  attracts  every  other  particle  of  matter  in  the  universe, 
with  enforce  in  proportion  to  the  product  of  their  masses,  and  in  inverse 
ratio  with  the  square  of  their  '  distances.  And  this  force  the  scientific 
men  term  Gravitation.  Observe  the  infinity  of  palpable  effects  which 
the  operation  of  this  single  law  or  the  working  of  this  single  force 


produces.  Every  thing,  from  the  smallest  atom  to  the  most  majestic 
sun,  is  under  its  control.  Gravitation  is  the  parent  of  all  phenomena 
of  cosmic  motions, — of  the  movement  of  planets  in  their  orbits,  of  the 
movement  of  satellites  round  the  planets,  of  the  change  of  seasons,  of 
the  flight  of  comets,  of  the  fall  of  meteors,  tides  and  ebbs,  and  of 
eclipses.  And  yet,  notwithstanding  the  palpability  of  its  multifarious 
effects,  is  Gravitation  itself  palpable,  or  is  it  a  subtle,  invisible, '  yet 
real  force,  existing  in  nature,  and  revealing  its  presence  by  the  visible 
palpable  phenomenal  effects  it  produces?  Or,  to  take  another 
example,  electricity.  What  is  this  all-pervading  substance  ?  No 
particle  of  matter  is  without  it.  Exciteable  by  friction,  or  induceable 
by  influence,  it  dwells  within  the  interior  of  every  material  body, 
hidden  and  unperceived.  When  the  electric  current  passes  through 
the  telegraph  wires  in  the  process  of  the  message  being  transmitted 
it  passes  unawares  all  the  way  long,  leaving  no  palpable,  visible 
effects  on  the  wires  ;  but  the  same  invisible,  hidden  element  makes 
itself  felt  in  the  receiving-station  by  the  ringing  of  the  alarum,  the 
sharp  clicking  movement  of  the  magnet,  the  motion  of  the  dial, 
or  the  jolting  of  the  ink  or  the  pencil.  More  mysterious  still  is  the 
working  of  magnetism.  There  may  lie  a  huge  mass  of  iron,  in  the 
shape  of  a  horse-shoe,  surrounded  by  a  long  coil  of  shellac-covered 
copper  wire ;  and  in  its  vicinity  may  lie  huge  masses  of  iron  nails, 
pins,  hammers,  &c.  As  yet,  the  magic  of  magnetism  is  not  at  work. 
In  an  instant,  the  current  of  a  strong  battery  is  sent  through  the 
coil,  and  the  inert  lifeless  piece  of  horse-shoe  becomes  alive  with  a 
strange  energy.  It  avariciously  attracts  the  nails  and  the  hammer, 
the  pins  and  every  other  iron  around.  There  is  no  visible,  palpable 
change  in  the  iron  of  the  horse-shoe.  But,  though  unperceived,  it  is 
now  the  playground  of  magnetism,  which,  though  so  potent  in  its 
effects  and  manifestations,  is  itself  subtle  and  invisible. 

It  is  clear,  then,  that  the  true  causes  of  things  are  hidden,  in 
visible  and  imperceptible  by  the  senses.  Their  effects,  the  pheno 
mena  produced  by  them  alone,  are  visible  or  perceptible.  The  chief 
fallacy  of  reasoning  in  such  cases,  consists,  in  regarding  the  visible 
and  immediate  media  of  action  as  causes ;  whereas,  true  causes  are 
hidden,  and  yet  real  and  eternal.  If  the  vital  phenomena  manifested 
by  living  organisms,  and,  above  all,  by  man,  have  a  cause  at  their 
basis,  that  cause  must,  of  necessity,  be  hidden,  invisible,  and  imper 
ceptible  by  the  senses  and  consequently  eternal.  The  subtle,  in 
visible  nature  of  Atma,  therefore,  instead  of  being  an  objection 
against  its  existence,  is,  in  the  true  light  of  things,  rather  a  proof 
corroborative,  an  essential  consequence  of  its  existence. 

Viewed  objectively,  therefore,  Atm<i  can  only  be  the  subject  of 
inference.  Now,  every  inference  pre-supposes  two  things,  the  some 
thing  whose  existence  is  to  be  inferred,  and  the  certain  data  from 
which  such  existence  is  inferred,  the  ground  of  inference  being  some 

THE      HUMAN      SPIRIT.  95 

similarity  or  resemblance.  The  great  problem  of  inference  really 
lies  in  determining  which  similarity  or  resemblance  is  to  be  deemed  as 
sufficient  and  which  as  insufficient  for  the  purposes  of  such  inference, 
The  known  datum  or  data,  from  which  the  unknown  *  something  is 
inferred,  are  called,  in  Sanskrit  logic,  the  linga,  and  the  something 
inferred  is  called  the  anumeya.  With  reference  to  this  question  of 
inference,  says  Kashyapa,  the  logician  :  — 

•'  That  alone  is  a   valid  datum  for   inference  (linga}  which  has., 

firstly,  been  known  to  co-exist  with  the  thing  to  be  inferred    at  some 

time  or  place,  secondly,  is  also  known  fc>  be  present  wherever  the    like 

of  the  thing   to  be  inferred  exists,  and,  thirdly,  to  be  absent  wherever 

the  unlike  of  the  thing  to  be  inferred  exists."     To  take,  for  instance, 

a  concrete  example.     From  the  fall  of  the  barometer  is  inferred   the 

decrease  of  the  pressure  of  the  air.     Let  us  see  if  such   an   inference 

can  be  a  valid  inference.     The  fall  of  the  barometer  is   known,   the 

decrease  in  the  pressure  is  unknown.     But  we  know,    from  a  specific 

experiment  (i.  e.,    an  experiment    conducted  at  a  particular  time  and 

]  i:u-e),  that  decrease  of  pressure   produces   fall  of  barometer.     This 

fulfils  the  first  condition.     Secondly,  similar  cases  of  the  decrease  of 

1  1]  vssure,  by  whatsoever  cause,  are  attended  with  the  fall  of  barometer, 

Dut  the  third  condition  is  not  fulfilled.     It  is'not  true  that  where-ever 

.here  is  no  fall  in  the  barometer,  there  is  no   decrease  '  of    pressure  ; 

for,  there  may  be  no  fall  of    barometer,  although  the   pressure  may 

lave  decreased.    The  mercury,  through  rise  of  temperature,  expanded 

and   became  lighter.     Had  the  same  pressure  continued,  the  column 

of    mercury  would  have  risen    higher  up,    but    the    fall   of  pressure 

compensated  for  the  rise  and  left  the  mercury   apparently   where    it 

was.     The  three  canons  of  Kashyapa,  therefore,   conclusively  prove 

Jiat  the  fall  of  the   barometer  is  not  the   linga   of  the    decrease  of 

Dressure.      Similar   reasoning   will    show   that    the    decrease  in    the 

rveight  of  the  superincumbent   column  of   mercury  is    the    linga  (in 

erence)  of  the  decrease  of  pressure. 

Having  shown,  in  general,  what  data  are  fit  to  be  the  ground 
)f  inference,  it  remains  to  see  upon  what  phenomena  can  the  in- 
"erence  of  the  existence  of  Atma,  be  grounded.  Thesje  phenomena 
must  bear  some  definite  relation  to  Atm&,  must  be  known  to  occur, 
in  some  cases  where  the  essential  attributes  of  Atma  are  found;  and 
ihere  should  be  no  At-md,  where  these  are  not  found.  These  phenomena 
are  of  two  kinds  ;  firstly,  the  working  and  the  activity  of  the  bodily 
organs,  and,  secondly,  the  sensations  of  which  one  is  cognizant.  Hence, 
it  is  ^from  those  two  classes  of  '  phenomena  that  the  existence  of 
Atma  can  be  objectively  inferred.  For,  consciousness  being  the 
characteristic  attribute  of  Atma,  sonic  activities  of  bodily  organs  arc 

06  EVIDENCES      OF 

not  only  known  to  be  produced  by  the  will  of  the  conscious 
Atma,  but  there  are  other  activities  that  are  not  produced  by  will 
but  are  invariably  observed  wherever  there  is  consciousness;  and 
besides,  in  all  cases  of  living  bodies  dying,  or  of  inanimate  objects,  the 
organism  or  the  object  is  devoid  of  the  performance  of  those  functions. 
And  so  with  respect  to  sensations. 

Before  proceeding,  however,  to  a  detailed  enumeration  of  such 
phenomena,  it  will  be  useful  to  review  a  theory  that  has  so  often 
been  alleged  against  the  independent  existence  of  Atmd,  and,  in  the 
minds  of  some  unoriginal  students,  so  constantly  thrown  its  obstruc 
tive  feelers  against  the  clear  comprehension  of  the  subject  on  the 
part  of  an  honest  inquirer.  That  theory  is  the  mechanical  theory. 
We  shall  show  how  far  the  mechanical  theory  can  render  an  explana 
tion  of  consciousness. 

Leaving  apart  Atmd,  man  consists  of  three  things,  sharlra,  indriya, 
and  manas.  Sharlra,  as  Gautama  defines  it  in  his  Nyaya  philo 
sophy,  (  ^s^fcs^nEifag:  *l€ta*J  *  I  ^  II  )>  is  the  solid  frame 
work  of  the  body  together  with  the  visible  organs  that  are  located  in 
it.  It  is  the  ground-work  of  all  activity,  the  seat  of  all  senses  and 
their  sensations.  The  indriyds  are  the  fine  subtle  entities,  distinct 
from,  located  in,  the  five  visible  organs  of  sense  respectively,  by 
virtue  of  each  of  which  the  Atma  obtains  a  distinct  and  definite  con 
sciousness  of  each  of  the  five  sensations,  smell,  taste,  colour,  touch 
and  sound.  The  indriyds  are,  accordingly,  the  invisible  internal 
media  of  sensation  for  the  perception  of  the  spirit.  That 
they  are  independent  of  the  visible  organs  is  not  to  be  laughed 
at.  For.,  in  many  cases,  the  tympanic  membrane,  the  hammer 
and  the  anvil  of  the  ear  have  been  removed,  leaving  thei 
staples  alone,  without  injuring  the  sense  of  hearing.  And  so  with 
other  organs.  Indeed,  the  fact  of  the  senses  being  independent  of  the 
visible  organs,  instead  of,  in  any  awy,  contradicting  our  experience,  is 
BO  clearly  borne  out  by  human  experience  that  unsophisticated 
reason  never  doubts  it.  For,  "  during  the  hours  of  physical 
repose,  while  the  parts  of  the  system  are  recruiting  and  repro 
ducing  new  strength  and  energy,  and  while  the  organs  of  sense , 
are  closed  to  all  external  impressions,  the  mind,  free  from  all  obtru-l 
sive  and  disturbing  influences,  makes  imaginative  excursions  to  differ 
ent  places  and  contemplates  different  things  in  existence.  It  supposes, 
it  sees  or  hears ;  while  sometimes  it  is  arrested  in  its  .travels  by  the, 
sound  of  beautiful  music,  or  by  various  pleasing  scenes  which  itj 
appears  to  enjoy.  Sometimes  it  supposes  it  walks,  feels,  tastes,  or| 
suffers  excruciating  pain.  It  also  appears  to  be  irresistible  in  many 
places  where  it  had  no  previous  desire  or  intention  to  be.  During  all 
of  these  peregrinations,  the  wave  of  sound,  the  reflection  of  lightJ 
the  susceptibility  of  feeling,  the  pleasure  of  tasting  are  all  supposed 

THE      H0MAN      SPIRIT.  97 

to  be  enjoyed  .....  This  proves  tliat  there  is  an  internal  medium 
of  sensation  by  which  the  mind  enjoys  its  capacity,  as  if  the  external 
were  in  connection  with  the  world.  It  proves  also  that  there  is  a 
medium  existing  upon  these  nerves  of  sensation,  independent  both  of 
internal  and  external  exciting  causes."*  This  medium  of  sensation  is  the 
indriya.  And,  lastly,  manas,  the  soul  or  the  mind,  is  a  third  entity 
distinct  from  Atma.  Says  Gautama  in  his  Nyaya  philosophy, 

l  U  I  U  »  "  The  existence  of  manas 

(mind)  is  established  from  the  fact  that  one  is  only  capable  of  attending 
to  one  thing  at  a  time."  It  is  said  of  a  Greek  philosopher  that  he  was 
eno-aged  in  solving  a  mathematical  problem  when  an  army  passed  by, 
and  he  was  altogether  unconscious  of  it,  till  a  soldier  effaced  the  circle 
the  philosopher  had  drawn  on  earth,*  a  fact  which  alone  disturded 
the  attention  of  the  philosopher.  What  followed  may  be  left  to 
history  Was  tht  movement  of  an  army  entirely  noiseless  ?  Were 
no  sound  waves  propagated  when  the  philosopher  was  solving  his 
mathematical  problem  ?  Did  not  the  waves  enter  the  cavity  of  his 
ear  and  put  to  vibration  the  tympanic  membrane,  the  delicately  placed 
stapes  and  the  grain-filled  liquid  in  the  internal  labyrinths  of  the  ear, 
in  fact  the  invisible  medium  of  sensation  upon  the  nerves,  the  indmya? 
All  this  did  take  place,  but  the  philosopher  was  not  attending  to  it. 
There  was  in  the  philosopher  a  something  which,  when  engaged  in 
thinkino-  (i  e.y  solving  the  problem),  was  not  in  contact  with  the  inter 
nal  ear;  a  something  whose  contact  with  onedndriyaor  faculty  preclud 
ed  its  contact  simultaneously  with  another.  Its  contact  with  an  in- 
driya  and  therefore  with  an  organ  is  what  we  call  attention  ;  its  separa 
tion  from  this  cuts  the  cords  of  connection,  and  the  result  is  what  we 
call  absent-mindedness.  Nor  is  this  mono*  the  conscious  entity;  for, 
who  does  not  know  that  all  the  ideas  that  our  experience  has  acquired 
for  us  lie  for  the  most  time  in  a  latent  registered  state  in  the  brain, 
or,  more  correctly,  in  the  ma,nas,  but  that  each  and  any  of  them  is 
remembered  whenever  it  is  recalled. 

We  have  seen  what  sharira,  indriya  and  manas  are.  We  shall  now 
examine  whether  any  one  of  them  is  endowed  with  consciousness. 
ForT  barring  Atma  aside,  man  consists  of  three  substances,  shanra, 
Indriyi^  mLw,  and  each  of  them  be  proved  to  be  ™™*™™™ 
unfit  to  evolve  consciousness,  no  doubt  would  remain  as  to  a  fourth 
Substance  Aim*,  being  the  conscious  entity.  Firstly  ^then,  the  sharira 
Kot^CoLmoui  entity,  for,itis  the  product  of  the  composition  _  of 
dead  inert  and  altogether  unconscious  elements  and  atoms  of  matter, 
and  al  bodies  that  are  the  product  of  the  composition  of  such  parti 
cles  are  themselves  dead  and  inanimate.  The  whole  world  of  inorganic 
chemical  compounds,  including  watches,  steam  engines,  &c.,  i 


illustration  of  the  principle.  Nor  are  the  organic  compounds  an 
exception  to  this  law.  So  long  as  organic  bodies  are  associated  with 
a  living  germ,  their  manifestations  remain  very  much  modified  and 
changed,  but,  when  deserted  by  the  enlivening  principle,  ever)  organic 
structure  fails  to  show  any  signs  of  vitality  and  consciousness.  To  be 
clearer  still,  suppose  the  sharira  to  be  endowed  with  consciousness.  Let 
us  inquire  whether  this  consciousness  be  inherent  in  the  sharira,  or 
mere  accidental  to  it.  If  inherent,  the  sharire  should  be  conscious 
even  after  death,  which  is  not  so.  If  accidental,  the  statement  amounts 
to  saying  that  we  must  seek  for  some  other  substance  besides  the  body 
for  consciousness.  Nor  are  the  indriyas  the  conscious  entities,  for, 
they  are  mere  instruments  requiring  an  agent  to  work  them  np. 
Besides,  their  presence  is  not  necessarily  attended  with  consciousness 
as  in  the  case  of  absent-mindedness  \  nor  is  their  loss  accompanied  with 
the  loss  of  consciousness,  for,  even  when  the  eye  is  deranged  or  alto 
gether  removed  from  the  socket,  coloured  objects  may  be  remembered 
in  consciousness.  Nor  is  the  manas  the  conscious  being1,  for,  if  it 
were  so,  it  would  be  directly  conscious  of  every  impression,  and  we 
should  observe  no  such  restriction  in  practice  as  the  inability  to 
cognize  two  impressions  at  one  and  the  same  time. 

A  little  reflection  and  calm,  sound  reference  to-  one's  own  consci 
ousness  will  convince  every  one  of  the  entire  distinctness  of  the  Ego, 
Atmd,  from  tbe  body,  its  organs,  functions,  affections,  and  even  sensa 
tions.  There  are  two  grand  general  principles  which  underlie  the  whole 
of  the  above  reasoning.  The  first  is  the  well-known  and  much-abused 
principle,  ex  nihilo  nihilfit.  It  is  enunciated  thus  :  — 

"  What  is  noty  never  becomes  something,  and  whatsoever  is',  is  never 
reduced  to  nothing."  The  wise  men  have  fully  measured  the  entire 
truth  of  both  these  assertions.  Prejudiced,  sophisticated,  vicious, 
ignorant  minds  cannot  easily  comprehend  this,  f  This  is  the  cardi 
nal  principle  of  all  sound  philosophy.  Creation  is  simply  impossible. 
The  principles  of  Nature  only  reveal  formation.  For,  let  us  for  one 
moment  suppose  creation  to  be  possible,  and  let  something  come  out 
of  nothing.  This  very  supposition  assumes  that  there  is  a  nothing 
which  can  produce  something*.  Hence  there  are  two  kinds  of  noth 
ing,  firstly,  the  ordinary  nothing  from  which  nothing  comes  out  ; 
secondly,  this  peculiar  nothing  which  gives  rise  to  something.  Now, 
whatsoever  has  many  kinds  is  not  nothing  but  something.  Hence, 
"  nothing,  "  which  is  of  two  kinds,  is  not  nothing  but  something. 
Or,  something  can  only  arise  out  of  something.  The  reverse  of  it  is 

*  Bhagavat  Gita,  II.  16. 

t  Swami  Dajinanda  t  Satyartha  Prakasha,  page  222,  3rd  Edition. 

T-H.S       HUMAN       ftFrniT. 

simply  inconceivable.  The  second  principle,  which  may  be  regarded 
as  the  corrollary  of  this,  is  thus  formulated  in  Vaisheshika  philo 
sophy  :  — 

rt  The  effect  only  reveals  whatsoever   pre-existed   in   the   cause. 
Ko  new  attribute    can    spring   up."     If   these   two    principles    were 
vividly  and  constantly  kept  before  the  mind,  one  would  be  quite    safe 
from  the    attacks   of    unsound   reasoning.     But   our   materialists   of 
modern  times,  who  hold  the  mechanical    theory  to    be    sufficient    for 
explaining  the  phenomena  of  the  universe,  are  not  only   content  with 
forgetting  these  two  principles,  but   orjenly   and  broadly   contradict 
these  very  innate   conception's   of   the  human  mind.     Says    Charles 
Bradlaugh,  —  "  Religionists  seem  to  think  that  they  avoid  the  difficulty, 
or  turn  it  upon  us,  by  propounding  riddles.     They  analyze  the    bodyr 
and,  giving  a  list  of  what  they  call  elementary  substances,  they    say  : 
Can  oxygen  think?  Can  carbon  think  ?  Can  nitrogen  think  ?  and  when 
they  have  triumphantly  gone  through  the  list,  they  add,  that  as  none 
of  these  by  itself  can  think,  thought  is  not  a  result    of   matter  but   a 
quality  of  soul.     This  reasoning  at  best  only  amounts    to    declaring  : 
'  We  know  what  body  is,  but  we  know  nothing  of  soul  ;  as  we  cannot 
understand  how  body,  which  we    do    know,  can  think,    we   therefore 
declare  that  it    is  soul  which  we  do  not  know,  that  does  think/  There 
is  a  still  greater  fault  in  this  theological  reasoning  in    favour    of  the 
soul,  for,  it  assumes,  contrary  to  experience,  that  no  quality  or    result 
can  be  found  in  a  given  combination  which  is    not    also    discoverable 
in  each  or  any  of  the    modes,    parts,   atoms,    or   elements   combined. 
Yet   this   is  monstrously    abntrd.     Sus'ar    tastes    sweet,   but    neither 
carbon,  nor  oxygen,  nor  hydrogen,  separately  tasted,  exhibits    sweet 
ness  ;  yet  sugar  is  the  word  by  which  you  describe  a  certain  combina 
tion  of  carbon,  oxygen    and    hydrogen.     I    contend    that   the    word 
"  soul,"  in  relation  to  human,  vital,  and  mental  phenomena,    occupies 
an  analogous  position  to  that  which  used  to  be  occupied  by  such  words 
as  "  demon,"  "  genii,"  "  nonie,"  "fairy,"  "  gods,"  in  relation  to  general 
physical   phenomena.":): 

Is  this  sound  philosophy  ?  Does  Charles  Bradlaugh  think  that,  if 
this  soul-hypothesis  cannot  explain  the  phenomena  of  consciousness, 
his  material  atoms  can  ?  Here  is  his  answer  :  — 

"The  ability  to  think  is  never  found  except  as  an  ability  of  animal 
organisation,  and  the  ability  is  always  found  higher  or  lower  as  the 
organisation  is  higher  or  lower  .....  The  orthodox  main- 
tainers  of  soul  ....  contend  that  what  they  call  the  soul  will 

t  Vaisheshika,  Sutras  II.  i,  24. 

.£  Chari«  Brrdlangh  :  "  Has  man  a  soul  ?  "  p.  4—5. 

100  EVIDENCES      OP 

live  when  the  human  being  has  ceased  to  live,  but  they  do  not 
explain  whether  it  did  live,  before  the  human  being  began  to  live."* 
Here  Charles  Bradlaugh  speaks  of  the  Christians,  for  the  Vedic 
philosophy  verily  establishes  the  eternity,  and  hence  the  pre-existence 
of  human  spirits.  Further  on,  he  says,  "  The  orthodox  contend  that 
what  they  call  the  elementary  substances,  taken  separately,  do  not 
think,  therefore  man  without  a  soul  cannot  think,  and  that  as  man 
does  think  he  must  have  a  soul.  This  argument,  if  valid  at  all,  goes 
much  too  far  ;  a  trout  thinks,  a  carp  thinks,  a  rat  thinks,  a  dog  thinks, 
a  horse  thinks,  and,  by  parity  of  reasoning,  all  these  animals  should 
have  immortal  souls/'t  And  undoubtedly  they  have ;  but  timid 
Christians  are  afraid  of  confessing  it,  and  hence  the  righteous  attack 
of  Brad)augh  on  orthodox  Christians.  His  arguments,  instead  of 
invalidating  any  of  the  principles  of  Vedic  philosophy,  rather  prove 
it.  But  to  return  to  the  first  quotation  from  Bradlaugh.  Evidently 
we  cannot  explain  how  body  can  think,  and  so  long  as  the  principle, 
ex  nihilo  nihil  fit  remains  true,  and  its  reverse  utterly  inconceivable, 
no  man  shall  ever  understand  how  body  can  think.  What,  then,  is  the 
irresistible  c.n  lusio  i  ?  Evidently  this,  that  if  tha  existence  of  con 
sciousness  is  ever  to  be  explained  to  the  understanding,  it  should  be, 
not  by  referring  to  body  or  the  elements  of  which  it  is  composed,  but 
to  something,  to  begin  with,  not  body.  This  something,  with  respect 
to  which  nothing  more  is  predicated  than  "the  cause  of  thinking  that 
is  not  body,"  may  be  coveniently  termed  the  spirit,  or,  as  the  English 
world  puts  it,  the  soul.  What  harm  is  there,  then,  in  declaring  that 
"  it  is  the  soul  (about  which  we  predicate  no  more  than  what  has  gone 
before)  that  thinks"  And  yet  Bradlaugh  has  to  find  fault  with  this. 
And  further,  he  contradicts  the  very  two  principles  enumerated  above, 
and  says  that  the  assertion,  that  no  quality  or  result  can  be  formed  in  a 
combination  that  is  not  discoverable  in  the  elements  of  combination,  is 
"  monstrously  absurd."  He  adduces  the  illustration  of  sugar,  and  says 
the  elements  of  sugar  do  not  taste  sweet,  but  that  sugar  does.  Is  not 
this  a  superficial  reasoning?  Has  no  one,  in  a  dream,  ever  tasted  the 
sensation  of  sweetness  ?  And  yet  there  is  no  sugar,  no  certain  com 
bination  of  carbon,  oxygen  and  hydrogen  there.  Sweet  taste  is  not 
in  the  sugar,  for,  if  it  were,  no  one  could  ever  dream  of  tasting  sweet 
ness,  and  hence  it  need  not  be  in  the  carbon,  oxygen  and  hydrogen 
of  which  sugar  is  composed.  It  is  enveloped  in  a  certain  agitation 
of  the  proper  nerve,  and  the  specific  combination  of  carbon,  oxygen 
and  hydrogen,  known  as  sugar,  only  serves  to  set  free  by  chemico- 
electrical  energy  of  dissolution  in  the  saliva  of  the  tongue,  a  definite 
quantity  of  energy,  which  produces  the  agitation  of  the  proper  nerve, 
and  hence  the  sensation  of  sweet  taste.  In  dream,  this  agitation  is 
produced,  not  by  external  means,  but  by  internal  ones.  The  case  of: 

•*•  Charles   Bradlaugh  :  "   Has  man  a  soul  ?  "  p.  5. 
t  Ibid,  p.    5. 

THE       HUMAN       SPIRIT.  101 

sugar  is,  therefore,  a  further  illustration  of  our  principle,   instead    of 
being  a  refutation. 

But  there  are  materialists  wiser  than  Charles  Bradlaugh,  who, 
instead  of  denying  the  two  grand  generalisations  of  philosophy  above- 
mentioned,  rather  take  their  stand  upon  them,  and  bring  in  the  word 
latent  to  rescue  the  mechanical  theory  from  its  intrinsic  inability  to 
explain  the  fact  of  consciousness.  They  fare  no  better,  for,  as  we 
shall  see,  they  are  the  victims  of  a  graver  logical  fallacy.  They 
reason  thus  : — It  is  true  that  in  the  act  of  combination,  no  new 
qualities  or  results  are  produced,  but  it  very  often  happens  that  the 
process  of  combination  or  organisation  forces  out  that  which  was 
formerly  latent,  and  makes  it  manifest.  For  instance,  gunpowder, 
when  heated,  possesses  the  power  of* exploding.  The  explosive  power 
is  already  latent  in  the  gunpowder,  and  the  act  of  firing  only  renders 
manifest  vrhat.was  latent.  To  explain  it  further.  It  is  well  known 
that  wood  or  charcoal  when  heated  in  the  presence  of  oxygen  burns. 
It  is  also  well  known  that  friction  and  percussion  develope  heat. 
And  it  is  well  known  as  well  that  if  a  part  of  space  is  filled  up 
with  a  quantity  of  a  gas,  more  than  it  can  hold  at  ordinary  pressure, 
it  will  expand  and  will  propel  any  body  in  the  way  of  its  expansion. 
The  propulsion  of  cork  from  soda-water  bottles  is  a  familiar  illustra 
tion.  And,  lastly,  it  is  well  known  too  that  heat  expands  gases,  and 
that  gases  occupy  so  many  hundred  times  more  space  than  the  same 
substances  in  the  solid  condition  do.  All' these  are  well  known  and 
familiar  truths;  yet  the  manufacture  of  gunpowder  is  not  an  obvious 
invention.  Why  ?  Because,  we  require  a  definite  arrangement  o£ 
substances  arid  forces  to  gradually  and  naturally  evolve  a  desired 
result.  We  want  explosion.  Now  explosion  means  .propulsion  of 
shot.  I^et,  therefore,  a  gas  expand  against  shot.  But  whence  are  we 
to  get  a  pressed  or  squeezed  quantity  of  gas  to  expand  ?  Evidently 
from  a  solid  that  by  decomposition  might  evolve  a  gas  and  large 
quantity  of  heat.  This  gas  is  to  be  the  carbonic  acid,  the  gas  of  the 
soda-water,  and  the  heat  is  to  come  from  chemical  action.  But  car 
bonic  acid  is  the  product  of  carbon  and  oxygen.  Hence  the  solid 
mixture  must  contain  charcoal,  the  source  of  carbon,  and  saltpetre 
or  nitre,  the  source  of  oxygen.  The  primeval  concussion  is  to  be  the 
source  of  the  fire  applied  to  the  charcoal.  Hence  gunpowder  is 
an  ultimate  mixture  of  charcoal,  sulphur  and  nitre.  A  chemist 
thus  explains  its  action.  "The  general  decomposition  which  occurs 
when  gunpowder  is  fired  may  be  expressed  by  saying  that  the  oxy 
gen  of  the  nitre  combines  with  the  charcoal  forming  carbonic  acid 
and  carbonic  oxide,  whilst  the  nitrogen  is  liberated,  and  the  sulphur 
combines  with  the  potassium  (of  the  nitre).  Hence,  gunpowder  can 
burn  under  water  or  in  a  •  closed  space,  as  it  contains  the  oxygen 
needed  for  the  combustion  in  itself ;  and  the  great  explosive  power 
of  the  substance  is  due  to  the  violent  evolution  of  large  quantities 

102  B  TIDING  S3      OF 

of  gas,  and  a  rapid  rise  of  temperature  causing  an  increase  of  bulk, 
sudden  and  great  enough  to  produce  what  is  termed  an  explosion." 
It  is  thus  clear  that  in  the  process  of  combination  only  the  pro 
perties  that  were  latent  become  manifest.  Hence  it  is  argued  that 
the  specific  combination  of  matter,  which  we  call  the  organism  of 
man,  develops  or  renders  manifest  the  latent  consciousness  of 
matter.  Hence,  there  is  no  conscious  spirit.  Matter  with  its  infinity 
of  properties  is  enough  to  explain  all  consciousness.  Let  us  weigh 
this  doctrine  of  "  latent  consciousness "  carefully.  When  a  pound 
of  ice  is  taken  and  a  thermometer  inserted  in  it,  and  the  whole  heat 
ed,  a  large  quantity  of  heat  is  absorbed  till  the  whole  of  ice  becomes 
water.  This  heat  has  no  effect  upon  the  thermometer.  Or,  if  the  hand 
were  dipped  in  ice  till  the  whole  of  ice  were  converted  into  water,  the 
hand  will  not  feel  any  sensasion  of  warmth.  Heat  is,  in  this  case, 
said  to  become  latent  in  water.  This  example  is  enough  to  show 
that  any  quality  or  property  of  which  there  is  no  consciousness  for 
the  time  being,  but  which  begins  to  be  felt  under  proper  conditions, 
is  said  to  be  latent.  Now,  what  is  meant  when  it  is  said  that  the 
latent  consciousness  of  matter  becomes  manifest  ?  Can  there  be  any 
latent  consciousness  ?  Can  any  one  conceive  such  a  jargon  ?  All 
properties  of  substances  that  are  external  to  us,  or  are  objective  but 
not  subjective,  may  be  conceived  as  existing  and  not  exciting  conscious 
ness.  But  can  any  one  conceive  a  consciousness  that  is  not  conscious 
ness  ?  For,  what  is  latent  consciousness  but  a  consciousness  of  which 
there  is  no  consciousness,  or  an  unconscious  consciousness  ?  Latent 
consciousness  is  no  more  a  reality  than  a  circular  square  or  a  not- white 
white.  It  is  a  contradiction  in  terms.  This  entire  reasoning  is  based 
on  a  real  ignorance  of  the  signification  of  consciousness.  It  is  simply  a 
hetwbdhasa  (pseudo-reasoning)  arising  out  of  the  metaphorical  misuse 
of  the  word  latent  when  applied  to  consciousness.  i 

We  will  also  here  mention  the  physiological  theory  which  is  in 
vogue  at  present  with  scientific  men  and  philosophers  of  the  experien 
tial  school.  This  theory  is  another  attempt  to- reduce  consciousness 
to  the  terms  of  matter  and  motion.  It  establishes  that  brain  is  not 
only  the  principal  organ  of  mind,  but  that  the  nerve  currents  generat 
ed  in  the  brain  are  the  whole  source  of  the  mind  we  know.  Says  a 
writer  :  "  The  brain  is  highly  retentive  of  the  impressions  made  upon 
it,  they  are  embodied  in  its  structure  and  are  a  part  of  its  growth. 
They  may  be  reproduced  on  after  occasions,  and  then  what  we  find 
is  a  series  of  currents  and  counter- currents,  much  the  same  as  what 
existed  when  the  impression  was  first  made.  When  the  mind  is  in 
the  exercise  of  its  functions,  the  physical  accompaniment  is  the 
passing  and  repassing  of  innumerable  streams  of  nervous  influence. 
Whether  under  a  sensation  of  something  actual,  or  under  an  emotion 
or  idea,  or  a  train  of  ideas,  the  general  operation  is  still  the  same.  It 

*  Henry  E.  Roscoe  ;  Lessons  in  Elementary  Chemistry. 

THE      HUMAN      •  F  I  R.I  T.  103 

seems  as  if  we  might  say,  no  cwrrents,  no  mind."  *  To  it  might  be  added 
what  Herbert  Spencer  gives  in  one  of  his  volumes  on  Synthetic 
philosophy.  After  stating  how  water,  nitrogen  and  carbon  establish 
the  easily  modifiable  nature  of  the  brain,  he  goes  on  to  state  that  the 
nature  of  the  current  is  the  dislodgment  of  energy,  and  that  all  cerebral 
action  is  simply  a  case  of  the  dislodgment  of  energy.  The  brain  centres 
may  be  compared  to  wound-up  springs.  The  nerves  by  their  agitation 
start  the  first  movement  of  the  spring,  and  the  brain  centre  begins  to 
unwind  itself.  To  show  the  merits  and  demerits,  or  the  explanatory 
limit,  of  this  hypothesis,  let  us  consider  the  question,  as  to  how  is 
the  consciousness  of  differences  in  degree  and  quality  produced,  and 
how  are  these  two  kinds  of  differences  differentiated  in  pure  conscious 
ness.  Every  one  knows  what  qualitative  and  quantitative  differences 
(i.  e.,  those  belonging  to  quality  and -degree)  are.  Two  tons  of  soap 
differs  from  five  tons  of  soap  in  quantity.  But  glycerine  soap  differs 
from  carbolic  soap  in  quality.  Similarly  our  sensations,  subjective 
experiences^  also  present  differences  of  degree  and  quality  as  well.  The 
taste  of  an  ounce  of  sugar  dissolved  in  two  tumblers  of  water  differs 
in  degree  from  the  taste  of  the  same  dissolved  in  five.  But  the  sensa 
tion  of  taste  differs  from  the  sensation  of  colour  in  quality.  The 
question  is,  How  came  man  to  know  that  there  are  any  such  things  as 
a  difference  of  degree,  and  a  difference  of  quality  ?  and,  lastly,  How 
does  he  distinguish  between  these  two  ?  Here  is  an  account  of  both 
on  the  dislodgment  theory,  which  will  render  its  futility  very  plain: — 

Whenever  molecular  energy  is  dislodged  at  the  conscious  centres 
of  the  brain,  consciousness  is  the  result.  Now  on  this  hypothesis, 
consciousness  of  differences  in  degree  results  from  the  disengagement 
of  greater  or  less  quantity  of  molecular  energy  from  the  same  centres 
of  the  brain.  Differences  of  quality,  which  objectively  arise  from 
sensation  being  transferred  from  distinct  separate  extremities,  or, 
organs,  tnrough  different  channels,  will  be  subjectively  consciousnessed 
on  this  hypothesis,  by  the  disengagment  of  molecular  energy  from 
different  centres  of  the  brain.  Thus  far,  the  explanation  may  proceed 
without  error.  But  why  should  disengagement  of  molecular  energy 
at  one  centre  of  the  brain  produce  a  consciousness  qualitatively  dif 
ferent  from  the  consciousness  produced  by  the  disengagement  of  energy 
at  another  centre,  still  remains  a  problem. 

Perhaps  some  would  suggest  that  the  chemical  energy  disengaged 
at  different  centres  is  disengaged  by  disintegration  of  atoms  of  dif 
ferent  elements,  or  atoms  of  different  compounds,  and  hence  the  dif 
ferent  sensations  experienced.  But  even  if  it  be  so,  the  question 
still  remains  the  same.  For,  whether  it  be  the  energy  disengaged 
by  the  decomposition  of  this  compound  or  that,  or  by  the  setting 
free  of  the  elements  of  this  atom  or  that,  the  energy  disengaged 
is  energy  still.  And  the  only  difference  that  we  can  conceive 

*  Alexander  Bain  :  Senses  and  the  Intellect. 


between  the  energies  disengaged  at  two  different  centres  of  the 
brain,  is  the  difference  of  quantity  or  degree,  and  not  of  quality,  for, 
energies  disengaged  are  energies  still.  Hence,  we  should  only  be 
conscious  of  difference  of  degree,  even  if  molecular  energy  is  dislodged 
at  different  centres  of  the  brain,  an  assertion  which  is  against  all 
experience.  We  have  shown  how  differences  in  quality  connot  be 
explained  by  the  theory  of  disengagement  of  molecular  energy.  It  io 
at  this  stage  that  the  physiological  hypothesis  remains  at  a  stand-still 
in  reducing  consciousness  in  terms  of  energy. 

We  have  thus  shown  how  all  materialistic  explanations  fare.  It 
remains  now  to  state  the  true  objective  inferences  regarding  Atmd. 
The  first  inference  is  from  the  structure  of  the  nervous  system  with 
which  man  is  endowed  and  its  connection  with  muscular  movement. 
The  brain  consists  of  collections  of  a  grey  matter,  called  brain-centres 
from  which  proceed  fine  white  silvery  threads,  called  the  nerves. 
Some  of  these  nerves,  called  the  motor  nerves,  terminate  in  muscles, 
which  are  appropriated  for  definite  motions.  The  function  of  the 
nerves  is  mainly  that  of  a  conducting  medium  like  the  telegraph  wires. 
The  brain  centres  originate  the  influence  that  is  sent  through  the 
nerves  to  the  muscles  that  obey  the  influence.  This  influence  is  called 
the  nervous  current.  Thus  is  the  apparatus  of  movement  constructed 
in  the  human  organism.  Suppose,  I  desire  to  move  my  hand.  At  the 
command  of  will,  the  proper  brain  centre  yields  forth  the  nervous 
current  which,  travelling  through  the  proper  nerves,  produces  the 
contraction  of  the  desired  muscle  and  forthwith  moves  the  hand.  This 
working  of  the  muscular  and  nervous  system  proves  the  existence  of  a 
willing,  controlling  agent.  A  very  fit  parallel  of  this  is  the  case  of  the 
driver,  turning  by  the  exertion  of  his  muscular  power,  the  reins  of  the 
horses  that  pull  the  carriage.  The  driver  is  the  willing,  controlling  agent. 
The  hand  of  the  driver  that  yields  the  impetus  to  the  reins  is  the 
proper  brain  centre  that  yields  the  nervous  current  to  the  nerves.  The 
reins  are  the  nerves  and  the  horse  is  the  muscular  organ  which  it  is 
desired  to  move.  The  Atma  is,  therefore,  regarded  as  the  rathi,  the 
driver  of  the  body.  This  is  the  first  inference. 

The  second  inference  is  from  the  action  of  the  lungs.  There  is  in 
the  act  of  respiration,  an  inspiration,  (a  holding  of  the  breath  within,} 
and  an  expiration.  In  the  act  of  inspiration,  by  the  motion  of  proper 
membranes,  the  air  of  the  atmosphere  passes  within  the  lungs  to 
oxidize  blood,  convert  carbon  into  carbonic  acid  and  burn  off  other  im 
purities.  Says  Manu  :  — 

^n:  irrow  ftrarera  H 

The  goldsmith  by  blowing  strongly  against  a  piece  of  impure  gold 
removes  its  impurities  by  oxidation.     So  a  proper  blowing  of  the  lungs 

THE      HUMAN      SPIRIT.  105 

produces  the  removal  of  all  impurities   of   tlie   body    and   the   bodily 
organs  by    oxidation. 

Hence  this  vitiated,  chemically  changed  air,  now  laden  with 
carbonic  acid  and  other  impurities,  is  further  expelled  by  the  act  of 
expiration.  This  process  is  continually  kept  up,  and  thus,  by  the  cyclic 
movement  of  expiration  and  inspiration,  the  body  expels  its  waste 
matter,  renovates  its  blood,  derives  strength  and  nourishment  from 
the  invisible  elements  of  the  air,  and  repairs  lorses  and  injuries. 
This  process  argues  the  existence  of  a  blower.  To  make  the  inference 
clearer,  let  us  take  the  case  of  a  goldsmith  or  blacksmith  blowing 
with  his  bellows  air  into  the  furnace  against  a  piece  of  geld  or  iron ; 
when  the  air  is  forced  out  of  the  bellows  into  the  furnace,  a  certain 
muscular  force  has  to  be  exerted.  But  it  requires  no  exertion  on  the 
part  of  the  smith  to  fill  the  bellows  again  with  air.  So  with  the 
lungs.  The  expiratory  function  is  under  the  control  of  the  will.  But 
inspiration  is  a  purely  involuntary  act.  Hence  ifc  is  clear  that  the 
structure  of  the  lungs  displays  the  activity  of  an.  agent  that  con 
stantly  blows  the  air  out, 

A  similar  inference  may  be  drawn  from  the  phenomena  of  wink 
ing.  This  function,  too,  like  the  lungs,  is  controlable  by  will,  but 
even  in  its  ordinary  performance  it  is  so  exact  and  regular  that  it  has 
been  aptly  compared  to  the  movement  of  puppets  at  the  hand  of  a 
skilled  master.  Winking  may  be  artificially  produced  by  touching  the 
inner  surface  of  the  upper  eyelid  with  anything  solid,  when  the 
spasmodic  flutter  produced  will  most  vividly  bring  out 'the  notion  of  an 
interiorly  residing  hidden  master,  at  whose  command  the  flutter  is 
produced,  like  the  dance  of  the  puppet,  in  the  effort  to  remove  any 
such  foreign  material, 

The  physiological  phenomena  of  recuperation  and  growth  are, 
above  all,  most  suggestive.  The  spirit,  in  the  process  of  the  growth  of 
the  organism,  builds  up  by  its  interior  anatomy  all  parts  of  the  body 
proportionately,  repairs  the  injured  parts,  heals  the  wounds,  find,  more 
rema^able  still,  puts  forth  an  intrinsic  eifort  to  shake  off  all  disease 
and  disturbance.  This  power  of  the  spirit,  as  an  architect,  is  well 
known  and  has  given  rise  to  such  terms  as  the  "  conservative"  powers, 
or  "economy ''of  the  human  organism.  A  true  appro-"' ;tion  of  this 
fact  has  also  given  rise  to  a  noble  school  of  physicians  who  regard  the 
human  organism  as  a  self-healing  institution,  the  medicines  occasionally 
given  under  this  treatment  being  meant  to  assist  nature  and  not  to 
counteract  disease.  Concerning  this  physiological  power  and  other 
allied  functions  of  the  human  spirit,  says  a  medical  authority,  "  By 
Materialists  it  is  said  that  digestion  is  caused  by  the  action  of  a  certain 
organic  mo.tter  called  pepsin  in  conjunction  with  several  free  acids 
called  lactic,  acetic,  hydro-chroric.  While  the  truth  is,  especially  in 
mankind,  the  peristaltic  movement  in  the  alimentary  channel  like  tha 

106  EVIDENCES      OF 

motion  of  the  innumerable  glands  in  the  mucous  membrane,  and  there 
fore  digestion  itself  is  caused  inependently  of  the  many  wondrous 
cerebro-spinal  centres,  by  the  soul-principle  acting  through  the  fila 
ments  of  the  sympathetic  system,  which  is  the  residence  and  fulcrum 
of  the  automatic  instincts  and  especially  of  those  vital  self -intelligent 
principles  which  flow  from  the  ethers  and  essences  in  the  constitution 
of  nature  into  similar  substances  in  the  spiritual  organisation  of  man. 
Hunger,  therefore,  is  a  universal  voice  of  the  soul  in  bel;.°lf  of  itself  and 
the  dependent  body ;  and  digestion  is  an  appropriation  by  the  soul  of 
whatsoever  is  supplied  for  the  upbuilding  of  both  itself  and  body." 

Lastly,  the  complicated  relations  into  which  the  passive  organs  of 
Bense  enter  with  the  active  vital  organs,  offer  a  most  strong  ground  of 
inference  for  the  existence  of  Atmd.  The  colour  or  the  smell  of  an 
object  soon  recalls  its  taste,  au-d  the  idea  of  its  taste  immediately 
stimulates  the  tongue  to  secrete  large  quantities  of  saliva,  as  if  in 
readiness  to  eat  the  substance.  It  is,  in  fact,  by  this  very  process  that 
large  quantities  of  saliva  are  obtained  for  experimental  purposes  from 
the  tongues  of  dogs  by  presenting  to  their  sight  delicious  dishes  of 
the  fleshy  food,  without  actually  allowing  the  dogs,  at  least  for  the 
time  being,  to  partake  of  it.  Such,  indeed,  is  the  complicated  relation 
ship  of  the  functions  of  the  organs  of  sense  and  of  the  vital  organs, 
that  serious  diseases  may  be  started  up  or  caused  by  the  associations 
thus  started  up  by  a  single  perception.  All  these  facts  lead  to  the 
inference  of  a  central  conscious  being  here  called  Atmd. 


II  ^t       II 

n  *  11 

v  ,  %  » 

1.  —  By  one  Supreme  Ruler  is  this  universe  pervaded,  even  every 
world  in  the  whole  circle  of  Nature.  Enjoy  pure  delight,  O  man,  by 
abandoning  all  thoughts  of  this  perishable  world,  and  covet  not  the 
wealth  of  any  creature  existing. 

2. — Aspire,  then,  O  man,  to  live,  by  virtuous  deeds,  for  a  hundred 
years,  in  peace  with  thy  neighbours.  Thus  alone,  and  not  otherwise, 
will  thy  deeds  not  influence  thee. 

!  II  S  II 

3. — To  those  regions  where  Evil  Spirits  dwell  and  utter  darkness 
prevails,  surely  go,  after  death,  all  such  men  as  destroy  the  purity  of 
their  own  souls. 

II  8  II 

4.— There  is  one  unchangeable,  eternal,  intelligent  Spirit,  even 
more  vigorous  than  mind.  Material  senses  cannot  perceive  Him. 
Therefore  the  sage  withdraws  his  senses  from  their  natural  course  and 
perceives  the  Supreme  Being  everywhere  present. 


5.  —  He  moves  all  but  Himself  does  not   move.     To   the   ignorant 

He  is  far,  but   to  the  wise  He  is  at  hand.     He  pervades  inside    and 
outside  of   all, 

ff^t  *  ftfafar^rfh  II  ^  II 

0\     O 

6.  —  "  He  who  considers  all  beings  as  existing  in  the  Supreme 
Spirit,  and  the  Supreme  Spirit  as  pervading  all  beings,  cannot  view 
with  contempt  any  creature  whatsoever." 

H  $  n 

7.  —  How  can  joy  and  sorrow  overtake  him  who,  through  wisdom, 
perceives  the  Unitary  Spirit   as   dwelling  in  all  beings  ? 

8. — "  He  overspreads  all  creatures.  He  is  entirely  Spirit  without 
the  form  either  of  a  minute  body,  or  an  extended  one,  which  is  liable 
to  impressien  or  organization.  He  is  the  ruler  of  the  intellect,  self- 
existent,  pure,  perfect,  omniscient,  and  omnipresent.  He  has  from  all 
eternity  been  assigning  to  all  creatures  their  respective  purposes." 

WJ  W      rWt  *J  ^  ftsTTST       Trnl  II  d  II 

9.-—"  Miserable  are  they  who  worship   ignorance  j  but  fftr  mor» 
miserable  are  they  who  arrogantly  presume  knowledge." 


n  ?°  n 

10. — Saints,  wise  and  firm,  assure  us  that  ignorance,  the  life 
o.f  senses,  produces  one  result ;  and  knowledge,  the  life  of  spirit> 
produces  exactly  the  reverse. 

11- — He,  who  realizes  both,  passes  through  physical  dissolution 
by  virtue  of  the  life  of  senses,  and  enters  into  immortality  by  virtue 
of  the  life  of  spirit. 


12.  —  Miserable  are  they  who  worship  atoms  as  the  efficient  cause 
of  the  world  ;  but  far  more  miserable  are  they  who  worship  the  visiblQ 
things  made  of  atoms. 

13. — Saints,  wise  and  firm,  assure  us  that  the   worship   of   atoms 
leads  to  one  result,  and  that  of  things  visible  to  the  reverse. 


II  ^8  II 

14. — He,  who  realizes  both,  enjoys,  after  death  which  is  the  con 
sequence  of  the  worship  of  things  visible,  immortality,  the  fruit  of 
the  realization  of  divine  power  displayed  in  atmoa. 


15* — "  O  Thou  who  givest  sustenance  to  the  world  unveil  that 
face  of  the  true  sun  which  is  now  hidden  by  a  veil  of  golden  light, 
so  that  we  may^see  the  truth  and  know  our  whole  duty/' 


16.  —  0  Sage  of  sages,  Preserver,  Ruler,  Eternal  Light,  and  Life 
of  the  creation  !  gather  up  Thy  rays,  so  that  I  may  be  able  to  feel 
Thy  glorious  presence  full  of  beatitude.  This  alone  is  my  earnest 

II  ^O  II 

17. — The  air  shall  sustain  the  immortal  spiritual  body,  the  gross 
one  shall  only  la^t  till  cremation.  0  thou  !  who  hast  sown  the  seed  of 
deeds,  remember  that  the  same  thou  shall  reap. 

u  ^  11 

18. — 0  All-wise  Being  !  Thou  art  the  source  of  knowledge. 
Inspire  us  with  Thy  wisdom,  lead  us  to  rectitude,  and  drive  off  our 
evil,  To  this  end,  we  repeatedly  praise  Thee  and  adore. 



consciously,  or,  at  the  best,  in  a  state  of   semi-consciousness     by    un 
feeling  hearts,  who,  in  their   lives   and    conduct,  have   betrayed  In 
human  vices,  cruelty,   uncontrollable  passions,  strong  antipathies  and 
inexcusable  weaknesses;  forced  ceremonials,  adopted   through  "a? 

wast'          'I  rS  U0n'  CUSt°m'  °r  fear°f  S0°iet^  cost'y'  usel*4  energy- 

wasting  and  time-consuming  rituals;  bold  iniquities,  that   priests  and 

leaders  of  sects  have   practised,   establishing   inequities   of  men  "n 

sight  of  Heaven;  these  and  similar  other  absurdities  have  usurped 

f  £     raek9wn>   and   ha™   inundated   the   world   with   an   un 

controllable  flood  of  misery,   vice,    crime,  war   and   bloodshed      The 

mntenance  of  religion  has  become  completely  disfigured  bv  looks  of 

mutual  hatred  and  diabolical  enmity,    by   freaks   of 

ambition,  by  anxiety-toned  glare   of   selfish   eyes,  by 

rlnn,  KeaS*°"  ^   fait'lfulness  have   been   divorced  from  the   entiro 
domain  Of  intellect.     Religion  has  become  synonymous  with   a   mere 
profession  o    creeds  or  opinions.    Mere  faith  has  been   substituted^ 
ving  good  lives  and  doing  gracious  deeds.      Words   have   dethroned 

Z    m     f  UPerf  l-10n  and  mythol°gy  ^e   dictated   explanations   of 
the   mystery  of  tne  universe-explanations  that  are  not  less  interest 
mg,  nor  more  true  than   the  tales  of   Arabian  Nights.     lEtagS 
has  been  driven  to  bear  witness   to   the  competency  of    thesLry. 

slhng,  lie-manufacturing  machinery   of   these  explanations.     Guess 
and  conjecture   fill  the    room  of   exactness   and  certainty.     Dreams 

»ve  been  entrusted  upon  society  as  facts.  Imagination  has  been 
strained  to  yield  forth  supernatural  theology,  preternatural  mircales 
and  unnatural  doctrines.  Human  nature  has  been  vilified  insulted 
and  stigmatized  as  wholly  depraved.  Hope  and  expectation  hive 
been  banished  from  the  future.  Eternal  hell-flames  and  mighty 
gmes  of  torture  have  been  forged  and  imposed  upon  the  people 

Many  useful  and  noble  faculties  have  been  denied  their  privilege 
others  have  been  completely  suppressed;  whereas   some   have   been 

114  EXPOSITION      OF 

put  to  severe  persecution  and  trying  ordeal.  The  whole  stock  of 
energy  has  been  consigned  to  bigotry  and  dogmatism.  Such,  in  fact, 
has  been  the  office  of  religion. 

Many  gifted  intellects,  endowed  with  clear  heads,  have  perceived 
this  ruinous  character  of  religion,  and  have  revolted  at  it.  And 
such  is  the  sad  spectacle  still  presented  that  many  minds  do  yet 
revolt  at  it,  and  feel  an  aversion  towards  religion  which  is  highly 
prejudicial  to  the  interests  of  progress  and  truth.  The  noble  con 
ceptions  which  true  religion  might  have  engendered,  the  joys  that 
might  have  sprung  therefrom,  fertilizing  and  -gardenizing  the  soil 
of  life,  are  entire  strangers  to  the  necessarily  sceptical  honest,  truth- 
seeking  minds  of  present  times. 


Is  not  all  this  deplorable  ?  Is  nothing  better  possible  ?  Are  we 
to  be  set  adrift  on  the  ocean  of  uncertain,  yet  honest  scepticism  ?  Is 
the  mystery  of  life  really  insoluble  ?  Perhaps,  it  is  not  given  to 
man  to  understand  the  nature  of  things  !  If  it  be  so,  life  would  be 
a  sad  spectacle  indeed  ;  pains  and  miseries  of  this  world  would  b& 
simply  unbearable. 

Fortunately,  however,  the  above  is  attributable  to  human 
ignorance  of  true  religion.  True  religion  is  free  from  all  artificiality 
and  fabrication.  True  religion  is  not  merely  an  oral  profession.  It 
is  no  mythology.  It  is  a  living  essence.  It  is  highly  practical.  It  is 
founded  on  entire  truth.  It  takes  for  its  basis  the  harmonious  develop 
ment  of  all  the  faculties,  the  righteous  unfolding  of  all  our  capabilities 
of  knowing  and  being. 

Religion,  true  religion,  consists  in  living  a  life  in  Divinity ;  for, 
"  There's  a  Divinity  that  shapes  our  ends, 
"  Rough-hew   them  how  we  will." 

To  realize  the  existence  of  this  Divinity  and  to  feel  its  presence 
everywhere  and  at  every  time  with  us,  is  the  first  lesson  to  be  learnt 
in  religion.  The  conception  that  Nature,  with  her  immutable  laws 
and  inexhaustible  energies,  with  her  infinity  of  forms  and  pheno 
mena — is  not  an  edifice  of  "  chance,"  but  has  the  positive  fact  of 
an  Ever- Active  and  Moving  Principle  diffused  throughout  Nature  for 
its  basis,  is  the  beginning  of  religion.  When  one  has  realized  this, 
and,  in  the  joyous  depths  of  his  consciousness,  can  exclaim,  "  BY 
he  is  then  fit  to  take  a  step  further,  and  learn  the  lesson  of  individual 
reformation.  But  the  lesson  of  individual  reformation  is  never  received 
till  man  has  learnt  to  penetrate  through  the  fleeting  forms  and  pheno 
mena  of  Nature  to  Nature's  God. 


Nature  widely  spreads  her  evanescent  charms  and  fleeting  beauties 
everywhere.     Man  is  easily  misled  by  her  alluring  attractions  and  wild 
enchantments  to  forget  the  Everlasting,  Eternal  God  that  resides  in  the 
interior  of,  and   pervades   each   of,  her  ephemeral  productions.     The 
human  mind,  when  as  yet  undeveloped   and  unrefined     is  soon   held 
in  captivity  by  the  bondage  of  sensuous  phenomena  of  the  world.  The 
gorgeous  display  of  riches  and  wealth,  the  pompous  show  of  rank  and 
dignity,  the  luxuriant  abundance  of  opulence,  the   licentious    sensual 
isms  of  ease  and  affl  tience,  not  unoften  unbalance  the  young  unsophisti 
cated  mind,  and  merge  him  into  a  sea  of  worldly  ambitions,  and  expose 
him  to  the  earthly  anxieties  of  Envy,  Passion,  Jealousy,   Hatred   and 
Vice.     Not  seldom  is  man  thus  blinded  to  the  interests  of  his  everlast 
ing  life; and  the  true  delight  that  eve»r  enters  the  bosom  of  a  devotee, 
who,  while  holding  himself  aloof  from  the  affections  of  this  phenomenal 
world,  contemplates  the  All-pervading  God  of   the   Universe   in    His 
bounteous  dispensation  throughout  Nature,  is  thus  a  stranger  to   him. 
Man,  consequently,  requires  to  be  reminded  that  this  world  is  a  fleet 
ing  show,  that  the  pleasures  of  senses  are  never   permanent,   that    an 
earthly  life  is  an  uii weedy  garden  that  never  grows  to  seed,   and  that 
empty  titles,  names  and  honors,  reaped  in  this  world,  will  not  last  long. 
It  is  wrong  to  hold   out    our   affections    for   things   perishable.     The 
Eternal,  the  Everlasting  should  engage  our  attention,  draw  our   affec 
tions,  absorb  our  interest,  and  excite  our  aspirations,  for,  then    alone, 
is  true  delight  possible.  , 

Wouldst  thou,  O  man,  flee  from  the  evils  of  this  world,  from  th-3 
glamour  of  earthly  pomp  and  deception  ?  Wouldst  thou  get  rid  of  envy, 
passion,  jealousy  and  hatred  ?  Wouldst  thou  be  released  from  the 
restraints,  burdens,  cares  and  anxieties  of  earthly  bondage?  Dost  thou 
seek  for  the  pure,  everlasting  enjoyment  of  peace  and  happiness  ?  Then, 

When  thus  conceived,  what  a  blessing  is  religion,  pure  religion !  Its 
lessons  are  full  of  wise  and  useful  teachings.  Led  from  Nature  to 
Nature's  God,  we  learn  to  contemplate  the  perishableness  of  this  world 
and  dislodge  our  affections  for  it.  When  thus  fitted,  we  are  able  to  take 
a  step  further;  and  that  leads  directly  to  individual  reformation,  which 
essentially  depends  upon  the  perception  of  justice 9.  a  principle  deepest 
engrained  in  human  nature. 

There  is  a  Deific  Essence  that  rules  and  governs  all  by  a  general 
wise  providence,  intended  for  the  highest  good  of  all.  This  universal 
providence  enlivens  the  minutest  atom  as  well  as  the  largest  sun,  and 
fits  the  one  and  the  other  each  for  its  respective  mission  which  is  the 
highest  good  of  all.  A  realisation  of  this  providence  working  for  the 
highest  good  of  all,  and  a  sympathetic  vibration  with  the  pulsations 
of  this  providence  constitutes  a  true  perception  of  the  principle. 


The  highest  good  of  all  being  the  object,  the  wondrous  system  of 
Nature  is  the  Divine  Institution  fulfilling  this  mission  in  a  truly  wond 
rous  and  sublime  manner.  Its  eternal,  immutable,  unchangeable  laws 
are  the  Divine  code  of  perfect  legislation,  breathings  from  the  essence 
of  the  Deity,  modes  in  which  He  eternally  lives,  rules,  and  governs  all. 
He  keeps  no  vigilant,  watchful,  designing,  conspiring,  and  often-time^ 
dishonest,  corruptible  police  to  keep  a  record  of  each  one's  doings,  and 
to  superintend  his  actions,  lest  they  disturb  the  general  peace  of  His 
subjects.  The  Divine  Institution  is  not  susceptible  of  such  weaknesses. 
Each  one's  memory  is  his  infallible  record-keeper,  whereas  the  sensible 
organisation  that  apprises  each  of  pleasure  and  pain,  is  the  omnipre 
sent  police  whose  mission  is  not  to  punish  but  to  teach  lessons  and  to 
reform.  There  are  no  courts  wh,ore  law  suits  are  decided  ;  but  social 
feelings,  affections  and  other  emotions  are  the  interior  chambers  of  the 
mind,  where  Reason  sits  on  the  throne  of  perpetual  judgment.  This 
is  the  universal  machinery  employed  in  the  Institution  of  Nature.  And 
its  object  being  the  highest  good  of  all,  it  is  so  regulated  that  the 
personal  good  of  each,  on  the  whole,  consists  in  the  good  of  all.  The 
eternal  and  immutable  laws  of  Nature,  consequently,  recognize  no 
special  obligations,  no  individual  isolated  rights,  and  are  no  respecters 
of  persons.  One  way  the  whole  current  of  Nature  flows — THE  COMMON 
WEAL.  No  violation  of  this  common  course  is  possible  without  in 
volving  the  transgressor  in  the  consequences  of  his  transgression — 
consequences  by  virtue  of  which  he  is  thrown  off  from  the  common 
course,  for  a  moment,  to  leave  the  general  current  undisturbed,  to 
get  himself  purified,  rectified,  and  resigned,  if  not  willing  to  be  sub 
servient  to  the  interests  of  the  universal  whole. 

The  law  of  justice,  that  keeps  each  being  in  peaceful  relations  with 
lii s  neighbour,  and  dictates  to  him  the  standard  of  purity  of  his  own 
soul,  also  enjoins  upon  him  the  self-chcsen  and  pleasing  duty  of  living 
in  peace  with  his  neighbours,  and  in  tune  with  the  external  world. 
The  destruction  of  this  equilibrium  is  what  constitutes  discord,  disease, 
misery,  war  and  destruction.  Should  any  individual,  therefore,  attempt 
to  disturb  the  general  peace,  the  indispensable  consequences  of  this 
transgression  will  inevitably  devolve  themselves  upon  him.  But  far  dif 
ferent  is  the  case  of  one  who  consciously  and  wilfully  adopts  the  career 
that  Providence  has  designed  and  regulated  for  all.  His  path,  though 
difficult  in  the  beginning,  leads  straight  to  individual  happiness 
and  social  welfare.  His  is  a  path  of  peace  and  tranquillity.  No 
envious  heart-burn,  no  exhausting  emulation,  no  feeling  of  contempt 
or  disgust,  no  despair  or  disappointment,  no  discontentment  with  his 
environments  ever  prompts  him  to  swerve  from  the  righteous  course 
and  spoil  the  temple  of  his  personal  health  and  individual  existence. 
On  the  contrary,  his  social  and  fraternal  feelings  are  saturated  to 
satiation,  his  disinterested  nature  uplifts  him  above  ordinary  persecu 
tion  on  one  hand  and  selfishness  on  the  other,  his  reason  is  unclouded, 


and  his  will  pure  and  undefiied.  For,  let  man  once  comprehend  that 
there  is  a  wise  Providence  that  regulates  the  affairs  of  the  boundless 
universes  around  us  by  the  ordination  of  general  laws,  let  him  once  to 
his  satisfaction  understand,  comprehend  and  know  these  general  laws, 
and  feel  the  existence  of  this  Providence  in  the  depths  of  his  heart 
fully  enough  never  to  forget  it  for  a  single  moment  in  his  life,  let  him 
'once  enter  this  condition,  and  he  will  feel  the  unity  of  his  spirit  with 
that  of  others.  He  will  find  himself  in  tune  with  all  others.  Then  will 
arise  a  perception  of  true  brotherhood  with  mankind,  for  it  will  be  seen 
that  our  delight  consists  in  making  others  delighted,  our  happiness 
in  making  others  happy. 

It  is  this  perception  of  universal  justice  (which  regards  all  mankind 
as  one  brotherhood  and  impels  man  to  seek  the  harmonization  of  his 
interest  with  duty,  lest,  in  not  doing  so,  he  may  transgress  the  motion 
of  natural  currents  that  lead  to  general  good),  that  can  keep  one 
willingly  and  delightfully  from  infringing  upon  the  rights  and  liberties 
of  others.  Thus  alone,  when  in  accord  with  the  maxims  of  universal 
justice,  can  he  truthfully  exclaim  "  COVET  NOT  THE  WEALTH 
OF  ANY  CREATURE  EXISTING."  Only  then,  and  not  till  then,  is 
true  individual  reformation  possible. 

Religious  progress,  however,  does  by  no  means  end  here.  Merely 
to  keep  one's  self  aloof  from  the  turmoils  of  this  earthly  life,  to  remain, 
as  it  were,  unimpressed  by  the  fleeting  shew  and  vanity  of  this  world, 
or,  lastly,  to  abstain  from  infringing  upon  the  rights  and  liberties  of 
others,  is  but  the  negative  or  prohibitive  side  of  religion,  with  which 
even  sinful  indolence,  coldest  indifference,  conniving  reticence,  and  an 
abettor's  silence  are  compatible.  Religion  is  too  positive  to  be  restric 
ted  to  these  mere  prohibitive  duties.  The  wondrous  organization  of 
man  endowed  with  potent  energies  and  vivacious  capabilities,  has  some 
more  imperative  demands,  points  out  to  the  existence  of  some  higher 
ends,  and  cannot  be  silenced  by  the  dicta!  es  of  mere  prohibitive  mora 
lity.  For  purposes  of  mere  peaceful  enjoyment;  never  in  conflict  with 
the  enjoyments  of  others,  a  passive  organization  would  have  been 
quite  enough.  But  man  possesses  active  powers,  innate  energies, 
and  stirring  elements  :  and  all  these  are  not  in  vain.  They  beckon  him 
towards  the  constant  application  and  energetic  employment  of  all  his 
bodily  and  mental  powers  for  the  glorious  end  of  achieving  peace  and 
happiness  for  himself  and  his  neighbours.  Activity  and  not  sluggish 
ness  is  the  law  of  Nature.  Animate  and  inanimate  Nature,  both,  is  full 
of  lively  energy  and  restless  animation.  Nothing  is  idle.  The  ant  is  ever 
busy,  the  earth  we  live  upon  ever  whirls  round  and  round,  the  plants 
and  trees  are  ever  employed  in  their  growth,  the  air  is  always  circulat 
ing  and  the  waters  are  always  bubbling  and  flowing  !  Look  round  and 
say,  what  religion  does  Nature  enjoin,  what  lessons  does  it  widely 
outspread  ?  Everywhere  in  the  domain  of  Nature,  the  inherent  forces 
are  ever  busy  in  manifesting  their  presence. 

118  EXPOSITION    or 

Nature  enjoins  but  one  religion,  and  that  is  Action,  incessant, 
untiring,  powerful,  energetic  Action, — for  good,  for  glory,  for  health 
and  for  happiness  of  Each  and  All.  "  ASPIRE,  THEN  O  MAN,  1O 

To  one  who  leads  a  life  of  incessant  useful  activity,  how  beaute 
ous  is  the  universe  !  It  is  a  rich  mine  of  happiness  that  only    requires 
digging    down  and   taking   possession   of.     And   what   are    human 
faculties  to  him  ?     Speech   with  its   power   to   soothe   and   to   bless, 
music   with  its  power  to  calm  and   to   refresh,  affections   with   their 
mainsprings   to   elevate   and  to  'support,   and   thoughts   with   their 
wings  to  take  the  loftiest  flights  and  to  soar ;  these  and   other    facul 
ties  are  full  of  hidden  beauties,     Bach  organ  is  pure  and  holy,  as    its 
mission  is  noble  and  sublime.     Can     one  admire  this  beauty  of   the 
human  system,  appreciate  it  at  its   worth,   comprehend    its   holiness, 
desire  its  purity   and  still   remain  disagreeable,    discordant  and   de 
formed  himself  ?     No,  he  is  too  alive  to  the  beauties  of  internal  purity 
and  the  lustre  of  inward  holiness,  ever  to  linger   in   the   darkness   of 
filthy  sensualism  or   hell  of   moral  decrepitude.     Purity   of   motives, 
holiness  of  deeds  and  loveliness  of  lives  are  the  internal  beauties  that 
he  prizes  most,  and   values  above   all.     He   cannot   degrade   himself 
by  destroying  this  internal  beauty,  for,  he  is  alive  to  the   truth  that 
SOULS"     He  is  rather  filled  with  joy  at  the  glorious   capabilities  of 
his  existence  and  at  the  priceless  gift  of  life,   is  inspired  with  grate 
fulness   for  His   endowment  of  reason,   and   moved    to   thanksgiving 
for  the   possession  of  his  moral   nature.     His   spirit   is    moved   with 
gratitude   towards   Him   who   pervades  all   immensity,  animates  the 
orbs  ef  heaven  and  the  worms  of  earth,  and  destines  them  for   cease 
less  action  for  millenniums  to  come.     Where  is  there  an  object  in  the 
unfolded   universe,   that    does  not   inspire  the  grateful    mind  to  sing 
praises  of  Him   who    reigns   supreme  everywhere,    showering   beau 
ties     and     blessings      around  ?   In    due    acknowledgement   of    our 
gratefulness  and  our  dependence   upon  Him,  our  souls  rise  in  worship 
ful  attitude  towards  Him,  who  is  "  ONE  UNCHANGEABLE,  ETER 
MIND."     It  is  true  that  "Material  senses  cannot  perceive  Him,"  but 
the  heart  bends  in  homage,  ever   grateful  for  the   beauteous  gifts   of 
providence.     Flavours,  odors,  colors,  sounds  and   other  external   im 
pressions  may   affect  the    externallv-minded   man  and   render  him 
forgetful  of  the  source  from  whom  all  tliese  flow,  but   one   in   whose 
spirit  beauty  blooms,  and  gratitude   rises  with    fragrant  incense   of 


submissive    homage,   cannot   help     penetrating   beyond   them.      He 
WHERE  PRESENT."     No  more   do  the   delusive  phenomena  of  the 
world    delude  him.     Sensuous  charms  and  external  vanities    no  more 
blind  his  expanded  and  internally-unfolded  vision.  Far  from  external 
strife,    and  in  the  quiet  of  his  mind,  he  perceives  the  Supreme  Being 
that  MOVES  ALL  BUT  HIMSELF   DOES  NOT  MOVE.     Yes,    to 
the   worldly-minded,    passion-stricken,  ignorance-ridden   individuals, 
He  may  be  far,  But  TO  THE  WISE  HE  IS  AT  HAND,"    for,  "  He 
pervades  inside  and  outside  of  ALL."     For  a  mind  thus   moved  with 
the  spirit  ef    gratefulness,   discord,    discontent   and  disturbance  exist 
no  more.     For,   what  are  jealousy,  hatred,  envy,  contempt  and   other 
discords  but  different  forms  of  antip'athy  ?     And  how  can    antipathy 
exist,  when  one  has  realised  for  all  mankind  a  common  destiny,  when 
one  perceives  each  spirit  moved   by  kindred  influences    of   the    same 
Providence,  each  item  of  the  vast    universe  animated   by  the   same 
breath  and   each   individual  heart    flaming    with  identical   heaven- 
lighted     fires.     All    differences     melt     away.     Human    kind   is  one 
family.     All  are   brothers.     There  are    no    enmities,  no  rivalries,    no 
jealousies    and  no  oppositions.     Under  the  patronage  of  such  a   men 
tal  exaltation,  one  is   delightfully  led   to   consider   "  ALL    BEINGS 
nor  can  "joy  and  sorrow  overtake  him,"  for,    he  perceives  through 
His   wisdom    "  the  UNITARY  SPIRIT  THAT  DWELLS  IN  ALL 

Reverence,  admiration  and  love  are  the  only  feelings  that  actu 
ate  him  whose  perception  extends  to  the  Unitary  Spirit  of  the  universe. 
When  one  reflects,  how  one  is  moved  with  reverence  even  towards 
those  surperiorly  endowed  individuals,  who,  though  superior,  are 
fallible,  finite,  liable  to  pain,  ignorance,  disappointment,  weakness 
and  their  consequences,  it  ceases  to  be  a  wonder  that  he  should  be 
moved  with  greater  respect,  admiration  and  reverence  towards  Him 

Blessed  are    they   who  enjoy  the    knowledge    of   this   Divinity, 
this  Omnipresent   Providence.     Excessive  joy  dwells  in  the  conscious 

120  EXPOSITION      OF 

depths  of  those  who  feel  the  presence  of  this  Great  Reality.  Life 
is  a  rich  luxury,  an  immanent  blessing,  an  eternity  of  enjoyment  and 
growth.  Death  is  swallowed  up  in  victory.  But  miserable  are  they 
who  are  tied  within  the  meshes  of  ignorance  all  around.  Insensible  of 
this  Great  Reality  of  the  universe,  can  ignorance  go  further  ?  See 
what  a  wreck  it  makes.  There  is  nothing  more  hideous  than  ignor 
ance.  It  has  been  truly  said  that  when  man  only  once  becomes  con-: 
scions  of  his  ignorance,  it  is  simplv  unbearable.  Wisdom,  therefore, 
begins  with  the  consciousness  of  ignorance.  The  wise  Socrates  was 
right,  assuredly  right,  when  he  said,  "  I  only  know  that  I  know 
nothing/'  All  discord  springs  out  of  ignorance.  See  what  a  hideous 
picture  it  presents.  Says  immortal  Patanjali  :  — 

c  Fourfold  is  the  fearful  power  of  ignorance.  It  leads  its  pitiable  vic 
tim,  in  the  first  place,  to  conclude  that  this  visible,  audible  universe, 
the  very  elements  of  which  are  given  to  decomposition  and  decay,  shall 
last  for  ever,  that  this  gross  physical  body,  this  mortal  coil,  is  the  only 
thing  that  lasts  after  death.  In  the  second  place,  it  leads  him  to  the 
horribly  erroneous  conviction  that  female  beauty,  —  beauty  which  has 
been  styled  by  some  philosophers  as  a  silent  cheat,  practice  of  falsehood, 
theft  and  the  like,  the  very  essence  of  which  breathes  filth  and  impurity 
are  enjoyments  pure  and  desirable.  In  the  third  place,  it  plunges  him 
into  that  ocean  of  pain  and  misery,  the  sea  of  passions  and  sensualities,  in 
the  gratification  of  which  the  blind  victim  of  Ignorance  imagines 
the  acquisition  of  pleasure  and  of  happiness.  Fourthly  and  lastly, 
the  victim  of  Ignorance  has  no  conception  of  soul  and  spirit.  To  him 
there  is  no  soul  beyond  this  material,  ponderable,  visible  substance." 
Such  is  ignorance,  and  as  such  it  may  truly  be  called  the  life  of  senses, 
for,  what  is  it  but  a  recognition  of  no  happiness  beyond  sensual 
pleasures,  of  no  life  beyond  that  of  senses,  and  of  no  world  beyond 
the  sensible  one?  Surely  "MISERABLE  ARE  THEY  WHO 
he  is  not  wise  who  presumes  to  know  more  ;  who  claims  to  carry  a 
pile  of  books  in  his  brain  ;  or  a  thick  cluster  of  words  and  phrases 
in  his  memory  ;  or  a  shower  of  sarcastic  vocabulary  in  his  tongue  ; 
or  a  borrowed  magazine  of  that  stuff  (which  is  so  useful  for  purposes 
of  victory  in  intellectual  warfare,  commonly  known  by  the  name 
of  arguments)  in  his  promiscuous  store-house,  called  the  mind.  Wise  is 
rather  he  who  feels  noblij,  thinks  nobly,  lives  nobly  and  ACTS  NOBLY. 
The  difference  between  wisdom  and  ignorance  is  the  difference  of 
opposites.  Wisdom  is  life  perpetual,  happiness  eternal,  and  peace  for 
ever.  Ignorance  is  all  the  misery,  all  the  crime,  all  the  sickness,  all  the 
evil,  that  exists  in  this  world.  The  difference  between  Wisdom  and 
Ignorance  is  all  the  difference  that  is  possible  in  this  world.  They 


were  not  wrong  who  proclaimed  «  THAT  IGNORANCE,  THE  LIFE 

But  blessed  is  the  wise  man  who  gets  good  out  of  evil  and  nectar 
out  of  poison.     For  a  wise  man    the  very  senses  have  a  sacred  function 

to  perform.      This  is  the    function    of  sfrF  tffqre^  (Karmdpd* 

,  —  that  well-ordered,  righteously  regulated  religious  life  which 
leads  to  emancipation  from  bondage,  from  sins,  from  misery  and  from 
death.  Yea,  wisdom  extracts  discipline  out  of  senses,  righteousness 
out  of  passions,  elevation  out  of  affections,  emancipation  out  of 
ignorance,  and  yields  forth  as  its  fruit  everlasting  bliss  and  immorta 
lity.  Of  such,  has  it  been  said,  '''HE  WHO  REALIZES  BOTH, 

Many  are  the  victims  of  Ignorance,  and  direful  are  the  forms  it 
assumes.  One  of  them  is  what  may,  for  want  of  a  better  name,  be 
called  scientific  atheism.  This  is  a  belief  in  the  omnipotence  of  atoms. 
The  externally-minded  scientific  man,  whose  mind  is  replete  with 
conceptions  of  matter  and  motion,  with  dynamical  and  mechanical 
explanations,  ever  true  to  his  instinct  of  never  believing  any  thing 
except  on  the  testimony  of  his  senses,  begias  the  task  of  crude  ana 
lysis.  He  dissects  organised  structures,  nerves,  muscles  and  tissues, 
and  re-dissects,  but  throughout  all  the  labyrinths  of  the  brain,  all 
the  complicated  net  work  of  veins  and  arteries,  he  finds  no  trace  of 
an  intelligent  God,  all  is  motion  or  matter  in  motion.  He  begins  his 
physiological  researches  and  ends  in  chemical  and  nervous  action 
everywhere.  Again  he  leaves  the  organic  department  of  nature,  and 
analyzes  and  decomposes,  and  again  analyzes  and  decomposes  each 
solid  and  liquid  and  gas,  now  in  a  crucible,  then  in  a  retort,  now 
by  means  of  heat,  and  then  by  means  of  electricity,  here  with  re 
agents,  and  there  with  reactions,  but  meets  everywhere  with  atoms, 
their  affinities  and  their  valencies,  but  nowhere  with  God.  On  the 
positive  evidence  of  direct  observation,  and  from  the  infallible  platform 
of  personal  experience,  with  his  head  raised  in  the  proud  majesty  of 
knowledge,  and  his  spine  straightened  with  the  nervous  energy  of  natural 
forces,  he  bids  farewell,  a  last  farewell  to  the  barbaric  dogma  of  a  belief 
in  the  existence  of  an  intelligent,  all-pervading,  all-mvoing  principle. 
His  belief  in  the  potence  of  atoms  is  boundless.  They  are  unanalyr- 
able,  undecomposablej  simple  monads}  uncreated  and  eternal  in  their 
existence,  endowed  (not  by  anything  else,  but  naturally  through 
necessity  of  existence)  with  inconceivable  motions.  In  the  vast 
chaotic  operation  of  these  atomic  forces,  specific  atoms  met  through 
accident  and  selection,  united  together,  assumed  a  temporary  organi- 


zation,  exhibiting  signs  of  breathing  conscious  life.  This  germ  ol 
life,  on  account  of  wholly  unexpected  and  inc  mprehensible  cireum* 
stances,  under  favorable  conditions,  (favorable  through  chance  or 
selection)  propagated  itself  and  multiplied.  Great  was  the  struggle 
for  existence  then  raging.  Many  fortunately  organized  beings  were, 
in  the  course  of  this  struggle,  again  hurled  back  into  the  atomic 
chaos  whence  they  sprung.  This  is  extinction.  But  some  fortunate 
organizations  (fortunate,  not  through  merit  or  desert,  nor  through 
design,  hut  fortunate  somehow)  survived  this  diresoine  catastrophe, 
and  prospered.  Their  organization  modified  and  developed  new 
organs,  and  remodified  and  redeveloped,  till  man  appeared  on  the 
stage.  Now  man,  this  man,  the  product  of  fortuitous  combination* 
of  atoms,  with  his  heated  brairu_  exudes  entirely  unsupported  doc 
trines  of  immortality  and  Providence.  Can  a  sensible  man  believe 
such  dogmas  ?  Vain  are  thy  efforts,  O  theologian  !  to  construct  an 
edifice  of  religion  on  the  foundation  of  sand.  Human  race,  as  a 
race,  may,  for  long  ages  to  come,  survive,  but  individual  man  shall 
only  go  back  to  the  vile  dust  from  whence  he  sprung. 

Such  is  scientific  atheism.     All  is  uncertain   and  unreliable.    Life 
is  but  an  accidental  spark  produced  by  the  friction  of  mighty  wheels, 
the  blind  whirling  motion  of  which    constitutes    the    phenomena   of 
the  universe.     There  is  no  hope  of  futurity,  no  consolation  for  oppress 
ed   virtue  or    disappointed   justice,    hereafter.     A    natural   result  of 
which  is  that  the  worshipper  of  omnipotent    atoms,    dashed   headlong 
into  a  sea   of    Unrighteousness    and    immorality,   tramples   all  justice 
without  a  pang,  suppresses  all  virtue    without  a    sigh,  and    over    the 
wreck  of  all  that    is  noble  and  elevating  in  human  nature  builds  his 
philosophy   of  desperate-ism.     He  is  desperate  in    his   actions,  despe 
rate  in  his  feelings.     Or  perchance  his  is  a  philosophy  of  resignation. 
Desperate  or  resigned,  there  are  the  signs  of  brutal  violence  "to  human 
nobility    rendered,    and  as  is  the    case    of  all   violence     rendered    to 
human  nature,  the  sudject  is  agitated,  disturbed,  listless,  melancholy, 
petrified  or    simply  unconscious    of  himself.     Miserable,    though,    is 
this  extreme  form  of  scientific    atheism,  there  is  a    softened    form   of 
it,  however,  which  is    compatible  with   a    certain   and    a   very   high 
degree  of  morality.     For,   there  is  in  the  scientific   atheist,  a   strong 
belief  at   least,  in  the   unchangeable,  and  immutable  nature    of   laws, 
or  of  the  order  of  Nature.     He  is  not  superstitious.     In  the  world  of 
effects,  at  least,  he  is  a  master.     Miserable  and  disturbed  as  his  life 
of   the  interior  may  be,    his    external  life    is,   no   doubt,    a  complete 
success.     But  far  different  is  the   case  of  one  who,    through    supersti 
tious  ignorance,  neither  has  any  conception  of   the    Intelligent  Ruler 
of  the  universe,  nor  a  definite  conception   of  any    law  or   order  in  the 
universe,    but  substitutes  for  the  ennotjjing  belief  of  a   monotheist  or 
the  natural    dependence  of  an  atheist,  n,  mean,  grovelling  or  debasing 
worship  of  elements  like  earth,  or  of  objects  like   stones  and  trees,  or 


even  of  bodies  of  men.  Of  such  degrading  and  debasing  forma  of 
theism,  the  world  is  full.  There  is  the  homotheism  (man-worship)  of 
the  Christians,  the  Loco — theism  of  the  Mahomedans,  the  idolatry  of 
the  pagans,  the  pantheism  of  the  Vedantis,  and  the  polytheism  of 
the  Hindus ;  and  all  bigotry,  dogmatism,  sectarianism,  intolerance 
and  fanaticism  of  which  the  world's  history  is  so  full,  is  wholly 
•attributable  to,  and  is  a  standing  evidence  of,  the  miserably  dege 
nerated  condition  of  the  people  at  large.  Incalculable  are  the  evils 
that  flow  from  the  worship  of  things  visible.  Truly  has  it  been  said, 


Leading,  as  they  do,  to  widely  differing  results,  scientific  atheism 
and  various  forms  of  worship  of  things  visible  are  capable  of  a  use 
to  which  wisdom  puts  them,  when  they  are  no  more  those  disgusting 
things  that  they  were.  The  mighty  hand  of  wisdom  extracts  out  of 
things  visible  that  sense-education  and  useful  application  ,which  is 
the  primary  basis  or  the  granite-foundation  of  all  interior  development. 
Man's  life-term  is  thus  converted  into  a  pleasant,  instructive,  in 
vigorating,  power-awakeniug  journey  that  leads  through  the  invisi 
ble  portals  of  death  to  calm  eternal.  Not  alone  is  the  visible  material 
of  the  universe  thus  converted  into  a  rich,  useful  store  for  future,  but 
the  invisible  undecomposable  atoms  also  are.,  by  the  touch  of  wisdom's 
hand,  seen  to  be  the  seat  of  the  power  of  the  Almighty  Maker.  Atoms 
are  but  the  vehicle  through  which  the  Lord  Divine  sends  forth 
everlasting  energy  and  life  into  the  visible.  Thus  "HE  WHO 

Here  let  us  pause,  and  take  a  survey  of  the  great  eminence  to 
which  we  have  ascended.  There  is  God,  the  Supreme  Ruler  of  the 
universe,  pervading  in  all,  distributing  justice  for  all,  and  assign 
ing  for  each  and  all,  their  respective  mission.  Here  is  man  endowed 
with  potent,  active  faculties,  energetic  capabilities,  and  all-achieving 
powers,  adequate  to  fulfill  the  mission  to  him  assigned  ;  and  here  is  a 
glorious,  beauteous  universe,  so  attractive,  so  useful,  so  beautiful,  so 
harmonious  that  the  heart  rises  in  utter  gratitude  to  the  Great  Dis 
penser  of  all  gifts,  «  O  THOU  WHO  G1VEST  SUSTENANCE  TO 


IS  MY  EARNEST  PRAYER.  Wonderful  is  the  immortal  life 
Thou  bestowest,  and  wonderful  the  justice  Thou  dealest.  Sublime  is 

the  process  by  which  the  immortal  spiritual  body  (*T5*f  *j€fa) 

is  raised  out  of  the  gross  physical  one  and  supported.  For,  even 
after  death,  Thou  peoplest  us  in  a  world,  the  enjoyments  of  which 
are  the  fruits  of  the  very  seeds  that  here  with  our  deeds  we  have  sown. 

KNOWLEDGE,  inspire  US  WITH  THY  ivisdom,  LEAD  US  TO 
RECTITUDE,  AND  DRIVE  OFF  OUR  EVIL.  To  this  end,  WE 
repeatedlg  PRAISE  THEE  AND  ADORE. 

-:  o 




1.  "OM"  is  the  name  of  the  Eternal  and  Omnipresent  Spirit. 
The  Vcdas  and  tihastras,  and  even  the  whole  universe,  when 
understood,  declare  the  nature'  and  attributes  of  the  same 
Being.  He,  Om,  encompasses  the  past,  the  present  and  the 
future,  aud  is  perfect.  He  encompasses  even  what  the  past, 
the  present  and  the  future  do  not  comprise. 

NOTES  —  I.  Akshara  has  been  translated  into  '  eternal  and  omni 
present.7  See  Mahabhashya,  Patanjali's  Commentary,  2nd  A'lmika,  on 
the  Seventh  Shiva  Sutra.  Says  Patanjali  :  — 

—  or,  altfiliara  is  that  which  does  not  decay,  decompose,  move  or 
change;  also,  akxhara  (from  the  root  ash  and  unadi  suffix  saran)  means 
that  wMch  is  all-pervading,  Hence  '  eternal  and  omnipresent/ 

Swami  Dayananda  translates  the  passage  thus  in  his  Introduction 
to  the  Yeclas,  (Riyvedddi  Bhdshya  Bhuiiiika),  p.  44,  lines  21  —  25. 

This  is  literally  as  we  have  interpreted. 

Our  rendering  of  Hliutam,  Jlhawat  and  BhavisKyat  is  that  of  sub 
stantives,  meaning  '  God  encompassing  the  past,  God  encompassing 
the  present  and  God  encompassing  the  future,  unlike  the  ordinary 
meaning  of  mere  adjectives,  meaning  past,  present  and  future,  qualify 
ing  the  A'ord  Sarvam.  Also,  we  have  translated  Sarvam  as  perfect.  For 
reasons,  see  Nirukta,  Parishfshta,  14th  Chapter,  I3th  and  14th  Kandas, 
Yfhsrebhuta^hawat)  bhavishyat  und  aaruaw  are  given  as  names  of  God 
or  Atma. 



2.  He  is  the  Great  God,  perfect  in  all.  He  who  per 
vades  my  soul  is  the  Supernal  Soul  of  Nature.  The  phases  of 
His  existence  are  four  in  number. 

II  ?  n 

3.  The  first  phase  is  the  wakeful  phase.  In  this  phase, 
God  is  manifest  as  diffused  in  external  nature  ;  causing  inces 
sant  interaction  among  the  seven  parts  that  constitute  the 
organisation  of  the  Universe  ;  determining  the  disposition  of 
the  nineteen  organs  of  thought  and  correlation,  that  enable 
organisms  to  seek  their  enjoyments  in  gross  palpable  matter; 
and  regulating,  with  precision  and  order,  the  physical  motions 
of  the  Universe. 

fwtat  m^:  n  8  n 

II.  —  Atma  —  "  the  Supernal  Soul  that  pervades." 


or  Atma  is  derived  from  the  root  at  and  unadi  suffix  manin. 

T  —  Atma  is  that  which  pervades  all. 
Also  See  Nirukta,  III,  15.— 

3lTcf  ^  TOT     ST        cZTTWrf  ^       II 

Swami  Dayananda  translates  the  passage, 

(one  of  the  well-known  vnahdvdkyas  of  Neo-vedantins)  in  the  SATTYA- 
ETHA  PRAKASHA,  3rd  Edition,  p.  195,  line  26,  thus  :  — 

rl^  ^  ^i^rlT 

Pad  —  phase  of  existence  (from  the  root  pad,  which,  means  gati). 

III.  —  Saptanga  —  seven  parts  of  the  organisation,  (1)  Head,  (2) 
Eyes,  (3)  Ears,  (4)  Organ  of  Speech,  (5)  Organ  of  Respiration,  (6) 
Heart,  (7)  Feet.  They  are  also  sometimes  slightly  differently  enume 
rated.  Explanation  to  follow. 

!  —  Nineteen  internal   organs   of  thought 

and  correlation.  They  are  the  5    organs    df    senses,    i.  e.,  of   hearing, 
touching,  tasting,  smelling  and  seeing;.  5  organs  of  motion,  i.  e.,  hands, 


4.  The  second  phase  is  the  contemplative  phase.  In 
this  phase,  God  is  viewed  as  living  in  the  interior  design  that 
fixes  the  relation  of  the  seven  parts  to  each  other,  or  adapts 
the  nineteen  functions  of  correlation  to  the  purposes  in  View, 
thus  interlinking  the  several  ideas  that  constitute  the  design, 
and  giving  to  the  Universe  an  invisible  but  interior  organisa 

:  nun 

feet,  reproductive  organ,  organ  of  excretion  and  organ  of  speech  ;  5 
pranas,  or  vital  nervauric  energies,  i,  e,}  pro/no,  that,  in  (ha  act  of  re 
spiration,  forces  the  air  into  the  lungs  ;  aj^jithat  produces  mpt  ion  from 
inside  outwards;  samdna  that  circulates  the  blood  from  the  heart 
throughout  the  system  ;  uddna  that  stimulates  the  glossopharyngeal 
nerves  and  moves  the  muscles  near  the  throat  to  draw  in  food  and  drink, 
and  vytna  that  produces  motion  in  all  parts  of  the  body,  (See  SATYARTHA 
PRAKASHA,  p.  242,  lines  15  —  18)  ;  Manas,  or  organ  of  will  and  desire  ; 
Buddhi,  or  organ  of  thought  ;  Chitta,  or  organ  of  memory  ;  Ahankdra, 
or  organ  of  individuality. 

Vaishwdnara  has  been  here  translate'd  into  God  '  manifest  as 
diffused*  or  '  causing  incessant  interaction,'  or  '  determining  the  disposi* 
ition  '  of  organs  ;  or  '  regulating  the  motions  '  of  the  Universe.  Yaska 

thus  says  of  Vaishwanara, 


Nir.  VII,  21. 

Which  means:  —  Vaishwdnara  is  He  who  controls  and  directs  all 
beings,  towards  whom  all  beings  are  led,  or  who  is  himself  Vaishwanara, 
i.  e.t  One  residing  in  all  things  and  moving  them. 

IV.  —  *TC«T  ^T;TT  J  has  been  translated  into  'contemplative 
phase/  for,  in  dream,  ordinarily  cnlled  swapnat  it  is  only  the  mind  that 
is  active,  not  discriminating  between  things  and  their  thought.  Hence, 
the  only  realities  then  present  before  the  mind  are  its  own  thoughts, 
It  is  in  this  respect  that  swapnasthana  has  been  translated  into  tho 
"  contemplative  phase." 

Concerning  the  words  taijasa  and  prajnay  occurring  in  the  next 
passage,  Yaska  remarks,  Nirukta,  XII.  37  —  m^^TWlS^^r- 

*^?gTr*nrf?W^5i"  The  words  prajna  and  taijasa  signify  two 
modes  of  existence  of  Atma. 


5.  When  the  human  soul  reposes  in  sound  slumber,  sus 
pending  all  voluntary  function?,  neither  willing,  nor  desiring, 
nor  dreaming,  he  is  said  to  be  sushupta,  or  in  the  slumbering 
condition.  The  third  phase  is  the  slumbering  phase,  where, 
like  the  human  soul  that  is  folded  within  itself,  God  is  viewed 
as  himself,  an  Embodiment  of  all  ideas  and  principles,  Him 
self  all  delight,  enjoying  but  delight,  only  manifest  in.  His 
consciousness,  and  endowed  with  the  highest  wisdom. 

f%  WfHTW  n  ^  n 

6.  Such  is  the  Ruler  <5f  all,  the  Omniscient  Principle, 
even  the  Controller  of  life  interior,  from  whom  has  proceeded 
all,  the  Source  and  Resort  of  all  beings. 


*ri?r  ftr^R^M  ^rrif  TFS^  q  WOT  *r  ftite:  u  o  u 

7.     View  Him  neither  as  designing    interiorly,    nor   as 
diffused  throughout  external   nature,   nor  in   the    tansitional 

V.  —  The  meaning  of  the  word  sushupta  is  very  clear.  It  means 
sound  sleep.  The  correspondence  between  the  ordinary  state,  called 
sound  sleep  and  what  is  here  called  slumbering  condition,  is  the  spon 
taneity  and  regularity  of  motion  without  the  direct  and  wilful  action 
of  consciousness.  Consider  the  state  of  a  man  in  sound  sleep.  Al 
though  all  volition  is  suspended,  yet  the  involuntary  function's  are  per 
formed  most  regularly.  The  powers  of  volition  seem  to  have  become 
materialized  or  metamorphosed  ;  hence  Prajndna  ghana,  which  literally 
means  '  intelligence  solidified  or  embodied'  ;  hence  the  translation 
"embodiment  of  ideas  and  principles."  (See  PANINI'S  ASHTADHYAYI,  III. 
iii.  77,  murtau  ghanah.  The  root  han  assumes  the  form  ghana,  when 
the  meaning  to  be  expressed  is  murti,  or  solidification  or  condensation). 

VII.  —  Prapancha,  the  relative  or  the  conditioned  world,  i.  e.}  the 

phenomenal  world  from  the  root—  uf%  c^fcfi?;     or, 
^^  —  packi,  to  render  sensible,  or  to  develop  in  detail. 

Ubhayatah  prajnam  refers  to  the   .state   midway  between  waking 
and   dreaming.        The  word   ^Wffi!  *%  or,  as  Shankara  says, 

to  indicate  that  here  we  exclude 

also  the  state  midway  between  both. 

K  Y  O  P  A  N  I  S  II  A  T. 

mood  between  both  ;  neither  emdodiment  of  intelligence,  nor 
fraught  with  volitional  consciousness,  nor  devoid  of  conscious 
ness  !  but  as  the  Invisible,  Uniinpressible,  Incomprehensible, 
Indefinable,  Unthinkable,  Unknowable  Being,  only  Conscious. 
of  Self  in  Self,  i.e.,  the  Absolute,  and  the  Unconditioned,  with 
r>o  trace  of  the  relative  or  the  conditioned  world  about  Him,  All 
calm,  All-bliss,  One  and  Only.  This  is  the  fourth  or  the- 
essential  mode  of  existence.  This  is  the  Atma,  ^TTfHT,  the 
Universal  Spirit.  He  should  be  known. 


II  c  II 

8.  OM  is  the  most  estimable  name  of  the  Eternal,  Omni 
present,  Universal  Spirit,  the  modes  ot  existence  of  this  Spirit 
being  truly  represented  by  matras  or  the  single  letters,  A,  U, 
M,  (%^,tr)  of  which  the  monosyllable  Om  is  made  up. 

9.  A  (^),  the  first  tnatra,  means  the  wakeful  phase,  or 
God  diffused  in  external  nature  ;  for,  ^r  means  that  which  ia 
diffused  throughout  and  is  known  in  the  first  step.  He,  who 
realizes  this  mode  of  Divine  existence;  becomes  gratified  to 
the  full  measure  of  his  desire  and  has  taken  the  first  step. 

f^r^fi-  H^frf  H  ^  ?^  II  1°  \\ 


10.      U  (^),  the  second  mdtrat  means  the    contemplative 
phase,  or  God  living  in  interior  design;  for,  H  means  that  which 

VIIL  —  The  word  mdtra  has  been  here  given  as  meaning  something 
that  represents  or  estimates  the   value  of  another.  Sea  UNNADI  KOSH, 

IV,  168—  f  TfflWftozi^Tl    or   ^r^Rf   WT^T  ?TR  ^T,    m&trai* 

that  which  measures,  estimates  or  gives  the  value  of,  hence  '  represents.' 

IX.  —  Here    the  mdtra  A.   is  shown  as  derivable  from  the  root    ap 
(aplri  vyaptau)  to  pervade,  or  as  an  abbreviated  form   of    ddi,  which 
literally  means  the  very  first  step,  hence  the  one  who  has    taken    the 
very  first  s.tep,  or  only  a  zealous  beginner. 

X.  —  Here  U  is  shown   to»be  derivable  from  ulkareha  or    nbhaya  ; 
the  former  from  krisha,  to   draw   out   an    outline    or    murk,   hence  to 
design,  and  the  latter  meaning  both, 


designs,  or  does  both,  ?.  c.,  designs  and  executes.  He,  who  re 
alizes  this  mode  of  Divine  existence,  attracts  wisdom  towards 
himself  and  becomes  harmonized.  Never  is  in  his  family  born 
an  individual  who  can  ignore  the  knowledge  of  the  Divinity. 

11.  M  (tr),  the  third  m&tra,  means  the  slumbering  phase, 
or  God  viewed  in  Himself;  for,  5R  means  that  which  measures 
all,  or  is  the  resort  of  all.  He,  who  realizes  this  mode  of 

Divine  existence,  measures  out  (a)  the   whole   knowledge  of 
the  Universe  and  retires  unto  Him. 

T  W         V  ^  ^  II  U  II 

12.  The  fourth  is  no  m&tra,  for,  it  represents  the  Un 
knowable,  the  Absolute,  and  the  Unconditioned,  without  a 
trace  of  the  relative  or  the  conditioned  world  about  Him. 
He,  who  realizes  this,  the  true  Atma,  Omkara  passes  from 
self  into  the  Ruler  of  self,  the  Universal  Spirit,  i.  e.,  obtains 
moksha,  or  salvation. 

(a)  —  "  That  which  measures  all  "  means  "  that  viewed  in  comparison 
with  whose  infinite  power,  the  structure  of  the  Universe  is  but  finite 
and  measurable." 



WORSHIP  is  the  first  act  of  pure  relrgion.  It  is  a  spontaneous 
declaration  of  the  inmost  affections,  as  distinguished  from  the  false 
worship  of  the  churches,  where  every  action  is  predetermined  instead 
of  being  spontaneous,  where  we  have  declamation  instead  of  declara 
tion,  and  pretended  show  of  assumed  seriousness  instead  of  free 
play  of  inmost  affections.  Such  is  not  true  worship.  True  worship, 
on  the  other  hand,  is  brimful  of  genuine  feeling,  profound  attraction, 
and  soul-absorbing  meditation.  True  worship,  as  an  outcome  of 
pure  religion,  is  deeply  ingrained  in  human  nature. 

Folded  within  the  depths  of  the?  human  soul  lies  the  germ  of  all 
religion.  Every  human  being  is  endowed  with  a  spiritual  nature,  a 
nature  that  lifts  him  towards  all  that  is  pure  and  holy,  superior  and 
attractive.  Not  only  do  the  holiness  of  life,  purity  of,  sublimi* 
ty  of  thought,  and  nobility  of  chaiacter  ii  spire  us  with  the  appro 
priate  feelings  of  respect,  regard,  admiration  or  reverence,  but  our 
aspirations  rise  high  towards  the  just,  the  true,  the  infinite  and  the 
divine.  It  is  this  part  of  our  spiritual  nature  that  is  the  foundation 
of  all  religion,  endows  us  with  the  sentiment  of  reverence  for 
all  that  leads  to  high  and  noble  aspirations,  and  with  the  sentiment 
of  humble  gratitude  for  all  that  has  contributed  to  our  edificatiou 
and  elevation. 

Like  all  other  affections  of  the  human  mind,  the  religious  affec 
tions  are  also  capable  of  being  misused,  or  of  being  perverted  in  their 
use.  The  religious  sentiment,  under  the  effect  of  excessive  stimula 
tion,  may  exaggerate  or  portray  in  brighter  colours  a  simple  truth, 
may  over-estimate  or  unduly  estimate  the  ssnctity  of  an  action,  and, 
where  the  sovereign  faculty  of  Reason  is  yet  undeveloped,  or  but 
very  weak,  this  over-estimation  may  develop  into  idolatry  or  super 
stitious  reverence;  or,  on  the  other  hand,  where,  through  want  of  clear 
perception,  or  through  want  of  interpenetration,  the  reasoning  facul 
ties  are  very  active,  but  discerning  faculties  comparatively  torpid, 
the  consequence  may  be  a  sceptical,  atheistic,  or  disrespectful  tempera 
ment.  But  the  elevation  felt  or  pure  liberty  enjoyed  will  be  exactly 
in  proportion  to  the  normal  exercise  of  this  faculty.  Man,  in  hia 
ignorance,  often  worships  a  false  deity.  Instead  of  the  God  of  Nature, 
he  worships  a  god  of  his  imagination,  a  god  of  fashion,  a  god  of 
popular  sanction,  or  a  god  of  his  own  feelings  and  ungratified  desires. 
And  what  is  the  consequence  ?  A  life  of  superstition,  unrighteous 
ness,  cruelty  and  injustice.  A  true  mode  of  worship  is,  therefore, 
highly  desirable  ;  a  mode  of  worship,  not  dictated  by  false  religious 
educatiou,  or  fashionable  popular  custom,  but  by  the  higher  interests 
of  spiritual  nature  and  by  the  deepest  penetration  of  Reason.  This 
system  of  worship,  it  is  the  subject  of  Mdndukyopcmishat  to  furnish. 

184  IMPOSITION      OF 

It  enjoins  the  worship  of  tlie  Supreme  Deity  alone,  the  Eternal 
Omnipresent  Being,  the  Supernal  Soul  of  Nature.  For,  what  but  a 
true  conception,  knowledge  and  realisation  of  the  Universal  Spirit, 
can  be^  consistent  with  that  overflowing,  exultant,  blissful  attitude 
of  the  mind,  otherwise  designated  as  worship.  The  worship  of  the 
Eternal  Being  is  the  only  worship  that  is  inculcated  in  the  Upanishats  \ 
and  this  Eternal  Being  is  everywhere  named  Omkara, 

In  Kathopanishat,  II.  15.,  we  read  :  — 

OM  is  the  adorable  Being  (  to  the  study  of  whom  all  life  of 
brahmacharya  is  consecrated,  or  all  practice  of  meditation  devoted, 
and  whose  realization  it  is  the  object  of  the  four  Vedas  to  accomplish. 

Or,  in  the  words  of  Chhandvgya  Upanishat  Blfariffi^T  JT- 
^tsr  trm^trf  —  "  Cm  is  the  Eternal,  Omnipresent  Being  ;  He 
alone  should  be  worshipped."  Or,  more  explicitly  still,  in  Mundakopa- 
nisliat,  II.  ii.  5-6  :  — 

n  ^  n 

He  who  interiorly  and  invisibly  sustains  the  sun,  the  earth  and 
the  intervening  space  in  their  respective  positions;  even  He,  who 
sustains  the  life,  the  brain,  the  lungs  and  all  the  various  senses,  is 
the  Unitary  Interpervading  Spirit.  Try,  0  men  !  to  know  Him  alone, 
and  leave  all  other  talk  ;  for,  He  is  the  only  principle  that  leads  tq 
immortality.  (5).  Just  in  the  heart,  where  all  the  blood-vessels  meet, 
very  much  like  the  spokes  of  a  wheel  meeting  in  the  navel  or  the 
centre,  resides  the  interiorly-governing  Divine  Spirit,  manifesting 
His  glory  in  ways  multifarious.  Contemplate  Him,  the  Om,  this  in 
teriorly-governing  Spirit,  for,  thus  alone  can  you  reach,  with  safety, 
the  blissful  haven,  far  beyond  the  ignorance-begotten  miseries  of  this 
troubled  ocean  of  Life.  (6). 

What,  then,  constitutes  the  contemplation  of  Om?  What  is  the 
process  to  worship  Him  ?  An  answer  to  this  question  is  furnished  in 
Yoga  Darshana.  I.  i.  27-28  :  — 

I  fi^w^T3n*I  "  Om  is  the  inestim 

able  name  of  the  Supreme  Being  who  is  the  Ruler  of  the   Universe, 


<To  recite  this,  His  name,  and  to  constantly  recall  to  our  mind  its 
profound  signification,  this  is  the  twofold  process  of  meditation,  called 
updsnd."  Vyasa,  in  his  cemmentary  on  the  two  S-utra&,  remarks : — • 

"  Om  indicates  the  Ruler  of  the  Universe.  Is  it  by  mere 
arbitrary  convention,  or  by  some  natural  process,  just  as  light 
indicates  the  lamp  or  the  source  of  light  ?  Surely,  the  relation 
between  the  symbol  Om  and  that  of  which  it  is  a  symbol,  is  not  con- 
Ventional  but  actual,  and  the  symbol  but  expresses  the  actual  re 
lation.  To  take  a  parallel  example,  the  relation  between  the  father 
.and  the  son  is  real.  The  relation  really  exists,  even  before  we  can 
express  it  in  such  terms  as  these.  '  He  is  his  father,  and  he  his  son/ 
.Even  in  the  cycles  of  creation  to  come,  since  words  signify  things 
not  arbitrarily  but  by  a  fixed  natural  standard,  the  same  symbol,  Om, 
is  made  to  express  the  same  idea,  because  it  is  an  established  fact, 
with  those  twho  know  Revelation,  or  those  yogis  who  have  realized 
what  the  relation  between  the  signifying  symbol  and  the  thing  signi 
fied  is,  that  the  words,  their  corresponding  ideas,  and  the  relation 
between  them  is  eternal,  or  exists  in  nature,  and  not  by  human  con 

"  The  recitation  of  Om,  and  the  constant  presentation  before  the 
mind  of  its  signification,  these  are  the  two  means  of  His  updsnd  or 
worship.  The  yogi,  who  constantly  does  both,  develops  concentra 
tion,  or,  as  has  been  elsewhere  remarked,  tjie  aforesaid  recitation  and 
realization  develop  concentration,  and  concentration  facilitates  re 
alization,  till,  by  the  continual  action  and  re-action  of  both,  the  light 
of  the  Supreme  Divinity  begins  to  fully  shine  in  the  heart  of  the  yogi." 
VyasaBhdxhya,  Sutras  27  and  28. 

The  recitation  of  Om  and  the  constant  presentation  of  its  significa 
tion  to  the  mind,  being  the  two  essentials  of  Divine  worship,  it  is  of 
the  greatest  importance  to  know  what  the  significance  of  the  Unitary 
Syllable  Om  is,  for,  the  recitation  is  only  preparatory  to  the  presenta 
tion.  We  have  only  said  that  Om  is  the  Eternal  Omnipresent  Spirit* 
This  is  by  the  way  of  indication.  But  we  have  not  as  yet  any 
definite  knowledge  of  the  detailed  significance  of  this  syllable.  It  is, 
however,  a  very  palpable  fact  that  no  word  is  so  sacred  in  Vedic? 
literature  as  Om.  It  is  regarded  as  the  essence  of  the  V'edas,  as  the 
highest,  the  sublimest  and  the  dearest  name  of  the  Supreme  Deity, 
and  is  especially  appropriated  in  updsnd.  No  Vedic  mantra  is  ever 
read  without  a  previous  recitation  of  the  syllable,  Om.  It  is  not  only 

*  Perhaps  this  truth  will  be  more  easily  brought  home  to  the  sceptical  reader  of 
the  nineteenth  century  if  it  were  expressed  in  the  "words  (to  us,  less  acceptable,  for, 
more  indefinite),  of  Max  MiUler,  who  says,  "They  (the  roots)  are  phonetic  types,  pro 
duced  by  a  power  inherent  in  human*  nature.  They  exist,  as  Plato  would  say,  by 
luilure  :  though  with  Plato  we  should  add  that  when  we  say  by  nature,  we  mean  by  tna 
hand  of  God."— Lectures  on  the  Science  of  Language,  4th  edition,  London,  page  402. 

136  EXPOSITION      OP 

because  Om  is  the  most  soft,  melodious  and  smoothly-flowing  syllable 
in  sound,  nor  merely  because  the  letters  composing  Om  spontaneously, 
and  without  education  of  any  sort,  escape  the  lips  of  the  babe  who  is 
just  beginning  his  vocal  exercises,  but  because  there  is  something 
deeper,  dearer  and  diviner  in  its  significance.  It  is  true  that,  whereas 
other  names  of  God  are  also  names  of  things  temporal,  (for  instance, 
the  Sanskrit  ishwara  is  also  the  name  of  a  governor,  even  Brahma  is 
also  the  name  of  the  universal  ether  and  of  the  Vedas,  agni  is,  besides, 
the  name  of  fire,  and  so  on),  Qm  is  only  the  name  of  the  Eternal, 
Omnipresent,  Universal  Spirit.  That  can  only  be  a  reason  in  behalf 
of  its  precision  and  definiteness  of  meaning,  but  hardly  a  reason  for 
the  extremely  superlative  importance  that  is  attached  to  it.  It  is 
also  true  that  Om  is  more  comprehensive  in  meaning  than  any  other 
term  signifying  God  in  Sanskrit,  or,  in  other  words,  that  it  connotes 
a  number  of  attributes  that  no  other  word  or  syllable  singly  does, 
but  even  that  is  of  secondary  importrnce.  The  deepest,  and  in  truth, 
the  highest  reason  is  that  the  signification  of  Om  is  the  key-note  of 
the  realization  of  the  Divine  Spirit.  The  several  letters  of  Om,  with 
unparalleled  exactness,  mark  the  successive  steps  of  meditation  by 
which  one  rises  to  the  realization  of  the  nature  of  Divinity. 

The  process  of  this  realization  is  exactly  the  reverse  of  the  process 
by  which  the  mind  acts  on  the  external  universe.  If  the  latter  be 
called  evolution,  i.  e.,  folding  out  of  the  internal  faculties  of  the  mind, 
till  they  become  externally 'manifest,  the  former  should  be  called  in 
volution,  i.  e.}  folding  the  mind  within  itself,  till  tho  faculties  that 
were  working  on  the  outer  plane  retire  from  outside  and  turn  in 
side  for  more  interior  work.  To  take  a  familiar  illustration,  when 
an  archer  shoots  a  mark,  he  directs  his  attention  from  within  out 
wards  with  his  eye  pointing  towards  the  mark  in  the  same  straight 
line  with  the  arrow,  he  stretches  ihe  bow  and  lets  the  arrow' fly.  This 
is  how  mind  acts  on  things  external.  To  pass  within,  to  contemplate 
Divinity,  he  withdraws  his  senses  from  their  outward  course,  and, 
when  the  outer  activity  of  the  mind  is  stopped,  he  passes,  by  gradual 
steps  of  reflection,  embodied  in  the  constituent  letters  of  the  syllable 
Om,  to  the  more  interior  and,  therefore,  more  perfect  realization  of 
the  Divine  Spuit. 

Before  we  begin  our  exposition  of  the  several  letters  composing 
Om,  it  will  be  useful  to  present  a  rough  outline  of  the  four  planes 
of  manifestation  of  mind's  activity.  The  Divine  Being  is  a  spirit, 
and  to  realize  this  spirit  we  have  to  pass  through  its  outer  manifesta 
tions  to  the  more  and  more  interior  ones,  till  the  final  cause,  the 
Spirit,  is  reached.  Perhaps,  our  understanding  will  be  much  facilitat 
ed  by  taking  the  analogous  case  of  the  Oworking  of  the  human  spirit, 
although  it  must  be  remembered  that  an  analogy  is,  at  the  best,  an 
analogy,  and  not  an  exact  coincidence. 

M  A  N  D  U  K  V  0  P  A  N  i  S  H  A  T,  13* 

Let  us  begin  with  the  case  of  a  watch-maker.  He  has  made  the 
watch,  and  the  principles  embodied  in  the  watch  are  doing  their 
actual  work.  The  spring,  the  balance,  the  wheels,  and  other  pieces  of 
the  machinery;  all  perform  their  respective  appropriate  functions, 
and  the  minute  and  hour  hands  regularly  move  on  the  dial.  In  fact, 
the  skill,  dexterity,  and  designing  capacity  of  the  watch-maker  are 
not  only  embodied  in,  and  stamped  on,  the  watch,  but  the  very  material 
forces  ^and  mechanical  principles,  that  the  watch-maker  had  at  his 
|  disposal,  are  actually  living  in  the  watch  and  manifesting  themselves 
by  the  precision  and  regularity  of  motion  of  appropriate  parts.  This 
is  the  first,  the  most  external  and  the  most  palpable  manifestation  of 
the  watch-maker's  skill.  Thus  the  spirit  outwardly  stamps  matter 
with  its  impress.  This  is  what  has  been  designated  in  the  translation 
portion,  "  the  WAKEFUL  PHASE  "  <jr  the  externally  manifest  mode 
of  spirit's  existence. 

But,  secondly,  the  first  watch-maker  in  the  world,  before  he  sat 
up  to  manufacture  a  watch,  must  have  made  an  ideal  watch,  \.  e.y  must 
have  designed  the  watch.  He  must  have  previously  known  the  prin* 
ciple  or  the  fact  of  elasticity,  its  isochronism,  the  principle  of  trans 
mission  of  motion  by  wheels  and  pinions,  the  principle  of  escapement, 
the  frictional,  elastic  and  other  properties  of  steel,  brass,  iron,  jewels, 
&c.,  and  must  have  patiently  and  slowly  elaborated  in  his  mind  a 
scheme  of  the  application  of  all  these  principles,  till  a  definite  purpose 
could  be  served  by  them.  He  must  have  thought  out  the  pros 
and  cons  of  one  arrangement  and  the  other,  and  chosen  one  in 
preference  to  the  other,  till  he  finally  settled  upon  a  mentally  perfect 
scheme  of  the  watch.  He  must  have  mentally  seen  his  ideal  watch, 
thus  slowly  moving,  thus  ultimately  stopping  and  requiring  a  wind 
ing  for  possibility  of  further  movement.  In  short,  the  watch-maker 
must  havQ  drawn  from  the  promiscuous  store-house  of  his  knowledge 
the  necessary  items  of  information,  applied  them  properly,  and,  for 
a  time,  lived  in  the  self-made  design,  before  he  was  actually  able  to 
undertake  the  manufacture  of  a  watch.  This  is  what  has  been  called 
"the  CONTEMPLATIVE  PHASE,"  or  the  designing  mode  of 
spirit's  existence. 

And  yet,  this  is  not  all.  There  was  a  time,  when  no  thought, 
not  a  trace  of  this  design  existed  in  the  watchmaker's  mind.  His 
mind  was  a  store-house  filled  with  promiscuous  information,  not  yet 
arranged  or  applied.  And  the  principles  embodied  in  the  watch  were 
not  all  he  knew.  Perhaps  he  knew  much  more  about  astronomy, 
physics,  psychology,  mathematics  and  aesthetics,  perhaps  about  chem 
istry,  medicine  and  aetiology.  A  merely  fragmental  part  of  his 
knowledge  was  brought  to  light  and  applied.  Compared  with  the 
knowledge  that  was  actually  rendered  useful,  his  whole  information 
was  encyclopedic.  And  yet,  was  he,  all  the  while,  conscious  of  the 
Vast  amount  of  massive  information  that  he  always  carried  about 

139  EXPOSITION      OP 

himself  ?  Surely  not  !  In  moments  of  bright  recollection,  or  in 
moments  of  practical  necessity,  only  fractional  portions  of  his 
^accumulated, experiences  were  illuminated  and  called  forth  in  con 
scious  array  before  his  mind;  but  the  vast  majority  of  his  cognitions 
Btill  slumbered  as  latent  ideas,  like  congealed,  solidified,  incrusted 
bits,  in  the  dead,  calm,  silent  chambers  of  his  brain  or  sensorium. 
Revocable  at  pleasure  ;  they  were  the  invisible  guests  of  his  mind, 
living  for  the  most  part  in  the  back-ground,  shaded  from  immedi* 
ate  recognition  by  the  exquisite,  dark  veils  of  oblivion  hanging 
over  the  chambers  of  memory.  This  condition  has  been  denominat 
ed  the  "  SLUMBERING  PHASE,"  or  the  inactive  mode  of  spirit's 

Beyond  the  wakeful  phase^  or  the  active  manifestations  of  the 
mind  as  embodied  in  material  things  and  phenomena,  like  phantas 
magoria,  projected  from  within  the  magic  lantern  outward  on  the 
specular  screen ;  beyond  the  contemplative  phase,  or  the  energetic 
display  of  mental  activities,  now  reconnoitering  one  group  of  ideas, 
then  another,  now  selecting,  then  arranging,  till,  as  in  a  dream,  woven 
into  a  texture,  stands  before  the  mind  the  glowing  picture  of  a 
marvellous  painting,  heretofore  unconceived ;  beyond  the  slumbering 
phase,  or  the  inactive  repose  of  mental  faculties,  replete  with  tactual 
or  sensual  mentalities,  impelled  to  remain  by  the  omnipresent  law  of 
re-action,  at  an  imperative  rest,  beyond  these  and  behind  these,  re 
moved  far,  far  away  from  these  phenomenal  activities  and  passive 
modifications,  resides  the*  true  reality,  the  substance  spirit,  the  watch 
maker  in  essente.  This  has  been  styled  the  "  essential  mode "  of 
spirit's  existence. 

Let  us,  clearly  conceive  these  four  modes  of  spirit's  existence, 
the  Wakeful,  the  Contemplative,  the  Slumbering  and  the  Essential. 
Man,  in  his  life,  repeats  these  modes  of  his  spirit-existence  every  day. 
When  it  is  broad  daylight,  and  the  human  mind  is  fully  awake,  the  eye 
perceiving  colours,  the  ear  hearing  sounds,  the  nose  smelling  vapors,  the 
tongue  tasting  fluids,  and  the  body  feeling  solids,  he  lives  a  life  in 
material  objects.  This  is  the  Wakeful  state.  When  the  folds  of  darkness 
overtake  the  day,  and  'the  ploughman  homeward  plods  his  weary 
way,'  when  perhaps,  the  ignorant  labourer  tries  to  forget  the  severity 
of  his  toil  in  a  cup  of  wine — the  active  world  retires,  and  so  does  our 
model-man.  Straight  he  stretches  himself  upon  his  bed.  The  eye 
lids  close  as  with  a  superincumbent  weight,  and  gradually  the  other 
senses  give  way,  and  our  model-man  has  fallen  into  sleep.  Perhaps 
he  is  dreaming.  Suppose  he  is  a  student.  The  solid  walls  of  his 
seminary  have  really  dissolved  from  his  view,  for  he  is  not  waking. 
Without  books,  class-fellows,  or  companions,  he  is  lying  on  his  bed, 
solitary  and  alone.  And  yet  he  dreams.  The  examination-hall  with  its 
flocking  candidates  is  painted  before  him,  hiruself  seated  amidst  them. 
The  papers  are  distributed  so  to-day,  so  to-morrow,  and  so  the  day  after 


(all  in  the  dream).  Home  he  returns  in  anxious  wait  for  the  result, 
|  and  lo  !  a  paragraph  in  a  Gazette,  or  a  telegram  from  a  friend,  brings 
him  the  cheering  news,  or,  perchance,  the  news  of  ,his  failure. 
Wonderful  are  the  mysteries  of  dreaming.  This  corresponds  to  •  the 
contemplative  phase.  Soon  after  the  dream,  or  without  a  dream,  he 
falls  into  a  sound  slumber.  Where  is  that  living  voice,  and  that 
active  brain  ?  Where  are  those  dreamy  paintings  ?  Have  they 
vanished,  melted  into  nothing,  or  been  annihilated  ?  Stored  in  the 
organisation,  though  invisible,  lie  the  possibilities  of  their  manifesta 
tions  still,  though  now  congealed  and  materialized,  so  to  speak. 
This  is  the  Slumbering  state.  How  speedily  flows  the  current  of 
life.  Day  after  day  of  wakeful  activity  passes  away,  night  after 
night  of  disturbed  or  sound  slumber  is  counted.  And  yet,  amid  these 
changing  scenes,  these  veering  manifestations,  man  preserves  a  sort 
of  independence,  his  personal  identity,  because  he  is  the  Essential 
existence,  to  wjiom  the  aforesaid  states  are  either  accidents  or  non- 
involving  influences. 

Doubt  not,  gentle  reader,  but  that  the  spirit  exists  in  these  four 
moods.  The  wakeful  mood  is  the  most  exterior,  the  contemplative 
the  more  interior,  the  slumbering  the  more  interior  still,  till  we  reach 
the  innermost  reality,  the  essential  spirit.  And  so  Grod's  spirit,  which 
is  diviner,  holier,  infinite  far,  essentially  exists,  as  an  embodiment  of 
principles,  designs  and  imparts  life  and  vitality  to  all  external  nature* 
And  the  first  glimpse  of  Divinity  that  is  caught  by  the  dry  scientific 
mind  is  of  the  most  external  kind,  in  fact,  derived  from  the  adapta 
tion  of  physical  motions  to  one  another,  their  regularity,  precision, 
uniformity,  and  such  other  traits  that  the  universe  exhibits  to  a 
mind  well-versed  in  the  study  of  effects.  After  the  mind  has  fami 
liarized  itself  with  this,  there  dawns  a  philosophical  perception  of 
the  interior  design  of  nature,  with  which  perceptions  the  mind  soars 
higher,  till  the  design  itself  is  found  to  be  the  outcome  of  constitu 
tional  and  spontaneous  tendencies  of  the  Deity,  called  principles* 
Contemplating  from  the  platform  of  these  principles,  the  mind 
rises  to  the  Fountain  of  all  principles,  the  Essential  Divinity,  embody 
ing  all  in  One. 

These  being  the  successive  steps  through  which  the  mind  rises  to* 
the  contemplation  of  the  Eternal,  Omnipresent  Being,  the  syllable  Om,. 
which  consists  of  three  letters,  A.,  U  &  M,  or  ^,  ^  and  *r,  is 
made  the  means  of  this  contemplation  ;  for  ^  presents  the 
wakeful  phase,  ^,  the  contemplative,  and  w,  the  slumbering 
phase,  not  merely  mnemonically  but  by  virtue  of  their  inherent 
meaning.  Hence  the  true  devotee,  in  the  recitation  of  Om,  thinks  of 
the  three  letters  composing  Om,  dwells  on  the  meaning  and  significa- 
ation  of  each  letter  which  rep'resents  one  corresponding  phase,  and 
thus  lives  alternately  in  the  order  and  regularity  displayed  in  nature, 

140  EXPOSITION      OF 

in  the  design  moving  mature,  and  in  the  principles  spontaneously  and 
naturally  elaborating  design.  Since  the  very  lowest  phase,  thua 
contemplated^  involves  but  the  highest  generalization  of  the  order 
of  the  universe,  its  contemplation  is  pre-eminently  calculated  to 
develop  concentration,  and  concentration  facilitates  contemplation,  sa 
that  ultimately,  by  the  continued  action  and  reaction  of  both,  the  light 
of  the  Supreme  Divinity  begins  to  fully  shine  in  the  heart  of  the  yoyi* 
Hence  the  words  of  Vyasa  :  — 


We  come  now  to  the  explanation  of  the  three  letters  ^  ^  &  ^f. 

In  contemplating  the  deep  signification  of  ^rt  the  yogi 
liolds  before  his  mind  the  vast  expanse  of  the  universe,  with  its 
mighty  of  bs  rolling  in  their  magnificent  splendour  undisturbed  through 
vacuous  paths,  carving  ethereal  waves  of  unseen  exquisite  beauty  in 
the  ocean  of  infinity,  and  contemplates  upon  the  grand  meaning  of 
the  universe,  f  or.^  in  the  words  of  the  Upanishat,  the  mighty  volume 
of  nature  is  spread  as  a  commentary  on  the  nature  and  attributes  of 
the  Eternal  Omnipresent  Being.  The  universe  appears  to  his  illu 
minated  vision  as  a  vast  organisation  of  definite  parts.  And  such  ia 
the  uniformity  of  plane  t  in  this  organisation,  that  even  the  most 
distant  orbs  —  whose  light,  emitted  millions  of  years  ago,  carried  ont 
the  speedy  wings  of  ether  at  the  unearthly  rate  of  180,000  miles  per 
second,  has  not  as  yet  been  able  to  penetrate  the  atmosphere  ©f  our- 
earth  —  yea,  even  orbs  more  distant  are  organized  internally  on  the 
same  plan  on  which  the  solar  system,  of  which  our  earth  is  a  part, 
is  constructed.  To  contemplate  the  wise  and  intelligent  structure  of 
the  universe,  a  structure  even  as  perfect  as  that  of  the  most  highly 
developed  being  on  earth,  man,  a  structure  as  well  endowed  with  a 
brain,  stomach,  the  feet  and  the  various  other  parts  justly  composing 
the  wondrous  organism  of  the  macrocosm,  let  us  turn  our  attention 
to  the  following  sublime  mantras  of  Atharva  Veda  (X-xxiii,  4,3  2  —  34) 
on  the  constitution  of  the  universe  as  typically  represented  by  our 
solar  system  :  — 


:  u  srasr  *re^r^Fs;^3=5flT*:^  s^^N:  i  *ffi*i  OT^t  irror  \ 

«rsr   TO:  u  TOI  ^ici:  UTOT  *rorl  w*rc*w  it 



'  We  approach.  (  in  our  contemplations),  with  highest  reverence, 
the  Great  Adorable  Being,  who  has  made  this  frame  of  the 
universe  as  a  living  demonstration  of  His  existence,  as  a  highly 
fitting  lesson  on  His  nature  and  attributes,  and  who  has  placed 
in  this  wondrous  organisation  (1)  the  sun  with  its  luminous  at 
mosphere  as  the  brain,  (2)  the  super-terrestrial  space  intervening 
between  the  sun  and  the  earth  as  the  stomach,  and  (3)  the  earth 
(typical  of  all  planets)  as  the  lower  body,  the  feet.  '  We  adore 
the  Great  Being  in  whose  creation  (4)  the  sun  and  the  moon 
are  the  two  eyes,  and  (5)  heat,  the  mouth.  We  adore  the 
Great  Being  who  has  made  (6)  the  atmospheres  as  the  lungs, 
and  (7)  the  directions  of  space  as  the  organs  of  hearing.  Let  us 
adore  Him,  the  Infinite  Being,  the  Source  of  all  wisdom.' 


Here  is  displayed  to  the  mind  of  the  devotee  the   scheme  of  per 
fect  organisation.     For,  is  not  the  sun,  with  its  atmosphere,  the  brain 
of  this  system  ?     The  brain  in  the  human  body,  technically  called  the 
cerebrum  and  the  cerebellum,  is  an  organisation  of  sublimated  elements, 
a  battery  of  vital  powers,  the  seat  of  nervous   energy,  the   controller 
of  all  motions  and  functions  of  the  body.     And  the  sun  too,   like  the 
brain,  is  a  reservior  of  sublimated   elements,   an  infinitely   powerful 
battery  of   magnetic,   electric,   optic,    actinic,    caloric   and   dynamic 
forces,  the  seat  of  combustible,  vegetative  energy,  and  of   what   has 
bjen  called  in  geology  by    the  technical  ,name  of   sub-serial    denuda 
tion  ;  the  controller   of  all  planetary  and  cometary  motions.     And  the 
superterrestrial     space   teeming   with  the   atmosphere   is   truly   the 
stomach,  the  organ  of  digestion,  refining  and  elaborating  the  materials 
consigned  to  it.     It  is  in  the  atmosphere  that  clouds  are  formed,  vap 
ours  attenuated,  streams  of  electricity  generated,  surface  particles   of 
earthly, salts  and  metals  volatilized,  and  the  products  of  all  these   pro 
cesses  diffused  and  mixed  up,  till  all  is  reduced  to  a  homogeneous  fluidi 
ty,  carried  above  the  lower  strata  of  the  atmosphere,  there   condensed, 
and  then  poured  out  as  pure,   precious,    plant-feeding  rainfall  very 
like  the  stomach  that,  after  refining,  sublimating  and  attenuating   the 
food  it  receives,  extracts  from  its  juicy  contents  the   elements  of  the 
crimson  vital  liquid,  and  pours  it  forth,  like  rainfall,   into   the   heart. 
Before,  however,  the  materials  pass  into    the  stomach,  they   have   to 
pass  through  the  mouth  that  by    the  aid   of   its   maxillary    organism 
divides  and  re-divides  the  solid  food,   till    it  is  powdered   down    and 
mixed  with  saliva  and  thus  converted  into  a   fluid   material.     In   the 
same  way,  before  the  earthly  materials  are  consigned  to  the  stomach, 
the  atmospheric  space,  they  pass  through  the  mouth,  the  Heat.     For, 
what  is  the  channel  that   transmits   the  earthly   materials   to   upper 
regions-  ?     What  is  it  that  powders,  atomizes,  and  reduces  to  vaporous 
subtility  the  hard  solid  materials  of  earth,  or  what  is  it,  that  dissolves 
these  materials  in  the  saliva  of  nature,  water  ?     It  is  Heat  that  does 

142  EXPOSITION      OF 

all  the  work.  Impelled  by  the  restless,  vivifying,  vibratory  oscilla 
tions  of  Heat,  solids  are  dashed  into  liquids  and  liquids  into  gases. 
It  is  by  Heat  that  gaseous  particles,  thus  endowed  with  rarity,  are 
borne  or>  the  wings  of  warmth  to  upper  regions  of  comparative  cold. 
It  is  Heat  that  licks  out  of  the  liquid  lake  the  watery  elements  of  the 
atmosphere.  Heat  is  the  mediator  between  the  earthly  materials  and 
the  atmosphere,  just  as  mouth  is  the  mediator  between  the  food  and 
the  stomach.  And  the  foot  is  the  lowest  part  of  the  organisation, 
symbol  of  obedience  to  the  throned  monarch,  the  brain.  It  obeys  the 
motor  impulse  communicated  to  it  from  the  brain  through  the  nerves. 
So  does  the  earth  obey  the  influence  of  the  sun  communicated  to  it 
through  the  ethereal  channels  of  space.  The  eyes  in  the  human 
organism  are  constructed  to  enable  man  to  perceive  colours  and  develop 
taste.  Similarly,  the  light  keams  of  the  sun,  angirasa 

(^rfw^f)  of  the  mantra,  develop  the  spectral    universe,  thus 

standing  in  the  same  relation  to  the  universe  as  the  eye  stands  to  the 
human  body.1  The  human  lungs  are  fitted  not  only  to  act  as  the 
bellows,  drawing  in  and  expelling  air,  or  to  oxygenate  blood,  but  to 
draw  in  invisible  elements  that  directly  strengthen  the  brain.  So  the 
atmosphere  is  fitted  not  only  to  attract  particles  of  vaporous  matter  or 
repel  the  suspended  earthly  particles,  but  to  draw  out  from  the  earth, 
especially  at  the  two  poles,  as  if  at  the  ventricles,  streams  of  positive 
and  negative  electricity  that  leave  the  earth  for  ever  and  for  good. 

The  analogy,*  therefore,'  is  complete  in  every  reasonable  aspect. 
The  whole  universe,  to  the  contemplation  of  a  devotee,  presents  a  brain, 
a  mouth,  a  stomach,  the  eyes,  the  ears,  the  lungs  and  the  feet.  And 
it  is  thus  that  the  human  body  is  organized.  Kealizing  the  perfect 

*  To  impress  the  reader  with  this  part,  we  will  present  only  the  analogy  of  slightly 
differing  pictures  of  the  same  from    different  parts  of  Vedic  literature,  so  that  "he   may 
be  able  to  form  a  somewhat  general  and  comprehensive   conception  of   the  organization 
of  Nature,  and   not    to    take    the    analogy    too    literally.     We    quote    Yajur    Veda 
XXXI.  13:— 

"God  has  placed  the  super-terrestrial  space  in  the  place  of  the  stomach,  the  sun  in 
the  place  of  the  head,  the  earth  in  the  place  of  the  feet,  and  the  open  space  in  the  place 
of  the  ear  cavity."  In  Mundaka,  II.  1.  4,  we  read— 


"The  Eternal  Spirit  that  resides  in  the  interior  of  all  things,  has  disposed  ,the  fir& 
instead  of  the  brain,  the  sun  and  the  moon  in  lieu  of  the  two  eyes,  the  open  directions 
of  space  in  lieu  of  ear  cavities,  the  Vedasas  His  organi  of  speech,  the  atmosphere  as  His 
lungs,  the  whole  universe  as  His  heart,  and  the  planets  as  His  feet.  It  is  thus  that 
H»  lives." 


adaptation  of  the  mouth  to  the  stomach,  of  the  stomach  to  the  lungs, 
of  the  lungs  to  the  brain,  and  of  the  brain  to  the  whole  body,  and  also 
realizing  correspondingly  the  mutual  adaptation  of  the  parts  of  the 
universe,  can  he  for  one  moment  forsake  the  Omnipresent  "Eternal 
Spirit,  so  glorious  in  His  manifestations  ?  For,  even  in  the 
human  body,  let  us  inquire,  are  the  brain,  the  lungs,  the  stomach,  and 
'the  other  parts  in  vain,  merely  to  carry  out  the  material,  physical  or 
physiological  functions  all  unconsciously,  like  pieces  of  dead 
matter  ?  Is  this  beautiful  adaptation  of  parts  merely  the  result 
of  chance,  or  of  mere  '  fortuitous  concourse  of  atoms'  ?  Have  the 
blind  forces  of  matter  met  unconsulted,  and,  after  unexpected,  un 
known  and  unpredictable  clashes,  embraced  each  other  and  linked 
themslves  into  the  apparently  beautiful  organisation  of  man  ?  No, 
this  adaptation  of  functions  is  not  in* vain.  The  edifice,  constructed  of 
the  brain,  the  lungs,  the  stomach,  the  feet,  the  eyes,  the  ears,  and 
the  mouth;  is  but  the  building  of  a  theatre.  The  adaptation  of  its 
rooms  is  the  design  of  an  architect.  Surely,  the  architect  made  it  for 
some  one  to  act  in.  Who  are  then,  the  actors  on  this  arena 
of  the  human  organisation  ?  The  actors,  no  doubt,  there  are,  but 
they  could  not  manifest  their  skill  and  activity  without  a  proper  and 
well-managed  stage.  These  actors  are  the  five  organs  of  sense,  i.  e., 
of  hearing,  of  touching,  of  seeing,  of  tasting,  and  of  smelling;  the  five 
organs  of  motion,  i.  e.,  the  hand,  the  feet,  the  throat,  the  generative 
and  the  excretive  organs;  the  five  vital  nerve  forces,  i.  e.,  of  inspiration, 
of  expiration,  of  blood-circulation,  of  glossopharyngeal  action,  and  of 
muscular  contraction,  in  general ;  manas,  or  the  inte'rnal  organ  that 
originates  the  impulse  to  communicate  with  the  external  world,  and 
displays  the  power  of  imagination;  bnddhi,  the  faculty  of  decision; 
chitta,  the  facalty  of  memory;  and  ahankara,  the  organ  of  personality. 
These  are  the  nineteen  invisible  actors  in  the  drama  of  life.  The 
human  spirit,  through  the  physical  temple,  manifests  his  powers  of  life, 
sensation,  locomotion,  memory,  perception,  imagination,  decision  and 
individuality.  For,  how  can  life  be  manifested,  unless  the  various 
parts  of  the  body  be  mutually  adapted,  the  one  supplying  the  demand 
of  the  other,  and  the  mechanical,  chemical  and  electrical  forces,  gene 
rated  by  their  mutual  action  and  friction,  be  equilibrated  ?  It  is  thus 
necessary  for  the  body  to  possess  an  organisation,  before  it  can  evolve 
mechanical,  chemical  and  electrical  forces  in  equilibrium  with  eact 
other;  and  further,  it  is  necessary  for  these  forces  to  be  well  organised, 
before  life  can  manifest  itself.  And  it  is  only  when  life  has  thus 
vitalized  the  body,  rendered  it  elastic,  impressible  and  vibrous,  that 
it  can  manifest  any  tendency  towards  sensation  or  locomotion.  Not 
before  the  principle  of  sensation  is  fully  established,  can  perception 
and  imagination  dawn  ;  and  it  is  only  after  perception  has  provided 
with  requisite  mental  apprehensions  that  the  faculties  of  com 
parison  and  discrimination  can  come  into  play,  and  weave  the 
mental  impressions  into  generalized,  symbolic  ideas.  It  is  these  ideas 

144  EXPOSITION      OP 

that  memory  takes  in,  and  so  carefully  stores.  And,  lastly,  it  is  on 
the  faithful  retentivity  of  memory  that  the  mystery  of  personal 
identity  hinges;  for,  what  is  personal  identity  but  that  each  human 
spirit  feels  himself  as  separate  from  all  others  on  the  ground  of 
the  entirely  distinct  experiences  he  has  had.  It  is  thus  evident  that 
the  physical  temple  is  but  a  grand  stage  well-prepared  for  the 
purpose,  on  which  the  master-dramatist,  the  human  spirit,  sends- 
his  vice-gerents,  each  in  his  turn,  one  after  the  other,  to  act  and 
prepare  the  stage  for  the  ensuing.  On  the  stage  of  the  physical 
temple,  appears  the  first  vice-gerent,  Life,  acts  his  scene  and  pre 
pares  the  ground  for  the  next  vice-gerent,  Sensation.  He,  in  hia 
turn,  plays  his  own  part,  and  fits  the  scene  for  the  advent  of  Per 
ception,  Comparison  and  Memory  in  turn,  till  the  human  spirit 
himself,  in  the  last,  appears  on  tVie  fully-prepared  stage  to  manifest 
the  potencies  of  his  personal  individuality.  Not  without  purpose, 
then,  is  this  beautiful  adaptation. 

As  with  the  human  spirit,  so  is  it  with  the  Divine  Being.  Why 
this  wonderful  disposition  of  the  sun,  the  moon,  the  planets,  the 
atmosphere  and  the  elements  in  the  actual  positions  they  hold  in 
Nature,  but  that  the  Divine  Spirit  required  the  organisation  of 
physical  elements  into  a  perfectly  vitalized  body  of  the  Universe, 
like  unto  man,  to  manifest  H  is  eternal  elements  of  Universal  life,  sensation 
and  intelligence,  and  to  give  His  impersonal  personality  an  expression 
on  the  outer  plane.  Hence  it  is  that  the  yogi  starts  with  the  letter 
A  of  the  syllable  Om ;  repeats  in  his  mind  its  deep  signification  ; 
pictures  to  himself  the  seven-organed  fabric  of  the  grand  universe ; 
settles  himself  upon  its  functional  and  anatomical  organisation  j 
contemplates  its  necessity,  its  purpose,  its  usefulness,  and  its  reality  ; 
is  deeply  impressed  with  the  existence  of  the  more  interior  and 
spiritual  principles  (the  nineteen  principles  enumerated  above), 
impatiently  pressing  for  manifestation ;  and  thence  contemplates  the 
All-regulating,  All-pervading  Spirit,  Vaishwanara,  which  is  exactly 
the  sense  of  the  letter  A  out  of  the  three  letters  composing  Om. 

And  now  to  the  second  phase  of  contemplation.  Out  of  order, 
comes  out  order  ;  out  of  chaos,  chaos.  Organised  forces  acting  upon 
matter  will  produce  organised  structures;  a  chaos  of  forces  can 
only  result  in  chaos.  Mathematical  science  is  full  of  proofs  of  this 
proposition.  Take,  for  instance,  the  orderly,  uniform,  and  regular 
motion  of  a  body  in  a  circle.  Mathematicians  tell  us  that  this  motion 
is  the  result  of  two  forces,  centrifugal  and  centripetal.  If  the  velocity 
of  the  moving  body  be  v  and  the  radius  of  the  circle  in  which  it 
moves  r,  the  centripetal  force  will  be  ^r  Thus  mathematicians  tell 
us  that  when  a  body  is  moving  in  a  circle  its  centrifugal  and  cent 
ripetal  forces  are  balanced  by  each  other  and  bear  a  definite  relation 
to  the  velocity  of  the  body  and  the  radius  of  the  path.  This  definite 
relation  (or,  which  is  the  same  thing,  organisation  of  the  two  forces) 

ItAKDtTKTOtlNllltlT.  145 

alone  can  produce  circular  motion.  Let  there  be  another  definite 
relation,  and  the  motion  will  be  elliptical.  Thus  it  is  clear  that  it  is  the 
internal  organisation  that  gives  form  and  order  •  to  the  outer 
manifestation.  Or,  to  give  further  illustrations,  it  is  the  internal 
slow  motion  of  particles  that  determines  the  solid.  It  is  the  internal 
volubility  of  the  particles  that  produces  the  visible  liq  uid.  It  is  also 
internal  extreme  mobility  of  particles,  producing  what  is  called  the 
excursion  of  the  molecules  along  free  paths,  that  produces  the  gaseous 
condition.  Or,  to  take  more  familiar  examples  still,  it  is  the  invisible, 
internal  organisation  in  the  seeds  that  gives  each  of  them  the  power 
to  reproduce  exactly  its  own  kind  and  no  other  ;  and,  finally,  the 
human  spermatozoa,  endowed  as  they  are  with  internal  though  in 
visible  organization,  because  of  being  formed  by  extracting,  through 
the  activity  of  the  vital  essence,  partMes  from  all  parts,  organs,  and 

faculties  of  the  living  body    (WT^rrWWftr  '   *TTH^),    are, 

only  by  virtue  of  this  interior  organisation,  capable  of  reproducing  ex 
actly  the  human  organism.  Thus  it  is  clear  that  it  is  always  the  internal 
organisation  of  producing  causes  that  develops  form,  order,  organisation 
or  adaptation  in  the  exterior.  Must  not,  then,  the  All-regulating, 
All-pervading  Divine  Spirit,  Vaishwanara,  that  builds  up  this  grand 
and  highly  perfect  edifice  of  His  physical  temple,  the  Universe,  be 
also  himself  organised  ?  Surely  the  plastic,  formative,  associative, 
dissociative  principles  of  the  Divine  Power,  must  themslves  flow  into 
definite  tendencies,  and  be  filled  with  a  law  'of  co-operative  sympathy, 
causing  periodicity  in  their  activity,  just  to  give  birth-  to  such  pre 
cision,  regularity  and  periodicity,  as  the  sun,  moon  and  stars,  to 
gether  with  the  earth  and  planets,  display  in  the  succession  of  days 
and  nights,  of  seasons  and  tides,  of  light  and  darkness,  of  rising  and 
setting,  of  eclipses  and  occultations,  of  perihelion  and  aphelion,  of 
forward  a*nd  retrograde  motions,  and  of  the  alternating  phases  of  the 
(satellites.  And  yet  that  is  not  all.  There  are  millions,  nay  billions, 
of  organisms  of  each  species — and  the  number  of  species,  both  in  the 
animal  and  vegetable  kingdoms,  is  innumerable — each  not  only 
growing,  living  and  reproducing  its  own  kind,  but  also  manifesting 
feeling,  sensation,  perception,  judgment,  memory  and  intelligence, 
according  to  the  degree  of  its  refinement.  Whence  this  display 
of  wonderful  powers  and  activities  ?  Surely  the  Divine  element  of 
life,  sensation,  and  intelligence  must  have  likewise  flowed  into 
mutual  harmony,  fused  into  unity,  and  interblended  into  an  in 
terior  organisation  whereby  to  develop  such  well-endowed  and  adapted 
organisms  of  living  beings.  Before  the  materials  of  the  Universe  were 
disposed  into  the  seven  parts  of  which  the  fabric  of  the  Universe  is  made 
up,  the  interiorly  organised  Being,  Taijasa,  brooded  over  the  design  of 
creation;  and,  before  the  elements  of  motion  were  appropriated  by  life, 
those  of  life  by  sensation,  and  those  of  sensation  by  intelligence,  thus, 
endowing  organisms  with  various  faculties,  the  same  Divine 

146  EXPOSITION    or 

y  lived  in  the  yet-contemplated  design  of  living  creatures.  To 
contemplate  God  in  His  everlasting  designs,  in  the  interior  constitution 
of  the  Universe,  is  to  contemplate  Him  in  the  2nd  phase,  i.  e.,  the 
Contemplative  phase,  or,  which  is  more  literally  the  '  Dreaming  phase/ 
For,  as  in  a  dream,  when  man  but  partially  retires  from  the  conscious 
work  and  action  of  the  cerebrum,  a  so-called  physical  sleep  comes 
on.  The  activity  of  the  senses,  whereby  the  internal  spirit  might  havfe 
acted  upon  outer  matter,  is  suspended,  yet  the  mind  is  not  at  rest. 
Playful  amidst  the  many  chambers  of  its  cerebral  mansion,  it  collects 
the  materials  of  its  recollected  sensations  and  ideas,  and,  for  the  time, 
not  discriminating  between  these  ideas  and  the  objects  of  which  they 
are  the  ideas,  weaves  them  into  a  texture,  and,  whilst  dreaming,  enjoys 
the  scene  just  as  really  as  though  the  texture  had  been  made  up  of  the 
actual  objective  materials.  So  'is  it  with  the  (  Contemplative  phase. 
For,  although  we  do  not  view  God  as  acting  upon  universal  matter 
and  disposing  it  of  in  various  shapes,  yet  we  view  Him,  ap  in  a  dream, 
associating  particles  of  matter,  -aggregating  and  disposing  them  in 
their  respective  places,  till  an  entirely  complete  design  is  interiorly 
contemplated.  As  if  retired  from  the  physical  Universe,  God  is 
viewed  as  contemplating  the  design  of  creation. 

From  this  view  of  the  Divinity,  which  is  exactly  the  sense  of  the 
2nd  letter  U,  composing  Cm,  the  yogi  passes  to  the  contemplation  of 
the  3rd  letter  M,  corresponding  to  the  third  phase,  the  '  Slumbering 
phase/  We  have  mentioned  that,  in  the  state  of  dreaming  the  mind 
is  but  partially  retired  from  the  conscious  work  and  action  of  the 
cerebrum.  When,  however,  sound  sleep  overtakes  the  dreamer,  the 
mind  wholly  retries  from  the  cerebrum,  only  maintaining  the  life  of  the 
physical  frame,  restoring  the  vitality  and  strength  of  the  body  by  its 
recuperative  and  constructive  processes,  which  take  place  all  of  them, 
so  to  speak,  involuntarily.  So  let  us  contemplate  the  Divme  Spirit. 
Let  us  consider  what  determined  the  flow  of  the  Divine  elements  of 
life,  sensation  and  intelligence  into  mutual  harmony.  What  made  the 
elements  of  God's  intelligence  arrange  and  dispose  themselves  into  a 
perfect  design  of  the  Universe  ?  The  human  mind  is  moved  to  a 
conception  of  new  thoughts,  or  to  a  planning  of  new  designs,  either 
under  the  influence  of  education,  or  under  the  stimulation  of  some 
keenly-felt  necessity,  or,  in  a  few  cases,  also  through  prospective 
precaution.  But  the  Divine  mind  is  not  subject  to  such  laws  of  education, 
necessity,  and  precaution,  as  frail  human  beings  are  controlled  by. 
The  law  of  Divinity  is  His  own  constitution.  Unimpressed  by  any 
external  motive,  unurged  by  any  want-born  necessity,  the  elements 
of  God's  will  flowed  into  an  organisation  or  design,  only  impelled  by 
inherent  Omniscience  and  constitutional  spontaneity.  Or,  in  the  words 
of  the  Upanishat: — 



"  The  Great  Eternal  Spirit  undergoes  no  modifications,  requires 
no  instruments  to  work  with,  has  no  equal,  nor  any  superior..  He  is 
the  Supremely  Powerful  Being,  endowed  with  innate  Omniscience  , 
Omnipotence,  and  Activity"  As  in  sound  slumber  the  circulation  of  the 
blood,  the  respiratory  functions,  and  the  recurperative  processes  are 
all  carried  out  with  greater  regularity,  precision,  and  naturalness, 
only  by  virtue  of  the  mere  contact  of  the  human  soul  with  the  body, 
requiring  neither  volition,  nor  design,  but  the  mere  spontaneous 
activity  of  the  soul;  so  in  the  slumbering  phase  God  is  viewed  as 
exercising  Omnipotence,  Omniscience,  and  Omnificence,  with  the 
greatest  regularity,  precision  and  perfection,  without  the  exercise  of 
strained  will,  or  brain-elaborated  design,  but  by  the  spontaneous 
working  of  the  eternal  self-intelligent  principles  and  ideas,  whose 
embodiment  He  is.  From  this  belief  in  the  spontaneous  activity  of 
the  Divine  Mind,  there  flows  a  soul-consolation;  for,  this  belief,  instead 
of  generating  fatalism  or  the  evils  of  pre-  determination,  creates  strong 
faith  in  the  inherent  wisdom  of  the  self-intelligent  principles  embodied 
and  condensed,  so  to  speak,  in  Godhead. 

Or,  to  approach  the  subject  in  another  way,  let  us  consider  the 
process  whereby  the  bodily  eyes  are  made  to  perceive  external  objecta. 
The  organ  of  the  eye  has  been  likened  to  a  camera  obscura,  its 
aqueous  humour  to  a  crystalline  lens,  and  vitreous  humour  supplying 
the  place  of  the  refracting  lenses,  and  the  retina  playing  the  part  of 
the  plate  of  ground  glass  in  the  ordinary  camera.  Just  as  focussing  is 
necessary  for  a  clear  image  of  the  object  being  formed,  'so  the  appended 
membranes  in  the  organism  are  the  focussing  apparatus  whereby 
the  eye  is  adjusted  to  any  desired  distance.  The  organ  of  the  eye, 
therefore,  considered  merely  as  an  organ,  possesses  the  power  of  seeing 
no  more  than  the  camera  obscura  of  the  photographer.  At  the  back 
of  the  camera  stands  the  photographer  who  adjusts  the  lenses,  takes 
the  image  and  perceives  it.  So  is  it  with  the  human  eye.  At  the 
back  of  the  physical  eye  resides  the  principle  of  visual  perception,  at 
the  back  of  the  ear,  the  principle  of  hearing,  and  so  at  the  back  of 
each  sense,  the  true  principle  of  corresponding  sensation.  When  man 
has  '  shuffled  off  this  mortal  coil/  he  is  no  more  destitute  of  these 
principles  of  perception  and  sensation  than  is  the  photographer 
destitute  of  the  power  of  vision  without  his  camera  obscura.  The 
human  spirit  is  the  true  embodiment  of  these  principles.  So  is  it  with 
the  Divine  Spirit.  He  is  the  true  embodiment  of  all  eternal, 
unchangeable  principles,  residing  at  the  back  of  all  form  or  organisa 
tion  and  independent  of  it,  and  standing  at  the  foundation  of  all 
design.  He  is,  in  fact,  the  Supreme  Eternal  Omnipresent  Spirit,  of 
whom  th-t  Upanishat  says  :  — 

:  i 

N*  N 

148  EXPOSITION       OF 

"  He  has  no  physical  hands  and  feet,  but  without  hands  and 
feet  grasps  and  moulds  all  matter  by  virtue  of  the  inherent  principles, 
Omnipotence  and  Omnipresence.  He  has  no  physical  eyes,  but  He 
sees  all  ;  no  physical  ears,  but  He  hears  all  ;  no  internal  organ  of 
thought,  but  He  knows  all,  and  is  Himself  unknown.  He  is  the 
Supreme  Spirit  that  pervades  All."  God  is,  therefore,  viewed  in  this 
phase  as  Himself,  an  Embodiment  of  all  ideas  and  principles.  This 
is  the  Slumbering  phase,  the  sense  of  the  3rd  letter  M  composing  the 
monosyllable  Om. 

The  fourth,  a  hyatus,  which  is  no  mdtra  or  letter,  nor  is  even 
uttered  or  spoken,  but  is  the  true  Ineffable  Name,  represents  the 
Essential  Existence,  the  true  Atma,  the  Divine  Spirit,  the  Invisible, 
Unimpressible,  "[Indefinable,  Unthinkable,  Unknowable  Being,  only 
conscious  of  Self  in  Self,  i.  e.,  thte  Absolute  and  the  Unconditioned, 
without  a  trace  of  the  relative  or  conditioned  world  about  Him,  All- 
calm,  All-bliss,  One  and  Only.  He  should  be  known. 

We  cannot  better  finish  this  interesting,  though  imperfect  and 
necessarily  brief,  exposition,  than  in  the  words  of  Prashnopanishta, 
5th  Prashana  :  — 

n  TO 

n  8  H 

:  TOffiT  V^WrW!  VfftOTVi:  I  flRSTO 
WX1KT*  if  Wtt  ^:  H  I  M     ^fafTf 

vj  vj 

I  fWt^TT^RfR^T^fa  ft  W    t 


O  !  truthful  inquirer,  Om  is  the  Great  God.  Wise  me,n  attain 
their  object  sustained  by  this  Om.  He  who  contemplates  % 
the  1st  mdtra  of  Om,  i.  e.}  contemplates  God  in  the  'wakeful'  phase, 


soon  becomes  wise,  and  even,  after  death,  is  re-born  as  man,  the  lord  of 
creation,  and,  by  virtue  of  his  previous  upasana,  leads  a  life  of  devo 
tion  to  study,  of  control  of  passions  and  anger,  and  of  search  after 
truth,  and,  thus  virtuously  circumstanced,  experiences  the  pleasures 
of  noble  nature.  He  who  contemplates  gr,  the  2nd  mdtra 
of  Om,  or  God  in  the  '  contemplative  '  phase,  obtains  a  glimpse  of  the 
interior  world  of  causes,  and  is,  by  virtue  of  this  updsana,  transported 
the  spiritual  world,  and,  after  experiencing  exaltation  there,  is  re- 
>rn  as  man.  But  he  who  contemplates  *r,  the  3rd  mdtra  of 

Om,  i.  e.y  views  God  as  Himself,  becomes  illuminated  and  obtains 
Moksha.  Just  as  a  serpent,  relieved  of  its  oldened  skin,  becomes  new 
again,  so  the  yogi,  who  worships  the  3rd  mdtra,  relieved  of  his  mortal 
coil,  of  his  sins  and  earthly  weaknesses,  free  with  his  spiritual  body 
to  roam  about  throughout  God's  tlni verse,  enjoys  the  glory  of 
the  All-pervading  Omniscient  Spirit,  ever  and  evermore. 

To  recapitulate.  The  three  mdtras  of  Om,  when  duly  contemplated 
and  in  their  respective  order,  set  free  the  devotee  from  the  troubles  of 
this  world.  The  contemplation  of  the  first  mdtra  confers  upon  him  the 
most  exalted  state  of  existence  possiblo  on  this  earth,  that  of  the 
second  fills  him  with  the  joys  of  the  spiritual  world,  and  the  con 
templation  of  the  last  mdtra  blesses  him  with  moJcsha  or  immortality." 

•:  o  : 


Whatever  other  scholars  may  think  of  the  difficulty  of 
translating  the  Upanishats,  I  can  only  repeat  what  I  have 
said  before  that  I  know  few  Sanscrit  texts  presenting  more 
formidable  problems  to  the  translator  than  these  philosophical 
treatises.  .  .  .  I  have  again  and  again  had  to  translats 
certain  passages  tentatively  only,  or  following  the  commen 
tators,  though  conscious  all  the  time  that  the  meaning  which 
they  extract  from  the  text  can  not  be  right  one." 

Max  Muller. 


il  ^  1  1 
I.     MUNDAK/lsT  KHAND. 

1.  B,rahma  was  the  first  of  literati,  who  was  master  of 
the  physical  laws  of  nature,  and  an  adept  mechanician.  He 
was  the  protector  of  mankind.  He  taught  his  eldest  son, 
Atharva,  Brahma  Vidya,  or  the  knowledge  of  the  Deity, 
\vhich  is  superior  to  all  other  kinds  of  knowledge. 

gf  Tjcfrf  sllU5Ic^T  flf 

ire  HTT^i^T     ^TT^TTW  n  *  ti 

2.  Atharva  taught  Angira  that  spiritual  knowledge 
which  Brahma  bad  taught  him  ;  Angira  taught  it  to  Satyavaha, 
a  descendant  of  Bharaddwaj  ;  and  Satyavaha  taught  it  to 
Angiras.  It  has  thus  come  down  in  succession. 

3.  Sownak,  a  great  chief,  having  respectfully  approached 
Angiras,  asked,  "  Sire,  what  is  it,  that  being  known,  all  else 
is  known?  " 

rf  q?!T     ^mn  ^  II  8  II 

4.  He  said,  "  You  should  know  that  there  are  two 
kinds  ^of  knowledge,  which  the  divine  sages  call  Parti 
(esoteric)  anc!  Aparti  (exoteric). 

.*  This  Upanishat  was  translated  by  Lala  Durga  Prasad  and  revised  by  Pandit 
€»uru  Datta  Vidyarthi,  M.  A.,  while  confined  to  sick-bed  in  uii  advanced  state  of  the 
disease  which  eventually  carried  Uim  away.—  tid, 


:  ftmr 

i  ^ra  TO  ^rar  cfTOnrara  n 

5.  The  Apard  or  exoteric  knowledge  is  the  reading  of 
the  Kig,  the  Yajur,  the  Sama,  and  the  Atharva  Vedas  ;  the 
Shiksha  (phonetics),  the  Kalpa  (ritual  law),  the  Vyakarana 
(grammar),  the  Nirukta  (philology),  the  Chhanda  (prosody) 
and  the  Jyotish  (astronomy).  The  Pard  or  esoteric  know 
ledge  is  one  which  leads  to  the  realization  of  the  Immortal 

6.  That  Immortal  Being  is  invisible,  incomprehensible, 
without  origin,  without  symbolical  distinction,  without  eyes 
and  ears,  without  hands  and  feet,  ever-lasting,  all  pervading, 
omnipresent,  subtle,  imperishable  ;  whom  the  sages  perceive 

to  be  the  source  of  all  beings. 

u  «  n 

7.  Just  as  the  spider  outbrings  and  absorbs  the  cobweb, 
as  the  earth  throws  up  the  vegetation,  and  as  the  living 
bodies  excrete  the  hairy  growth  ;  so  does  the  universe  eman 

ate  from  the  Indestructible  Being. 

\\  c  ti 

8.  When  that  Great  Being  contemplates  creation,  the 
universe  springs  up  into  material  forms,  and  thence  evolve 
vegetation,  life,  intelligence,  truth,  birth,  good  deeds,  and 


9.  The  Supreme  Being  is  omniscient,  all-wise,  whose 
very  activity  is  knowledge  itself;  from  Him  has  come  out  the 
material  universe  with  its  diverse  forms  and  names. 


I.     MUNDAK,  2ND  KHAND. 

1.  It  is  true  that  the  sages  divided  the  mantras,  which 
enjoined  the  performance  of  religious  deeds,  into  three 
sanhitas.  Perform  those  duties  regularly  and  with  rational 
desires.  It  is  the  path  that  leads  to  the  worlds  dispensing  the 
fruits  of  good  deeds. 


2.  When  the  fire  fed  with  fuel  flickers  into  flames,  the 
oblations  of  clarified  butter  should  be  thrown  into  it  with 
faithful  convictions. 


3v  He  ruins  all  the  prospects  of  happy  future  life,  who 
does  not  perform  the  agnihotra  on  the  occasion  of  darsha 
(amaivas),  puran  mds,  chatur  mds  (Clwumasa),  anagrayanam 
(harvest  time),  who  does  not  entertain  learned  guests,  per 
form  vaishivadeva  yajna  or  agnihotra  at  all,  or  who  per 
forms  them  against  the  precepts  of  the  Vedas. 

t  II  8  II 

4.     The  seven  zones  of  burning  flame  are  black,    brown, 
heated,  red-hot,  unburnt,  scintillating,  and  luminous. 

I1 1  II 

5.  The  oblations  that  are  offered  into  the  burning  fire 
in  proper  way,  are  carried  by  the  rays  of  the  sun  to  those 
regions  of  trie  atmosphere  wherein  the  clouds  float. 


v>  C\ 

6.  The  offerings  return  to  the  world  of  the  offerer  in 
fructifying  showers,  saying,  as  it  were,  to  him,  "  Come, 
Come  here,  enjoy  the  fruits  of  your  good  deeds." 

cT  *J5T  *W  aTwrl  l!  O  II 

7.  These  religious  performances,  including  eighteen 
forms  of  ceremonies,  are  inferior  in  merit,  transient  and 
fleeting.  Those  who  consider  them  as  bliss,  are  foolish  and 
repeatedly  undergo  the  misery  of  senility  and  death. 


t  ll  c  II 

8.  Many  ignorance-ridden  people  arrogantly  consider 
themselves  to  be  wise,-and,  being  puffed  up  with  vain  know 
ledge,  go  about  the  world  as  the  blind  leaders  of  the  blind, 
to  the  great  misery  of  others. 


9.  Others,  again,  being  ignorant,  believe  themselves 
to  have  attained  the  object  of  life  by  mere  deeds.  But,  since 
mere  acts  and  deeds  do  not  lead  to  the  knowledge  of  God, 
such  people,  immersed  in  worldliness,  become  miserable  and 
go  from  bad  to  worse. 


10.  Those  who  foolishly  consider  success  in  worldly 
affairs  to  be  the  only  end  of  life,  and  nothing  superior  to  it, 
after  enjoying  the  highest  pleasure  possible  in  this  world, 
again  fall  into  lower  states. 


ftrcsnt  wra  s^TOci;  *r  wtfh  ^JC^TTHT  iu?  n 

11.  The  learned  men  of  calm  mind,  living  the  righteous 
Jife  in  retirement,  imbued  with  the  desire  of  knowing  and 
embracing  truth,  freed  from  passions,  and  subsisting  on  alms, 
attain  to  the  unchangeable,  immortal,  all-pervading  Spirit 
with  their  spiritual  body. 

12.  Let  the  learned  man,  seeing  that  all  the  enjoyments 
of  the  world  depend  upon  deeds,  and  that,  mere  deeds  do  not 
lead  to  the  knowledge  of  God,  abandon  the  love  of  the  world 
and  repair  to  a  preceptor  well-versed  in  the  Vedas,  and 
wholly  devoted  to  God,  with  suitable  presents,  to  acquire  the 

knowledge  of  God. 

13.  The  preceptor  should  initiate  such  a  contented, 
quiescent  student  into  Brahma  Vidya,  which  reveals  the 
presence  of  the  Eternal,  All-pervading  Being. 

n  *  n 


1.  Verily,  0  Dear  Inquirer,  innumerable  principles 
emanate  from  the  ImmoFtal  Being,  and  lose  themselves  as 
welHn  Him,  just  as  thousands  of  similar  sparks  fly  from  a 
blazing  fire. 


2.  That  Immortal  being  is  glorious,  incorporeal,  all- 
pervading,  existing  in  and  out,  unborn,  without  organs  of 
life  and  of  mind,  holy,  subtler  than  the  all-filling  ether,  and 
even  than  the  human  soul. 

3.  He  is  the  author  of  the  organs  of  respiration  and 
mind,  all  the  senses,  essences,  ethers,  vapors,  fluids,  solids 
that  support  all  other  things. 

4.  The  Eternal  Spirit  that  resides  in  the  interior  of  all 
things,  has  disposed  the  fire  instead  of  the  brain,  the  sun 
and  the  moon  in  lieu  of  the  two  eyes,  the  open  directions  of 
space  in  lieu  of  the  ear  cavaties,  the  Vedas  as  His  organs  of 
speech,  the  atmosphere  as  His  lungs,  the  whole  universe  as 
His  heart,  and  the  earth  as  His  feet.  It  is  thus  that  He 

5.  From  Him  proceed  the  great  battery  of  forces, 
whose  fuel  is  the  sun  which  draws  by  its  rays  liquid  vapors 
above.  Thus  the  clouds  are  formed  which  shower  on  the 
earth,  producing  rich  vegetation.  This,  in  its  turn,  is  con 
sumed  by  males  who  refine  it  into  spermatozoic  fluid  and 
thereby  fructify  the  females.  Thus,  the  infinity  of  creatures 
is  brought  into  this  world  by  the  mighty  working  of  His 
immutable  law. 

n  4  u 

6.  The  Rig,  Sama,  Yajur,  initiation,  yajnas,  charity, 
the  year,  the  agent,  the  surroundings  where  the  sun  and  the 
moon  perform  their  respective  functions,  all  have  sprung 
from  Him. 


rra*^r  ^^r  *Tr*i  ?rsrf     faa:^  ii  o  ii 

7.  He  is  the  father  of  innumerable  learned  men,  skillful 
experts,  ordinary  men,  animals,  birds,  vital  airs,  various  kinds 
of  food,  austerity,  faith,  truth,  chastity,  and  the  law. 

mi:  i 

II  c  II 

8.  He  has  placed  in  the  heart  seven  prdnas  (vital 
powers),  seven  archis  (their  influences  or  activities),  seven 
samidhas  (their  respective  objects  of  sensation,  perception 
&c.,)  seven  homas  (their  knowledge),  and  seven  lokas  (the 
organs  of  those  powers  or  senses  wherein  the  pranas  work.)* 

n  d  n 

9.  He  has  made  the  seas,  the  mountains,  together  with 
all  the  rivers  that  flow  in  their  meandering  paths,  as  well  as 
all  the  herbs,  and  their  juices;  and  it1  is  He  who  interiorly 
pervades  and  upholds  them. 

10.  This  very  universe,  together  with  the  activities  of 
men,  their  knowledge  of  the  Vedas,  penance,  immortality, 
exists  in  the  Omnipresent  Being.  O  Dear  Inquirer  !  he 
who  knows  this  Being  in  the  depth  of  his  heart,  breaks  a- 
sunder  the  ties  of  ignorance  and  obtains  salvation. 

(vitality)  becomes  seven-fold,  as  it  works  in  seven  organs  of  the  body, 
private  part*,  the  eyes,  the  ears,  the  mouth,  the  nose,  and  the  heart.  It  extract* 
vitality  from  food  and  distributes  among  these  organs,  which  thus  become  capable  of  the 
mental  acts  of  sensation,  perception,  <fcc. 




1.  Verily,  the  Supreme  Being  is  everywhere  manifest 
ed  and  is  always  near  at  hand,  pervading  the  intellect,  the 
great  asylum,  the  repository  of  all  this  moving,  living,  and 
throbbing  universe.  Know  Him  to  be  self-existent,  invisible, 
adorable,  and  subtler  than  we  can  comprehend.  Indeed,  He 
is  the  only  adorable  Being  for  His  creatures. 

I  rT^rTrtfrST  rTff  rli\Iclf  ^)^  fsrff  IK  II 

2.  He  is  glorious,  finer  than  atoms,  and  holds  worlds 
and  the  creatures  thereof.  He  is  the  undecayable  Supreme 
Being,  the  life  of  all,  the  essence  of  speech  and  mind,  all- 
truth,  and  immortal.  0  Dear  Inquirer,  know  that  He  alone 
is  to  be  aimed  at. 

*rt  ^TOT  faferf  ^"SrterT  I 

[  *?ter  ftfi?  ii  ?  ii 

3.  Hold  the  bow  —  the  Upanishats  ;  fit  in  it  the  sharp 
arrow  of  concentrated  attention  ;  draw  it  with  the  whole  force 
of  devotion  ;  and  bear  it  in  mind  that  the  mark  is  the  Great 
Immortal  Being. 

«  H 

4.  Om,  the  Great  Name  of  God,  is  the  bow,  the  soul 
arrow,  the  mark  the  Supreme  Being  Himself.  Shoot  it  with 
dl  your  force  and  vigilance  ;  and  just  as  the  arrow  is  pierced 
into  the  mark,  so  is  the  soul  lodged  in  the  Divinity. 


5.  He  who  interiorly  and  invisibly  sustains  the  sun,  the 
earth  and  the  intervening  space  in  their  respective  positions, 
even  He  who  sustains  the  life,  the  brain,  the  lungs  and  all  the 
various  senses,  ^  he  Unitary  Interpervading  Spirit.  Try,  O 
men,  to  know  Him  alone,  and  leave  off  all  other  talk  ;  for,  He 
is  the  only  Principle  that  leads  to  immortality. 

6.  Just  in  the  heart,  where  all  the  blood  vessels  meet, 
very  much  like  the  spokes  of  a  wheel  meeting  in  the  navel, 
resides  the  interiorly-governing  Divine  Spirit,  manifesting 
His  glory  in  ways  multifarious.  Contemplate  Him,  the  Om, 
the  interiorly-governing  Spirit,  for,  He  alone  can  lead  you 
with  sr.fety  to  the  blissful  haven,  far  beyond  the  ignorance 
begotten  miseries  of  this  troubled  jean  of  life. 

n  o  u 

7.  The  All-wise,  Omniscient  Being,  whose  greatness  is 
manifested  ii.  'ie  heavens  and  on  the  earth,  is  only  found  in 
the  depth  of  the  heart.  He  is  the  controller  of  the  mind,  the 
vital  airs  and  the  body.  He  has  ordained  that  food  should 
be  the  nourisher  of  the  heart.  By  His  knowledge  the  sages 
are  able  to  feel  bliss  and  immortality. 

8.  The  perception  of  that  Omnipresent  Being  destroys 
all  ignorance  of  the  heart,  eradicates  all  doubts  of  the  mhid, 
and  puts  a  stop  to  all  the  wicked  actions. 


'.  II  £  Tl 

9.  The  Great  God,  without  impurity  and  without  parts, 
resides  in  the  most  interior.  It  is  He  that  the  seers  perceive 
to  be  the  holiest  and  the  glory  of  glories. 

ftvnfa  n  1°  » 


10.  Neither  the  sun,  nor  the  moon,  nor  the  stars,  nor 
even  the  lightnings  illume  H;m  ;  much  less  this  terrestrial 
fire.  It  is  through  His  lustre  that  all  these  shine  ;  it  is 
through  His  illumination  that  all  this  is  illumined.  • 

1  1  U  ll 

11.  The  Great  God  is  immortality  ;  He  is  before  and 
behind,  right  and  left,  above  and  below,  pervading  all  this 
grand  stupendous  universe  through  and  through. 



y^f:  fott^f 


1.  There  are  two  conscious  entities,  possessing  divine 
qualities,  co-eval  companions,  embracing  each  other,  and 
residing  in  one  and  the  same  univercelum.  One  of  them 
enjoys  the  fruits  of  his  actions  and  the  other  looks  on  the 
same,  unaffected  by  consequences. 

u  ^  n 

2.  The  soul,  engrossed  in  worldly  desires,  falls  into  grief 
through  ignorance,  not  having  realized  God.  But  when  he 
realizes  the  Almighty  Ruler  of  the  universe  and  recognizes 
His  greatness,  he  is  then  emancipated  from  his  grief, 

II  ^  if 

3.  When  the  seer  perceives  the  beatific  presence  of  the 
Self-glorious  Being,  the  Maker  and  the  Ruler  of  the  world, 
the  Omnipresent  Being,  the  origin  of  all  knowledge,  he,  dis 
carding  all  good  and  bad  actions,  becomes  free  from  all  taint 
of  matter  and  attains  to  the  harmony  of  the  soul. 

3:  * 

sTSI  f^T  ^ft^Bt  II  8  II 

4.  He  is  life,  whose  wisdom  is  stamped  on  all  universe. 
The  sage  who  knows  Him,  leaves  off  useless  talk.  Rejoicingr 
in  the  self,  absorbed  in  the  self,  and  endowed  with  energy, 
he  becomes  the  foremost  spiritual  teacher. 

5.  Through  strict  veracity,  uniform  control  of  the 
mind  and:  senses,  abstinence  from  sexual  indulgence,  and  ideas 
derived  from  spiritual  teachers,  man  should  approach  God, 
who,  full  of  glory  and  perfection,  works  in  the  heart,  and  to 
whom  only  votaries,  freed  ficm  passion  and  desire,  can 

n  ^  \\ 

G.  Truth  always  triumphs,  and  untruth  is  always 
vanquished.  Truth  is  the  pathway  which  learned  men  treacf. 
It  is  by  this  path  that  the  •  sages,  satiated  in  their  desires, 
have  obtained  salvation  in  Him,  who  is  the  infinite  ocean  ojf 


If  ^ 

u  a  H 

7.  He  is  the  greatest  of  all  beings,  the  most  wondrous, 
incomprehensible,  and  the  subtlest  of  all  principles.  He  is 
farthest  of  all  and  also  near  at  hand,  nay  He  is  found  in  the 
interior  of  the  self  of  those  who  have  eyes  to  see  Him  here 
on  earth. 

8.  He  is  apprehended  neither  by  the  eye,  nor  by  speech, 
nor  by  the  other  senses,  nor  by  austerities,  nor  by  deeds. 
The  contemplator,  whose  intellect  has  become  refined, 
apprehends  Him  by  the  tranquil,  unflagging  light  of 

d  !l 

9.  This  subtle  Spirit  can  be  known  by  the  intellect  only, 
which  is  governed  by  the  five  vital  airs.  The  rninds  of  all 
creatures  are  inter-woven  with  life.  When  the  mind  becomes 
pure,  the  spirit  begins  to  feel  its  powers. 

10.  Whatever  regions  the  person  of  pure  and  calm 
intellect  thinks  of  in  his  mind,  and  whatever  desires  he  enter 
tains,  he  is  sure  to  reach  and  obtain.  Hence  one  who  longs  for 
great  powers,  should  reverently  se.ek  the  spiritual  teacher. 


ii  TO 

d.          >» 

.  \\    \\ 
ill.—  MUNDAK,  2ND  KHAND. 

1.  He  knows  that  Supreme  God,  fehe  asylum  of  all, 
wherein  the  whole  universe  rests  and  looks  splendid,  who 
adores  Him,  the  Holy  Being,  disinterestedly.  Such  a  wise 
man  rests  beyond  the  turmoils  of  the  world. 

n  *  H 

2.  Whoever  entertains  desires,  is  born  midst  their 
objects.  But  the  desires  of  him,  who  is  satiated  in  them,  and 
who  has  obtained  the  summum  bonum,  disappear  even  here 
on  earth. 

n    u 

3.  The  Spirit  God  is  obtained  neither  by  lecturing,  nor 
by  much  hearing,  nor  by  ingenuity.  Whoever  heartily  seeks 
Him  obtains  Him.  This  Spirit  reveals  His  glory  to  him 
who  renders  himself  a  body  unto  Him.  • 

8  M 

4.  This  Spirit  is  obtained  neither  by  the  week,  nor  by 
the  indolent,  nor  by  misplaced  austerity.  But  the  person 
who  tries  to  find  Him  out  by  proper  means,  finally  obtains 
the  realization  of  God. 

TT  n  VL  n 

5.  The  sages,  who  are  satiated  through  knowledge,  who 
have  obtainad  divine  knowledge,  who  are  freed  from  all  affec 
tions  and  who  are  calm,  firm  of  mjnd,  and  wise  of  intellect, 
finally  rest  in  Him,  who  is  present  everywhere,  and  whp  is 
accessible  from  every  quarter. 


6.  Those  persons  who  are  convinced  of  God  by  the 
knowledge  of  Vedanta,  whose  intellects  are  pure  by  virtue  of 
resignation,  and  who  have  full  controlover  themselves,  will 
resume  the  course  of  life,  after  having  enjoyed  immortality 
for  a  parant*  cycle. 

7.  'The  fifteen  kalas  disappear,  all  the  senses  resolve 
into  their  component  elements.  The  soul  and  its  actions  are  all 
absorbed  in  the  Supreme,  Eternal,  All-encompassing  Being. 

ire:  TO 

8.  Just  as  the  rivers  falling  into  the  sea  lose  their  dis 
tinction,  name  and  form,  so  does  the  learned  man,  freed  from 
the  phenomenal  world,  obtain  the  Glorious  Being,  who  per 
vades  all  and  is  higher  than  the  highest. 

T  fi?:f?f  m^T^f  ^wfNwit  ftw#rs^  wrfh  n  ^  H 

9.  He  who  knows  the  Great  God,  becomes  absorbed  in 
Him.  No  issue  ignorant  of  God  is  ever  born  in  his  family. 
He  rises  above  sin  and  sorrow,  is  freed  from  the  ties  of 
ignorance,  and  becomes  immortal. 

:  TOT 
^g^?Tii  ^<>  n 

10.  The  Vedas  also  declare,  "  Let  spiritual  knowledge 
be  imparted  to  those,  who  properly  observe  the  tonsure  cere 
mony  of  sannyas,  who  are  practical  yogis  versed  in  the 
Vedas  and  devoted  to  God,  who  invoke  the  All-wise  God 
in  their  hearts,  and  who  are  actuated  by  the  motives  of  truth 
and  truth  alone." 

*  Paranta  Kala  =  31,  10,  40,00,00,  00,  000  years. 


11.     Angirah  has  truly  said  that  one  who  is  not  qualified 
in    the  above   manner,   never  acquires  spiritual   knowledge. 
Salutation  to  the   great    divine    sages  !     Salutation  to  the 
great  Divine  sages  ! 

-f  ••^»: 


II  **H  II 


..  I. 


II  ^Ro  |l  *To  ^  I 

THERE  i?  nothing  which  so  beautifully  illustrates  the  bounteous 
dispensation  of  Providence  in  Nature  as  the  atmosphere,  which  sur 
rounds  our  earth  to  a  certain  height  all  around.  This  gaseous  en 
velope,  which  is  elastic  and  at  the  same  time  so  rare,  is  especially 
characterised  by  its  lightness,  which  renders  it  amenable  to  the  in 
fluence  of  disturbances  even,  the  slightest. 

Imagine  a  huge  mass  of  iron  lying  inett,  say,  in  one  position, 
and  suppose  a  heavy  stone  or  a  dense  ball  dashed  against  this  grotes 
que  ball  of  iron,  and  see  what  follows.  You  will  see  how  sluggishly 
the  grotesque  mass  obeys  the  impulse,  how  reluctantly,  as  it  were,  the 
idle  mass  parts  with  its  inert  condition  to  be  alive  with  the  activity 
of  the  impinging  stone  !  What  a  wide  contrast  does  the  atmosphere 
present  t6  this-  inert  mass.  Each  molecule  of  the  air,  on  account  of 
its  lightness  and  elasticity,  so  readily  succumbs  to  all  forces  from 
without,  so  mechanically  multiplies  the  impulse,  as  it  were,  by  its 
mobility,  that  even  the  slightest  tremor  first  communicated  to  it  sends 
it  dashing  along  the-  free  path  of  molecules  in  air,  until  it  meets  a 
fresh  encounter  with  another  molecule.  This  molecule,  like  a  waiting 
position,  immediately  stands  up  and  proceeds  on  its  errand.  The 
next  molecule  obeys  the  first  and  the  third  obeys  the  2nd  and  so  on. 
Only  a  few  moments  elapse,  (not  more  than  five  or  six  seconds),  in  the 
twinkling  of  an  eye,  when  a  vast  tract  in  the  expansive  ocean  of  air, 
—  a  tract  of  almost  a  mile  in  area,  5  times  1,100  feet  long,  —  is  fur 
rowed  over  with  ripples  of  exquisite  beauty.  Just  imagine  how 
sensitively  delicate  the  molecules  of  air  must  be.  There  is  not  '  a 
faint  flutter  of  wings,  not  a  noiseless  breath  that  ever  escapes  and 
does  not  furrow  tracts  upon  bracts  of  air  with  exquisite  waves.. 

Tremors  are  thus  communicated  with  gigantic   velocity    by   this* 
mobile  air.     The  invisible  artistic   designs  into  which  the    molecules 

172  VEBIG      TEXT      NO.      I. 

of  air  thus  cast,  are  only   beautiful  beyond  description.      A    genuine 
transcript  of  the  true  state  of  things  are  the  words  of  poet  Emerson. 

"  Thou  canst  not  wave  thy  staff  in  air, 
Or  dip  thy  paddle  in  the  lake. 

But  it  carves  the  brow  of  beauty  there, 

And  the  ripples  in  rhymes  the  oars  forsake." 

It  is  on  the  mobile  wings  of  air  that  the  fragrance  of  flowers,  the 
odour  of  essences  and  the  effluvia  of  substances  are  wafted  to  immense 
distances,  creating  a  diffusiveness  that  blends  motion  into  uniformity 
and  harmony.  Is  not,  then,  a  light,  mobile,  tremor-communicating, 
effluvia-carrying  medium  a  better  and  a  more  exact  appellation  for 
this  masterly  creation  of  the  Architect  of  Nature  than  the  ugly, 
unmeaning,  inexact  and  half-articulate  word  air.  It  is  exactly  this 
sense,  italicized  in  the  above  lines,  which  the  Vedic  word  v6yu  conveys, 
the  word  with  which  the  mantra  quoted  above  begins.* 

We  have  seen  what  the  physical  properties  of  the  molecules,  which 
compose  the  air,  are.  Let  us  now  consider  the  phenomena  which  it 
gives  rise  to.  The  rays  of  the  sun  falling  upon  the  earth  heat  the 
layers  of  earth,  which  in  their  turn  heat  the  layers  of  air  in  contact 
with  them.  These  layers  of  air,  when  heated,  become  lighter  and 
ascend.  Colder  layers  of  air  rush  in  to  fill  up  the  vacuum  created 
by  the  ascending  hot  layers  of  air,  are  heated  in  their  turn,  rise  and 
make  room  for  the  advent  of  other  similar  layers  of  air.  Thus  a 
rapid  circulation  of  heat  goes  on,  which  gives  rise  to  currents.  Of 
exactly  similar  nature  are  all  the  winds  that  blow.  From  the  same 
cause  originate  those  north-easterly  and  south-eastern  winds  known  as 
trade-winds.  The  portions  of  earth  near  the  equator  always  receive 
a  greater  quantity  of  heat  from  the  sun  than  others  do.  The  layers 
of  air  in  contact  with  those  portions  of  earth  rise,  and  colder  air  from 
northern  and  southern  quarters  rushes  in  towards  the  equator,  and, 
coupled  with  the  rotatory  motion  of  earth,  gives  rise  to  north-eastern 
and  south-eastern  winds.  Firstly,  then,  we  find  that  the  air  is  always, 
circulating  and  giving  rise  to  currents  in  perpetual  motion.  This. 
vayu,  then,  (dydhi)  is  always  moving  in  the  form  of  currents. 

Next,  see  what  effect  it  has  in  modifying  the  phenomena  of  light. 
The  rays  of  light,  that  traverse  through  solar  and  interplanetary 
regions,  ultimately  strike  upon  the  highly-rarefied  layers  of  air,  high 
above  in  the  skies.  In  passing  from  vacuum  into  air,,  these  rays  of 
light  deviate  in  their  course,  and  pursue  a  bent  direction  on  account 

*  Vdyu,  derived  by  the  Niruktakara  from  the  root  Fa,  to  move,  to  carry 
odoriferous  matter,  or  from  Vah,  to  communicate  tremors,  is  always  moving  in  the  form 
of  currents  :  is  the  cause  of  extension,  of  vision  and  of  other  appearances  ;  it  furnishes 
the  plant  with  air  and  food  and  preserves  the  equilibrium  between  the  vegetable  and 
the  animal  kingdoms  and  it  makes  our  sounds  and  all  others  as  well  heard* 

THE      ATMOSPHERE.  173 

of  refraction.  Had  the  lower  layers  of  air,  through  which  these  rays 
have  to  pass,  been  of  uniform  temperature,  once  having  bent  in  its 
course  in  contact  with  the  first  layer  of  air,  the  ray  of  light  would  have 
then  pursued  its  course  undeviated  in  air.  But  meeting  with  la'yers  of 
air  of  different  temperatures  and,  therefore,  of  different  densities,  it  is, 
^at  each  step  that  it  advances,  a  little  refracted  again  and  again 
'so  that  these  rays,  having  passed  through  all  curious  paths,  all  zigzag 
ways  that  it  is  possible  to  imagine,  ultimately  meet  terrestrial  objects, 
including  the  eyes  of  man,  and  there  excite  vision.  How  wonderfully 
it  modifies  and  extends  the  range  of  vision,  will  then  be  apparent. 
Even  the  most  delusive  appearance  known  as  "  the  mirage,"  that  is 
often  seen  by  travellers  in  the  hot  sandy  deserts,  is  due  to  the  reflec 
tion  and  refraction  of  light  at  innumerable  snrfaces  presented  by  the 
heated  layers  of  air.  It  is  through  air,  then,  that  we  are  able  to J  see  not 
only  in  the  direction  of  the  source  of  light,  the  sun,  but  in  all  other 
possible  directions.  It  thus  extends  the  range  of  our  vision.  It  is  also 
due  to  air  that  such  delusive  phenomena  or  appearances  as  t/he  mirage 
start  into  vision.  Our  atmosphere,  then,  besides  giving  rise  to  currents, 
extends  the  range  of  our  vision  and  is  the  cause  of  the  phenomena  like 
that  of  mirage.  Hence  it  is,  that  we  have,  in  the  Vedic  mantra  quoted 
above,  the  word  darshata,  i.  e.,  the  cause  of  extension  of  vision  and  of 
other  appearances. 

Another  and  a  very  important  part  which  the  air  plays  in  the 
economy  of  nature  is  the  purpose  it  serves  "of  the  maintenance  of  vege 
table  world.  Always  there  is  a  certain  quantity  01  carbonic  acid 
present  in  the  air,  which  however  slight,  is  sufficient  to  maintain 
the  equilibrium  between  the  animal  and  the  vegetable  worlds. 
The  trees  and  plants,  the  main  body  of  which  essentially  consists  of 
carbon, _  derive  all  their  carbon  from  the  air.  The  leaves  of  plants 
possess  a  kind  of  substance  called  chlorophyl,  which  in  the  presence  of 
light  decomposes  the  carbonic  acid  gas  present  in  the  air.  The  car 
bon  which  results  from  this  decomposition,  is  assimilated  by  the  plants, 
and  the  oxygen  is  set  free.  This  oxygen,  freed  from  carbonic  acid,  so  to 
say,  is  what  animals  inspire.  Animal  life  is  maintained  by  the  continu 
ance  of  animal  heat,  which  is  due  to  the  combustion  of  oxygen  with 
carbon  of  the  animal  frame.  Thus  all  animals  inhale  oxygen  and 
exhale  carbonic  acid,  whereas  all  plants  absorb  carbon  of  the  carbonic 
acid.  Air  thus  stands  a  common  vehicle  between  the  vegetable  and 
the  animal  kingdoms.  Due  to  these  causes,  all  plant  and  animal  life 
depends  upon  tbo  presence  of  air.  Not  only  is  air  necessary  for  the 
existence  of  plants  and  animals,  but  also  necessary  for  the  maintenance 
of  dynamical  equilibrium  between  these  two  classes  of  organic  nature. 
The  word  soma  used  in  the  Vedas,  means  something  that  springs  out  of 
earth,  and  especially  designates  the  vegetable  kingdom  which,  as  such, 
is  necessarily  dependent  upon  the  soil  from  which  it  springs.  Hence 
we  have  soma  arankritdh  tenham  pahiiu  the  Vedic  mantra,  meaning 

174  TEDIC      TEXT      NO.      I.      THE      ATMOSPHERE. 

thereby  that  the  atmosphere  furnishes  the  plants  with  air  and  food, 
and  preserves  the  equilibrium  between  the  vegetable  and  the  animal 

Another  fact  worth  noticing  in  discussing  the  phenomena  of  air,  is 
that  it  is  the  vehicle  of  all  sounds.  Man  has  been  often  called  a  speak 
ing  animal ;  and,  no  doubt,  the  capacity  of  speech  distinguishes  man  to, 
»  very  great  extent  from  other  members  of  the  animal  kingdom.  Now 
this  speech,  which,  in  this  sense,  is  at  the  root  of  our  advancement  and 
civilization,  essentially  consists  of  articulated  sounds,  the  utility  of 
which  would  have  been  entirely  marred,  if  there  had  been  no  air.  Air, 
then,  is  also  a  vehicle  of  sound,  a  fact  which  is  mentionod  in  the 
mantra  in  the  last  two  words,  shrudhi  havam — it  makes  our  sounds  and 
all  others,  as  well,  heard. 

JTo.  IT. 


^o  ii  ^o  ^  i  tf  o  e  H 

THE  word  rig  signifies  the  expression  of  the  nature,  properties 
and  actions  and  re-actions  produced  by  substances.  Hence,  the  name 
has  been  applied  to  Rig  Veda,  as  its  function  is  to  describe  the  physical, 
chemical  and  active  properties  of  all  material  substances  as  well 
as  the  psychological  properties  of  all  mental  substances.  Next  to  a 
knowledge  of  things  comes  the  practical  application  of  that  knowledge, 
for  all  knowledge  has  some  end,  that  end  being  usefulness  to  man. 
Hence,  Yajur  Veda  comes  next  to  Rig  Veda,  the  meaning  of  Yajur 
being  application.  It  is  upon  this  double  principle  of  liberal  and 
professional  (or  technical)  education  that  the  well-known  division 
of  the  course  of  study  of  Aryans,  the  Vedas,  into  Rig  and  Yajur,  i& 

Let  us  not  mock  at  the  position  taken  by  the  Aryas  with  respect 
to  the'  nature  of  the  Vedas,  for,  there  are  reasons  enough  to  justify 
this  position.  Not  being  a  novel  position  at  all,  it  is  the  position  that 
is  maintained  even  according  to  the  Hindu  systems  of  mythology  which 
are  but  gross  and  corrupt  distortions  of  Vedic  sense  and  meaning. 
The  broad  and  universal  distinction  of  all  training  into  professional 
and  liberal  has  been  altogether  lost  sight  of  in  the  Puranic  mythology, 
and  like  everything  else  has  been  contracted  into  a  narrow,  supersti 
tious  sphere  of  shallow  thought.  The  Vedas,  instead  of  being  re 
garded  as  universal  text-books  of  liberal  and  professional  sciences, 
are  now  regarded  as  simply  codes  of  religious  thought.  Religion, 
instead  of  being  grasped  as  the  guiding  principle  of  all  active  pro 
pensities  of  human  nature,  is  regarded  as  an  equivalent  of  certain 
creeds  and  dogmas.  So  with  the  Rig  and  Yajur  Vedas.  Yet,  even 
in  this  distorted  remnant  of  Aryan  thought  and  wisdom,  —  the  Puranic 
mythology,  —  the  division  of  the  Vedas  into  Rig  and  Yajur,  the  liberal 
«tnd  the  professional,  is  faithfully  preserved.  The  rig,  now,  implies  a 
collection  of  hymns  and  songs  in  praise  and  description  of  various  gods 
and  goddesses;  whereas  Yajur,  now,  stands  for  the  mantras  recited 
in  the  ritual,  the  active  part  of  religious  ceremonies.  This  is  the  view 
taken  by  the  so-called  scholars  of  the  day. 

176  VEDIC      TEXT      NO,      II. 

Let  us  not,  however,  altogether  forget  the  original  distinction. 
There  is  much  in  it  to  recommend  itself.  The  mantra  at  the  top, 
which  has  been  taken  from  second  Sukta  of  Rig  Veda,  is  cited  here 
as  a  sample  to  justify  the  veiws  entertained  by  the  Aryas  with  respects 
to  the  Rig  Veda.  This  mantra  describes  the  process  or  steps  (dhiyam) 
whereby  the  well-known  of  liquids,  water,  can  be  formed  by  the  com 
bination  of  two  other  substances  (gritachim  sadhanta).  The  word 
sadhanta  is  in  the  dual  number  indicating  that  it  is  two  elementary 
bodies  which  combine  to  form  water.  What  those  two  elementary 
substances,  according  to  this  mantra,  are,  is  not  a  matter  of  least  import 
ance  to  determine.  The  words  used  to  indicate  those  two  substances 
are  mitra  and  varuna. 

The  first  literal  meaning  of  mitra*  is  measurer.  The  name  is 
given  to  a  substance  that  stands,,  as  it  were,  as  a  measure  or  as  a 
standard  substance.  It  is  the  measurer  of  density,  or  of  value,  other 
wise  known  as  quantivalence.  The  other  meaning  of  mitra  is  "associ 
ate."  Now  in  this  mantra,  mitra  is  described  as  an  associate  of  varuna.^ 
It  will  be  shown  how  varuna  indicates  oxygen  gas.J  Now  it  is  well- 
known  that  hydrogen  is  not  only  the  lightest  element  known,  nor  is  it 
only  monovalent,  but  that  it  has  a  strong  affinity  for  oxygen  ;  hence  it 
is  that  it  is  described  as  an  associate  of  varuna.  Many  other  analogies 
in  the  properties  of  mitra  and  hydrogen  go  to  suggest  that  what  is 
in  Vedic  terms  styled  as  mitra,  is  in  fact  identical  with  hydrogen. 
Mitra,  for  instance,  occurs  as  synonymous  with  udana  in  many  parts 
of  theVedas,  and  udana  is  well  characterized  by  its  lightness  or  by  its 
power  to  lift  up. 

The  second  element  with  which  we  are  concerned  is  varuna. 
Varuna  is  the  substance  that  is  acceptable  to  all.  It  is  the  element 
that  every  living  being  needs  to  live.  Its  well-known  property  is 
rishadah,  i.  e.,  it  eats  away  or  rusts  all  the  base  metals,  it  burns  all  the 
bones,  &c.,  and  physiologically  purifies  the  blood  by  oxidizing  it,  and 

*  The  word  mitra  is  formed  by  adding  the  unadi  suffix  ka,  to  tho 
root  mi,  according  to  the  sutra  *rfafefirorfwgi  3t  II  ^^°  8  I  \$.%  \\ 

The  meaning  is  fiwf?f  JU^ST  3iK\f?f  ftl^!   or    one  that  measures   or 

stands  as  a  standard   of   reference. 

t  Again,  we  have  in  Nighantu,  the  Vedic  Dictionary,  Chapter  V, 

Section  4  fa^T  ^f?HJ^«TTWrqf<5rW  II  Hence  mitra  means  that   which 

approaches  or  seeks  association  with   others. 

J  Varuna  is  formed  by  adding  unadi  suffix  unan  to   roou   vri  to 

^  UHence;  it  means  that  which  is  accept* 

able  to  all  or   seeks  all. 

CO  MPOSITION      OF      WATER.  177 

thereby  keeping  the  frame  alive.  It  is  by  these  properties  that  varuna 
is  in  general  distinguished  ;  but  it  is  especially  characterized  here  as 
rishadah.  No  one  can  fail  to  perceive  that  the  substance  thus  dis 
tinctly  characterized  is  oxygen  gas. 

Another  word  used  in  the  mantra  is  puta  daksliam.  Puta  is  pure, 
free  from  impurities.  Daksha  means  energy.  Puta  daksliam  is  a 
substance,  pure,  possessed  of  kinetic  energy.  Who  that  is  acquainted 
with  the  kinetic  theory  of  gases,  cannot  see  in  puta  daksha  the  proper 
ties  of  a  gas  highly  heated  ? 

The  meaning  of  the  mantra  taken  as  a  whole  is  this  : — Let  one 
who  is  desirous  to  form  water  by  the  combination  of  two  substances  take 
pure  hydrogen  gas  highly  heated,  and,  oxygen  gas  possessed  of  the 
property  rishadhaj  and  let  him  combine  them  to  form  water. 

It  would,  no  doubt,  sound  strange  that  long  before  Cavendish 
performed  his  experiment  on  the  composition  of  water,  or  long  before 
oxygen  and  phlogiston  were  known  to  the  philosophers  of  the  west, 
the  true  philosophy  of  the  composition  of  water  was  recorded  in  the 
Vedas  and  perhaps  understood  by  many  philosophers  of  the  east. 

Let  not  any  of  our  readers  imagine  that  the  interpretation  of  the 
Vedic  mantra  given  above  is  purely  an  imaginary  production  of  the 
brain  of  the  writer.  The  above  interpretation  is,  in  fact,  based  upon 
gome  already  existing  commentaries  of  the  Vedas,  and  there  is  enongh 
either  in  ancient  commentaries  or  in  that  of  Swami  Dayananda  to  sug 
gest  this  and  similar  interpretations  of  all  mantras. 

7/b.     ILL 


-fL  Scientific  IExpos^t^on  ofJ\£cuntrcusJ\Tos.  1, 
<§  of  the  50th  Suhtcu,  10th  -finTAwaJk,jirs4,J\£cu't . 
of  the  ^ig  'Veda  ~be  oaring  on  the  subject 
of  household. 

H  ^if^rf  *ftc\3 '» i  w  f^^ra  ^a^w  n  ?  tt 

BEFORE  I  begin  an  exposition  of  a  few  mantras  of  the  50th  Sukta 
of  Rig  Veda  bearing  on  the  subject  of  Grihastha,  let  it  be  remarked 
in  due  justice  to  ancient  rishis  who  lived  in  days  when  Yedas  were 
better  understood  and  more  sincerely,  honestly  and  truthfully  revered 
than  the  Bible,  the  Zendavastha  and  the  Qoran  are  now-a-days — yes, 
let  it  be  remarked  in  justice  to  those  rishis>  that  to  their  minds  many 
of  the  obvious  and  more  recondite  forces  of  nature  were  the  ladders 
by  which  they  rose  from  the  lower  depths  of  material  objects  to  the 
celestial  heights  of  divine  "contemplation.  Their  thought  familiarly 
climbed  upon  the  ladder  of  physical  forces  till  a  glimpse  of  the  divine 
was  obtained.  Invigorated  with  the  light  thus  received,  it  as  easily 
retraced  its  footsteps  to  share  the  bounty  with  their  fellow-brethren, 
the  whole  race  of  mankind.  Let  me  observe  that,  whilst  I  speak  in 
this  strain,  I  am  giving  expression  to  no  vague  indefinite  ideas  of  my 
own,  to  no  whisperings  of  erratic,  chaotic  imagination.  These  are  no 
words  of  flattery,  offered  as  sacrifice  at  the  altar  of  national  conceit, 
prejudice,  or  custom.  They  are  rather  honest  but  imperfect  expres 
sions  of  the  sublime  lives  which  rishis ,  no  doubt,  lived.  But  more 
sublime  and  astonishingly  charming  was  the  state  of  those  four  rishis, 
Agni,  Vayu,  Aditya  and  Angirah — living  in  the  beginning  of  creation, 
whose  faculties  were,  according  to  the  beliefs  of  the  Aryans,  illumed 
by  the  light  of  the  Vedas.  The  dizzy  heights  to  which  the  thoughts  of 
these  rishis  soared,  but  with  no  giddiness  ;  the  mea-ndering  labyrinths 
through  which  their  intellects  traced  the  unity  of  the  divine  design, 
quite  unperplexed,  and  not  fatigued,  but  rather  cheered  and  invigo 
rated  by  the  effort ;  these  are  facts,  which  we — innocent  darlings  of 
the  ninteenth  century,  the  era  of  civilisation — we  darlings,  fed  in  the 
lap  of  material  science,  nourished  by  the  milk  of  ponderous  truths, 
discovered  by  elaborate  ratiocinative  and  inductive  processes,  and 
fcupported  by  the  carbonaceous  aliment  of  isolated  facts  and  nitrogen 
ous  edibles  of  constructive  theories  and  hypotheses,  cannot  easily 
conceive.  The  truth-loving,  poetical,  beauty-admiring  temperament 

V  E  D  I1  C       TEX  T.       Nr  0.       II  I,  179 

of  these  risk-is  is  far,  far  removed  from  the  money-loving,  practical 
use-admiring  callous  minds  of  moderns.  No  wonder,  then,  that  wo 
should  find  so  very  few  expositors  of  Vedic  lore  in  this  era  of  re 
search  and  activity.  Truth  with  sectarian  ignoramuses  and  religious- 
prejudice  spectacle  Wearers  may  be  measured  by  the  number  of  its 
adherents  or  votaries,  and  well  might  Christians  argue  that  their 
overwhelming  number  in  the  world  is  a  proof  that  Christianity  is  the 
dispensation  destined  by  the  divinity  to  prevail  over  the  world.  But 
far  different  is  the  erase  with  Vedic  truth.  It  is  perennial.  It  is 
not  the  birth  of  to-day  or  yesterday  just  as  other  religions  are.  The 
measure  of  Vedic  truth  is  not  its  power  to  grow  and  spread,  but  its 
inherent  power  to  remain  the  same,  ever  to-day  and  to-morrow.  "  Men 
and  parties,  sects  and  schools  are  but  the  mere  ephemera  of  world's 
day,  Truth,  high-seated  upon  its  rock'  of  adamant,  is  alone  eternal 
and  supreme." 

It  was  this  truth  of  God  and  Nature  that  was  given  to  the 
primitive  four  rtekis  to  comprehend.  Justly,  may  our  uninspired 
eyes  roam  about  in  vain  from  here  to  there,  from  rocks  to-  vegetables 
and  from  vegetables  to  men  to  detect  unity ;  but  the  inspired  minds 
of  the  four  rishis  could  only  perceive  the  unity  of  the  Divine  mind 
in  every  thing.  The  minerals,  the  vegetables  and  the  animals  were 
to  them  but  one  book,  in  which  they  read  but  the  power,  the  justice 
and  the  wisdom  of  Grod.  0\ving  to  the  sublimity  of  revelation,  wera 
foreshadowed  before  their  mind's  eye  landscape — paintings  of  human 
institutions,  achievements  and  aspirations  in  a/  long-  distant  future 
and  in  all  these,  they  saw  the  spirit  of  the  Father  brooding  with 
paternal  care  over  eternal  designs  for  the  happiness  and  benefit  of 
His  children.  Rjader,  imagine  yourself  once  in  this  exalted  condi 
tion.  Then  alone  are  you  in  a  fit  position  to  grasp  and  understand 
the  deep  meaning  of  the  Vedic  mantras.  This  deep  meaning  is  every 
where  spiritual  There  is  a  fine  and  very  sublime  link  between 
mantra  and  mantra,  which  can  be  perceived  'but  in  such  moments  of 
exaltation  alone. 

We  must  bear  in  mind  that  internal  is  always  the  more  difficult 
to  grasp.  The  modern  scholar,  whose  powers  of  the  senses  have  been 
well  trained  to  observe  and  carefully  irote  the  phases  and  changes 
undergone  by  physical  phenomena,  may  not  find  any  connection  or 
coherency  between  mantra  and  mantra.  To  him  the  Vedas  may  \y& 
mere  collections  of  isolated  prayers  to  deified  forces  of  nature  includ 
ing  wind  and  rain  ;  but  to  an  earnest,  truthful  inquirer,  who  has  enter 
ed  the  exalted  condition  I  have  above  described,  thorn  is  that  logical 
coherence  and  philosophical  regularity  in  the  sequence  of  the  mantras 
which  can  only  be  called  divine.  In  this  spirit  should  we  study  the 
Vedas,  a  sample  of  which  is  presented  by  the  50th  Sukta, 

I  have  before  said  that  the  universe,  as  construed  by  the  rinhis,  is  a 
ladder  along  which  the  inspired  mind  rises  to  the  contemplation  of  the 


Divine.     This  exactly  is  the  subject-matter  of  this  mantra  of  the  50th 
Sukta  of  Rig  Veda. 

In  a  dark,  rainy,  stormy  night,  in  an  hour  of  stillness  and  dead 
slumber,  a  thief  entered  the  treasure  room  of  a  peaceful  family,  and 
stole  away  all  precious  metal  and  property,  and  in  the  mad  joy  of  his 
possession  ran  aback  over  twenty  miles  of  wet  ground,  and  betook  hiin- 
self  as  quite  safe  from  the  grasp  of  the  owner.  But  the  light  dawned, 
and  the  owner  awoke  in  full  consciousnesss  of  his  stolen  property. 
Fearlessly  and  resolutely  but  in  entire  calm  of  his  mind,  he  began  the 
track  and  slowly  but  surely  reached  the  rendezvous  and  seized  the  thief 
with  the  treasure  which  he  had  appropriated.  This  is  but  mere  ana 
logy.  I  have  nothing  to  do  with  the  stealth  and  the  property,  but  with 
the  indelible,  unmistakable  footprints,  not  of  a  thief,  but  of  the  Creator 
on  the  frame  of  the  universe.  '  The  wise  man,  who  has  his  intellect 
lumined  by  universal  benevolence,^^^;  ^falt  bent  upon  finding  out 

the  First  Cause,  begins  his  inquiry,  and,  slowly  but  steadily  tracing 
Nature  back  to  its  source,  halts  at  God.  There,  the  inquisitive  and 
penetrative  faculties  of  the  intellect  are  cooled  to  satiation,  and  lie  in 
peaceful  repose  in  the  enjoyment  of  the  treasure  thus  found.  To  such 
a  mind,  what  are  the  different  objects  of  this  universe  ?  They  are  the 
footprints  of  the  Deity,  the  postmarks  tracked  by  the  divine  rays  of 
wisdom  along  their  path  of  action.  They  are  just  as  the  Vedic  mantra 
puts  it,  3frf3t>  the  flag-signs,  track-beams,  the  design  types  which 
point  with  one  voice  to  Him  (rSJw)  from  whom  all  knowledge  has 

proceeded  (sUff^^f).  He  is  the  eternal  Sun  that  ever  shines. 
it  is  who   makes   us   see  this  grand  panorama   of  the   universe  (t£ST 
So  also  is  thecase  with  the  sun  of  the  meterial  universe. 

Would  you  see  the  variegated  objects  of  Nature  ?  Study,  then,  the 
sunbeams  playing  amidst  wonders  of  space,  and  see  what  they  lead  you 
to.  They  lead  us  to  the  globe  of  the  sun,  who  is  truly  the  cause  of  all 
we  see  ;  for,  not  only  has  all  the  matter  of  the  planetary  system  proceed 
ed  from  the  sun,  but  the  very  light  which  reveals  to  us  the  existence 
of  the  material  objects  in  their  diverse  forms  and  colours,  points  out  to 
the  sun  as  its  source  and  fountain-head.  Would  you,  then,  see  the 
universe?  Then  observe  that  the  universe  points  you  out  to  the  wonder 
of  the  planetary  system,  the  sun.  Would  you  enjoy  your  term  of 
earthly  life  in  peace  of  mind  and  happiness  perpetual  ?  Observe,  then, 
that  the  entire  happiness  of  the  world  points  out  to  the  sacred  institu 
tion  of  marriage,  of  grihastha,  the  institution  where  alone  the  filial,  the 
paternal,  the  fraternal  and  conjugal  affections  are  cooled  to  satiation  ; 
for,  from  pure,  truthful,  affectionate  and  wisely  conducted  marriages 
1  alone  can  happy  progeny  flow  into  the  world.  This  is  the  three-fold 
sense  of  the  Vedic  mantra.  It  points  out  to  God  as  the  fountain  of  all 

V  E  I)  I  C       T  K  X  T       N  0.       I  I  I.  181 

causation,  to  the  sun.  as  the  source  of  all  the  planetary  world  arid  its 
chromatic  wonders,  and  to  the  sacred  institution  of  marraige,  founded 
upon  pure,  rational  and  spirtual  physiology,  as  the  source  of  all 
happiness  and  bliss  on  this  earth. 

I  come  now  to  the  second  mantra  of  the  same  Sukta.  I  have 
mentioned  that  happiness  on  this  earth  can  only  be  secured  by  rightly 
conducting  tlie  sacred  and  divine  institution  of  marriage.  I  need  not 
speak  here  at  length  on  this  subject,  l]ut  it  will  be  well  to  point  out 
that  all  attempts  to  regenerate  our  society  in  any  other  direction  are 
merely  fruitless.  Do  you  ever  expect  a  heroic,  Swami-like,  intellectual 
progeny  from  the  present  marriages  contracted  in  an  unnatural  age 
by  parties  forced  by  unnatural  compulsion  of  parents  into  these 
contracts  ?  To  expect  this,  is  to  expect  an  impossibility.  Teaching  and 
preaching,  education  and  consociation  can  mould  the  superficial  or  the 
external  character  of  man,  but  strike  ineffectually  at  the  deeper  and 
more  permanent  character,  the  hereditary  or  the  constitutional  charac 
ter,  which  flows  with  our  blood,  which  we  have  drunk  in  with  the  very 
milk  from  our  mothers,  which  we  have  inherited  with  our  very  bones 
and  nerves,  blood  and  muscles.  Believe  it,  then,  that  the  true  cure  of 
the  evil  that  exists  in  our  society  is  the  physiological  cure,  the  cure 
that  strikes  at  the  very  root  of  the  disease  of  our  society,  the  cure  that 
professes  to  mould  the  individual  and  society  from  their  very  birth,  by 
enjoining  the  observance  of  the  Divine  injunction  of  pure,  truthful 
rational  marriage,  as  contrasted  with  compulsatory,  impulsive,  formal, 
marriage.  What,  then,  is  the  law  of  marriage  ;  what  is  the  observance 
that  can  secure  health  and  happiness  to  society  ?  The  answer  to  this 
question  is  imprinted  in  the  indestructible  divine  laws  of  nature. 
Observe  the  starry  host  of  heaven,  •rer^TI,  or  the  moisture- 
laden  ocean  of  the  atmosphere,  ?ITO9'-  What  law  do  they  obey  ? 
Are  they  not  regular  in  the  succession  of  the  phenomena  they  present  ? 
Regularly,  after  every  24  hours,  does  the  starry  host  of  heaven  unite 

itself  with  night,  ^r^mfVlt,  regularly  for  12  hours  in  24  does  it 

depart  from  the  society  of  the  sun,  mm  f3S3^^T§.    Here  are 

suggestions  for  the  married  people.  Let  them  reflect  over  this  and 
chalk  out  a  path  of  piety  for  themselves.  Again,  study  the 
atmospheric  envelope.  What  law  does  it  obey?  Regularly  after 
every  year  does  the  monsoon  blow,  regularly  for  six  months  do 
the  winds  continue  to  take  the  same  direction.  These  proclaim 
'a  lesson  fur  the  married.  The  lesson  is  for  the  married  parties 


to  separate  themselves  invariably  during  sunlight,  as  the  starry 
heaven  disconnects  itself  from  the  sunlight  for  every  12  hours.  The 
second  lesson  for  them  is  to  observe  the  law  of  periodicity,  just  as  day 
and  night,  trade- winds,  and  monsoons,  obey  their  periodic  laws  of 
succession.  If  these  laws  were  carefully  observed,  there  would  flow 
into  the  world  that  happiness  and  health  which  were  never  realized 
before.  Earth  would  be  a  beautiful  garden  to  live  in,  far  more 
attractive  and  real  than  the  paradise  of  the  Moslems  or  the  heaven 
of  the  Christians,  which  is  all  paved  with  hard  gold,  with  no  stuffed 
cushions  to  relieve  us  of  its  hardness.  Compare  with  this  natural, 
spiritual,  physiological  marriage,  the  beastly  marriages,  a  countless 
number  of  which  are  being  contracted  from  day  to  day  in  our  country 
without  exciting  the  ridicule  or  even  the  thought  of  the  reformers.  I 
count  upon  no  responsibility  sq, serious  as  that  of  ushering  an  in 
dividual  being  organised  like  our  own  selves  into  the  world.  How 
many  are  they  who  feel  this  responsibility  ?  How  few  children  are 
there  who  are  born  of  a  wilful,  appreciative,  conscientious  consociations 
of  their  parents  ?  How  many  of  them  are  the  products  of  lust,  blind 
impulse,  and  purely  fortuitous  concourse  ?  These  are  the  things  that 
may  well  sound  obscene  to  many  of  our  delicately  constituted  readers, 
but  human  nature  is  sacred  in  every  part.  It  calls  for  obedience  to 
its  dictates  in  each  direction.  It  is  no  respecter  of  creeds  or  person 
alities.  Let  us  learn,  then,  the  law  of  periodicity,  and  realize  the 
happiness  that  is  in  store  for  us  by  virtue  of  the  divine  ordination 
mentioned  in  these  mantras. 

I  do  not  wish  to  leave  the  subbject  of  marriage  without  impress 
ing  upon  the  minds  of  my  reader  another  truth  which  is  not  ths  lesa 
important,  a  truth  which  forms  the  subject-matter  of  the  3rd  mantra 
of  this  Sukta.  What  language,  but  the  sweet  accents  of  the  Vedas, 
can  adequately  express  this  truth  ?  These  are  the  words  of  the 
mantra : — 

I  do  not  wish  to  discourse  upon  an  irrelevant  topic,  but  all 
nature  is  unique.  Truth  is  all  of  one  type.  The  digression  may  be 
excused.  Scientific  people  believe,  and  no  doubt,  upon  grounds  in 
dubitable  that,  light  and  heat  are  eternal  associates  of  each  other. 
Each  possesses  in  its  bosom,  the  essence,  the  elements,  and  the  power 
of  developing  the  other.  Both  are  forms  of  motion,  they  are  vibr 
ations  only  differing  in  the  frequency  of  their  occurrence.  The 
vibrations  occur  in  the  same  medium.  Light  is  capable  of  being  re 
flected.  So  is  heat.  Light  is  capable  of  being  polarized.  So  is  heat. 
Heat  maintains  the  life  of  the  animal  fr^,me.  Light  maintains  the 
life  of  the  vegetable  kingdom.  Heat  produces  the  vapoury  atmosp 
here.  Light  precipitates  the  cloudy  mass  in  rain  and  pours  it  upon 
the  plains.  Light  and  heat  are  conjugal  associates  in  nature.  Heat 

VKDIC      TEXT      NO.      Ill,  183 

is  warm,  light  is  cold  and  refreshing.  Heat  and  light  are  the  love 
and  life  of  the  body.  They  are  each  other's  companions  and  comple 
ments  in  Nature.  The  gorgeous  display  of  colours,  which  light  makes 
us  familiar  with,  are  not  less  striking  than  the  equally  important 
molecular  and  chemical  changes  which  heat  works  out.  By  heating  a 
body,  you  can  raise  it  to  incandescence,  till  it  begins  to  burn  ;  by  pro 
per  means,  you  can  entrap  light  and  make  it  heat  our  articles  and  even 
burn  them,  if  necessary.  But  see  how  they  proceed  from  the  sun, 
their  commou  fountain.  They  proceed  in  pairs.  The  warm-exciting  rays 

of  the  sun  are  the  *srT*f^«ft  ^"TOl*.  of  the   Vedic  mantras  ;  tie 

light-emitting,  colour-providing  variegating  rays   of  the    sun 

are  theTTOtfteficI^  of  the  mantra.  (  How  beautifully  are  they 
interlocked  with  each  other.  Held  in  each  other's  embrace,  these 
caloric  and  spectral  rays  dart  from  the  sun,  and  journey  on  together 
through  millions  of  miles  of  gorgeous  space  to  fall  on  earth,  to  warm 
life  and  illuminate  dormant  intellect.  The  arrogant  man  of  science 
may  claim  to  himself  the  power  of  sifting  these  interlocked,  interwed- 
ded,  embosomed  conjugal  pairs  of  rays  by  iodine  filters  and  alum  solu 
tions  ;  but  there  is  no  absolute  separation,  no  entire  dissevering  of 
bonds.  Let  us  learn  a  lesson  from  this.  The  Vedic  mantra  enjoins  upon 
us  this  lesson.  It  enjoins  upon  men  the  duty  of  learning  the  lesson  of 
conjugal  relation  from  the  heat  and  light  rays  of  the  sun  gjjff  ^»f. 

It  inculcates  the  inviolability  of  the  marriage  tie.  Let  the  married 
couples  preserve  their  sacred  relation  inviolable  and  intact,  and  not 
frustrate  their  peace  and  happiness  by  adopting  the  opposite  course 
of  free-marriages.  The  designs  of  the  Divinity  can  only  be  wrought 
by  the  inviolability  of  this  tie.  One  inviolable  marriage  conducted 
according  to  the  periodic  law  alone  is  compatible  with  an  acquisition 
of  the  true  knowledge  of  the  Divine  Being.  This  is  the  sacred  law  of 
inviolability  that  the  Vedic  mantra  enjoins.  But  there  is  another  and 
a  deeper  meaning  of  the  mantra  which  should  not  be  lost  sight  of. 
It  is  that  light  and  heat  permeate  through  every  possible  material 

object  of  creation  sffif  nftszt  II  5f»f   is  the  class    of  created 

objects.  Let  us  not  laugh  at  this  proposition.  It  has  the  solid  bul 
wark  of  science  to  support  it.  Heat  is  a  motion  of  the  molecules 
composing  the  body.  There  is  no  substance,  of  whatever  description, 
that  is  entirely  destitute  or  completely  devoid  of  molecular  vibration. 
Vibration  is  the  general  law.  Light  is  an  accident  of  ether,  the  lumini- 
f  erous  medium,  whose  vibration  essentially  constitutes  light.  Is  there 
any  substance  throughout  the  range  of  created  objects,  wherein  motion 
and  ether  do  not  conjugally  and  co-evally  dwell  ?  Yes,  even  in  the  same 
way,  the  Divine  essence  lives  within  the  very  interior  of  every  living 




The  fact  that  man  lives  on  a  double  plane  of  existence,  that  lie 
leads  a  two-fold  life,  is  not  new  in  any  sense.  He  lives  the  life  of 
the  flesh  and  the  life  of  the  spirit.  Scientific  minds  term  the  one 
objective  and  the  other  subjective  existence.  True  poets  of  nature 
and  religious  men  agree  alike  in  this.  "  0  man  !  the  brute  and  the 
angel  are  alike  in  thee."The  metaphysicians  of  older  Sanskirt  schools 
styled  these  two  modes  of  existence,  the  life  of  Bahishkarana  and 
the  life  of  Antashkarana,  the  outer  life  ofc  the  Senses  and  the  inner  life 
of  the  Intellect.  But  the  law  of  double  existence  is  not.  applicable  to- 
it  alone.  It'is  a  universal  law.  it  applies  to  the  universe.  Matter 
is  the  entity  of  the  Outer  life,  and,  God  the  reality  of  the  Inner  life. 
And  the  Trinity  of  God,  Matter  and  contemplating  Spirits  exhausts 
the  substances  of  the  Cosmos,  Thus  the  universe  lives  a  two-fold 
existence,  the  outer,  the  phenomenal  and  the  inner,  the  nmimenal. 

The  outer  plane  of  existence  is  the  one  that  is  familiar  to  all.  But 
the  inner,  the  internal,  is  a  blank  page,  a  white  sheet  to  many.  The 
inner,  in  so  far  as  inner,  is  poetry  ;  the  outer,  as  the  external,  is  prose* 
And  poetry  is,  to  many,  nothing  but  wild  fantastic  imagination  let  loose* 
Hence  it  is  that  matter,  with  the  ephemeral  host  of  its  'countless  attri 
butes,  is  the  only  reality,  the  only  true  God  to  many. 

"Earth's  powers  and  principa'ities  exclude  most  men  from  the- 
society  of  poetry  and  eternal  principles.  Matter  is  a  powerful  and 
controlling  God ;  it  is  the  prince  of  darkness "  to  millions  of  our 
throbbing  humanity.  Matter  clings  and  clusters  heavily  about  man's 
interior  life  ;  it  is  the  dead-freight  of  his  perilous  voyage  from  the 
cradle  to  the  crematory.  Men  are  necessitated  to  worship  at  the 
shrine  of  matter.  They  make  it  the  chief  object  both  of  masterly 
effort  and  spiritual  contemplation.  Thousands  reverence  matter 
incessantly.  They  bow  down  before  its  altars.  They  bring  to  it 
many  offerings — covering  its  temples  with  every  thing  within  the 
power  of  man  to  bestow :  with  scientific  art,  and  the  works  of  genius, 
with  developments  of  the  noblest  talents,  with  everything,  even  life 

Mammon  is  but  the  servant  of  matter ;  matter  is  but  the  servant 
of  soul :  soul  is  but  the  servant  of  spirit ;  but  in  this  world,  it  happens 
that  spirit'  and  soul  and  matter  are  the  servants  of  mammon.  No 
human  soul  is  independent  of  *its  material  surroundings.  All  life  is  real 
bondage  to  matter.  Matter  is  the  mind's  jailor.  Want  is  the  over* 
ibeer  who  lashes  the  prisoner  into  his  daily  labour. 

188  THE       REALITIE 

"Tis  the  mandate  of  matter  which  the  mind  obeys  nine-tenths  of 
earthly  time.,  The  sight  of  objects,  the  taste  of  fruits,  the  smell  of 
odors/the  cognition  of  sensations,  the  hearing  of  sounds  —  thus  the 
spirit  looks  out  and  lives  through  the  grated  icindows  of  its  prison- 

How,  then,  can  man,  thus  immersed  in  the  life  of  the  senses,  realize 
the  interior  realities  of  inner  life  ?  The  death  of  matter  is  the  birth 
of  the  soul.  Light  and  darkness  cannot  co-exist. 

This  is  the  tenth  mantra  of  the  40th  Adhyaya  of  Yajur  Veda, 
and  it  means  :  — 

"The*  life  of  senses  (avidya)  produces  one  result,  and  the  life  of 
spirit  (vidya)  produces  exactly  the  reverse."  ^if^n  *Zr*t  <T!T^T 
f35JT2TP5rTtfSC»r?T  "  the  life  of  the  senses  is  spiritual  death,  the  life 
of  the  spirit  is  the  new  birth,  immortality." 

This  is  the  15th  Mantra  of  the  same  Adhyaya,  and  it  means  :  — 

"  The  resplendent  face  of  truth  is  hid  beyond  the  veil  V)f  'the 
glitter  of  mammon  "—  f%T*CWN  tJnN  *rfof%rT  "  0  Preserver  of  the 
universe  !  remove  the  veil,  so  that  we  might  see  the  immortal  truth.  " 
Yes,  the  veil  must  be  removed,  the  brute  in  man  crushed,  before  the 
influx  of  the  Divine  Light  can  be  realized. 

"The  universe  with  its  beauties  and  laws  and  harmonies,  is 
nothing  to  the  idiot  mind  caged  in  matter.  The  gorgeous  heavens 
with  their  unnumbered  systems  of  suns  and  stars  are  nothing  to  a 
soul  bowed  down  by  the  daily  drag  of  material  necessities.  The 
ponderous  globes  of  spaces,  so  attractive  to  the  uplifted  mind  of  the 
philosopher,  are  nothing  to  him  who  makes  a  God  of  gain.  Matter 
and  money  surround  him  on  either  side.  He  drives  through  his 
surroundings,  and  then  they  drive  through  him  ;  and  so  goes  his  daily 
life  "  to  the  last  syllable  of  recorded  time." 

The  fair  sky  of  heavenly  truth  never  covers  the  earthly  mind. 
Faith  in  such  circumstances  is  impossible.  Doubt,  yes  doubt,  is  the 
only  paramount  functionary  that  lives  arid  flourishes.  And  what  else 
is  possible  under  such  circumstances  ?  In  such  a  state,  the  mind 

OF       INNER       LIFE.  189 

seeks,  in  vain,  for  a  soul-consoling  philosophy.  The  world  of  matter, 
the  region  of  discord  alone,  is  visible.  The  Omniscient  Intelligence 
of  far-off  immensities  of  the  universe  is  nowhere  to  be  found.  The 
whisperings  of  the  regnant  functionary,  Doubt,  are  too  positive*.  "  Has 
it  not  been  said  that  'by  searching  none  can  find  out  God  ?'  And  is 
,it  not  true  that  the  most  strenuous  God-believers  confess  that  it  is 
only  a  belief  with  them  ;  that  they  really  know  nothing  on  the  sub 
ject  ? "  These  are  the  whisperings  of  Doubt.  But  this  prime 
minister  of  the  life  of  senses,  this  sceptical  functionary  does  not  end 
his  researches  here.  He  is  thorough-going.  He  enters  the  material 
world,  asks  the  sciences  whether  they  can  disclose  the  mystery  and 
this  is  the  result  of  his  investigation  : — 

"  Geology  speaks  of  the  earth,  the  formation  of  the  different 
strata,  of  coal,  of  granite,  of  the  whole  mineral  kingdom.  It  reveals 
the  remains  and  traces  of  animals  long  extinct,  but  gives  us  no  clue 
whereby  we  may  prove  the  existence  of  a  God." 

"  Natural  History  gives  us  a  knowledge  of  the  animal  "kingdom  in 
general,  the  different  organisms,  structures  and  powers  of  the 
various  species.  Physiology  teaches  the  nature  of  man,  the  laws 
that  govern  his  being,  the  functions  of  the  vital  organs  and  the 
conditions  upon  which  alone  health  and  life  depend.  Phrenology 
treats  of  the  laws  of  the  mind,  the  different  portions  of  the  brain,  the 
temperaments,  the  organs,  how  to  develop  some  and  repress  others 
to  produce  a  well-balanced  healthy  condition.  But  in  the  whole 
animal  economy,  though  the  brain  is  considered  to  be  a  '  microcosm ' 
in  which  may  be  traced  a  resemblance  or  relationship  with  everything 
in-  nature,  not  a  spot  can  be  found  to  indicate  the  existence  of  a  God." 

"  Mathematics  lays  the  foundation  of  all  the  exact  sciences.  It 
teachestthe  art  of  combining  numbers,  of  calculating  and  measuring 
distances,  how  to  solve  the  problem  to  weigh  mountains,  to  fathom  the 
depths  of  oceans ;  but  gives  us  no  directions  how  to  ascertian  the 
existence  of  a  God." 

"  Enter  Nature's  great  laboratory — Chemistry,  she  will  speak  to 
you  of  the  various  elements,  the  combinations  and  uses  of  the  gases 
constantly  evolving  and  combining  in  different  proportions,  producing 
all  the  varied  objects,  the  interesting  and  important  phenomena  we 
behold.  She  proves  the  indestructibility  of  matter,  and  its  inherent 
property — motion ;  but  in  all  her  operations  no  demonstrable  fact  can 
be  obtained  to  indicate  the  existence  of  a  God." 

"  Astronomy  tells  us  of  the  wonders  of  the  solar  system — the 
eternally-revolving  planets,  the  rapidity  and  certainty  of  their  motions, 
the  distance  from  planet  to  planet,  from  star  to  star.  It  predicts 
with  astonishing  and  marvellous  precision,  the  phenomenon  of 
eclipses,  the  visibility  on  our  earth  of  comets,  and  proves  the  immut 
able  law  of  gravitation,  but  is  entirely  silent  on  the  existence  of  a 

190  THE      REALITIES 

"In  fine,  descend  into  the  bowels  of  the  earth,  and  you  will  learn 
what  it  contains  ;  into  the  depths  of  the  ocean,  and  you  will  find  the 
inhabitants'  of  ,the  great  deep  ;  but  neither  in  the  earth  above,  nor  in 
the  waters  below,can  you  obtain  any  knowledge  of  His  existence. 
Ascend  into  the  heavens,  and  enter  the  milky  way,  go  from  planet  to 
planet  to  the  romotest  star,  and  ask  the  eternally-revolving  systems. 
Where  is  God  ?  and  echo  answers  —  Where  ? 

"  The  universe  of  matter  gives  no  record  of  His  existence. 
Where  next  shall  we  search  ?  The  universe  of  mind  !  Read  the 
millions  of  volumes  written  on  the  subject,  and  in  all  the  speculations, 
the  assertions,  the  assumptions,  the  theories  and  creeds,  man  has  only 
stamped  the  indelible  impress  of  his  mind  on  every  page.  Human 
records  are,  at  the  best,  delineations  of  human  character,  of  phases 
of  human  mind,  picture  of  huma»  existence,  but  where  is  God  ? 

"  Look  around  you  and  confess  that  there  is  no  evidence  of 
intelligence,  of  design,  and  consequently  of  a  designer  ?  '  What  is 
intelligence-?  It  is  not  a  thing,  a  substance,  an  existence  in  itself, 
but  simply  a  property  of  matter,  manifesting  itself  through  organi 

These,  then,  are  the  fond  insinuations  of  doubt,  the  whisperings 
of  Scepticism,  and  the  legitimate  consequences  of  a  life  of  the  senses, 
an  existence  in  matter,  a  worship  of  Mammon,  a  belief  in  omnipotent 

For,  how  can  God  be  thus  known  :  Geology,  Natural  History, 
Physiology,  Anatomy,  Phrenology,  Mathematics,  Chemistry,  Astro 
nomy  and  all  are  but  grosser  developments,  the  outer  kernel.  They 
deal  only  with  the  tangible,  the  tactual,  the  optical,  the  audible*  the 
edible,  the  olfactory  and  the  palatal.  But  God,  the  Universal  Spirit 

of  nature,  H^fcrfTTrJTT,  is  beyond  the  sensible,  ^Rf^T  ^ffT^^*T 
rT5T^t$*=9T'Triif?f  is  far  beyond  the  transient,  mobile,  vibratory 

phenomena  of  the  senses.  Do  you  descend  into  the  earth,  and  ascend 
into  the  heavens,  and  explore  the  regions  of  immensity  to  discover 
the  locality  of  the  Universal  Spirit. 

He  is  remoter  than  remotest,  as  the  physical  senses  discern  Him 
not.  He  is  nearer  than  the  nearest,  for,  He  is  the  innermost,  but 
foreign  or  exotic  to  all  that  is  external. 

The  law  of  God's  revelation  into  the  soul  is  the  inner  harmony. 
The  whirlwind  of  matter  obstructs  the  adjustment  of  the  internal 
Abstraction,  meditation,  mental  quiet  aud  contemplation  alone  are 
compatible  with  the  realization  of  the  Divine. 

OF      INNER      LIFE.  101 

But  when  he  who  makes  boast  of  his  high  impregnability,  is 
himself  most  vulnerable ;  he  who  prides  himself  upon  his  va'or,  is 
himself  most  cowardly  ;  he  who  preaches  truth  to  others,  'is  himself 
most  untruthful ;  he  who  sets  himself  up  as  the  leader  of  a  legion,  is 
himself  misled  ;  he  who  styles  himself  an  honest  citizen  is  unjustly 
living  upon  heavy  profits  filched  from  the  daily  toil  of  hopeless  men ; 
he  who  claims  to  belong  to  an  honorable  profession.,  fills  pockets  upon 
the  bargains  of  others'  forgeries,  iniquities  and  legal  niceties  ;  he  who 
calls  himself  the  noble  physician,  the  philanthropic  curer  of  the  body, 
is  only  interested  in  the  pecuniary  health  of  his  patients  ;  he  who 
administers  peace  to  the  soul,  when  preaching  on  the  pulpit,  is 
profane  when  cursing  the  enemies  of  his  creed  ;  he  who  talks  of 
liberty  and  independence  of  thought,  permits  the  government,  public 
opinion,  or  the  church  to  gag  the  ^'ree-born  soul  :  he  who  boldly 
challenges  the  world  to  refute  his  dogmas,  his  policy,  or  his  charit 
ableness,  himself  hesitates  to  broach  one  particular  question  in  private 
to  defend  one  particular  line  of  action,  or  to  allow  one.,  particular 
charity,  does  he  or  can  he  maintain  any  harmony  of  the  Internal  ? 
Why  then  expect  that  he  can  be  good,  holy,  and  pure,  full  of  the 
inspirations  of  divinity. 

So  long  as  might  is  mistaken  for  right  :  brute-force  is  made  to  do 
the  work  of  love  :  folly  is  substituted  for  the  hints  of  wisdom  :  hypo 
crisy  is  more  fashionable  than  innocent  virtue  ;  wealthy  vice  is  more 
courted  and  sustained  than  poor  virtue  ;  ho'vv  can  diseases,  crimes  and 
miseries  cease  to  exist,  or  peace,  progression  and  happiness  prevail  ? 
That  is  why  in  the  boundlessness  of  ignorance  man  assumes  the  possee- 
sion  o^  rare  intelligence.  The  slanting  rays  of  science,  a  sun  that  has 
not  yet  risen,  he  applauds  as  the  full  blaze  of  absolute  truth. 

These  maladies  of  inner  life  have  attracted  the  notice  of  thinking 
minds,  these  diseases  have  been  pointed  out  by  the  religiously  ear 
nest,  and,  as  is  the  custom  with  bodily  discords  and  corporeal  maladies, 
patent  medicines  have  been  invented  supposed  to  cure  these  evils, 
reform  society  and  purge  off  individuals.  A  sect  of  such  patent 
medicine- vendors  prescribes  "  prayer  "  as  the  best  emitic  purgative 
for  such  diseases,  and  advises  men  and  individuals  to  absorb  long 
doses  of  prayer  both  by  day  and  night.  Thus  malformations  are  being 
generated,  perpetuated  and  encouraged,  and  the  enerving,  swoon 
ing  effect  of  decaying  spiritual  energy  is  mistaken  for  the  chastening 
'effects  of  "  prayer."  First  of  all,  diseases,  discords  and  pains  are 
positive  evils.  With  the  progress  of  "  prayer,"  the  praying  soul 
learns  to  put  up  with  them,  he  then  regards  them  in  his  self-abnega 
tion  as  the  dust  of  travel,  he  ultimately  succumbs  to  them  and  swoons, 
and  takes  this  for  the  quiet  of  his  mind  which  he  calls  the  bliss,  the 
salvation,  the  presence  of  divinity  in  the  soul.  With  this  the  vital 
energy  begins  to  decay,  and  this  he  styles  the  death  of  the  brute  in 
him.  This  patent  medicine  is  but  the  fire  of  sentiments,  the  spark  of 


ungratified  desires,  the  ember  of  unprovisioned  needs,  the  hea&  of 
friction,  the  broth  and  boil  of  conflict.  The  quiet  of  the  mind,  the 
swoon  that  follows,  is  the  death  of  the  intellect  upon  whose  ashes 
simmer0 and  bubble  the  vapours  of  passions,  of  griefs,  of  pangs,  of 
ecstasies  and  other  abnormalities.  But  the  true  influx  of  divine  light 
comes  with  expansion  of  the  intellect,  the  elevation  of  feelings,  and 
the  increase  of  vitality.  Then  true  intuitions  dawn.  Let  us  not  mis 
take  the  external  signs  for  the  internal.  All  that  glitters  is  not  gold. 
In  fact,  the  external  is  delusive,  the  invisible  is  the  real,  And  the 
search  of  the  invisible  is  the  true  search  after  God,  its  discovery  and 
appropriation,  the  true  birth  of  the  spirit  and  the  immortality  of  the 
•  soul.  Decidedly,  then,  I  give  preference  to  the  invisible  over  the 

"  That  my  meaning  may  be  more  distinctly  comprehended,  let  it 
be  observed  that  the  body  is  a  form,  is  transient,  is  changeable,  the 
internal  is  not  changeable.  The  man  is  the  internal,  the  effect  or 
form  is  external.  The  mind  is  not  acted  upon,  but  acts  on  the  body. 
That  which  is  internal  is  the  reality  ;  that  which  it  acts  on  is  visible 
and  mortal.  And  all  appearances  foreign  are  composed  of  the  same 
mortal  ingredients,  mortal  in  the  restricted  sense  of  that  term. 

Now  it  being  clear  that  the  visible  is  not  the  real,  but  that  the 
invisible  is  the  eternal,  it  follows  that  we  must  make  the  best  of  truth 
to  consist  in  an  imperceptible  yet  unchangeable  and  eternal  principle. 
Admitting  this  much,  you  &re  able  to  advance  one  step  further  in  the 
cognizance  of  possible  probabilities.  Effects  are  witnessed,  they  are 
traced  to  an  immediate  cause,  which  is  demonstrated  by  strict  and 
severe  analysis.  This  cause  producing  this  effect  shows  you  that,  the 
effect  is  not  without  a  cause.  This  effect  produces  another  and  that 
also  another  ;  and  so  by  analogy  you  may  see  that  there  is  an  endless 
and  incalculable  amount  of  causes  and  effects.  And  tracing ,,causes  to 
effects  and  effects  to  causes,  is  the  correct  process  of  reasoning,  and 
this  you  do  in  your  imagination,  until  you  arrive  at  a  chaos  of  existen 
ce,  then  stop  breathless  and  return  to  ask :  What  was  the  cause  of  the 
first  cause  ?  You  would  not  have  gone  upon  these  trackless  peregri 
nation,  if  you  had  but  considered  all  forms  and  externals  as  not  causes 
but  effects.  Let  us  illustrate  this  by  an  example. 

Conceive  of  a  germ  being  hidden  beneath  the  surface  of  this  hard 
earth.  Imagine  that  you  forget  its  existence.  Let  a  few  years  of 
time  elapse,  and  cast  your  eyes  to  the  spot  where  it  was  concealed, 
and  you  see  a  lofty  and  beautiful  tree,  standing  in  all  the  majesty 
and  dignity  of  its  nature.  Would  it  not  be  as  absurd  and  impossible 
to  disbelieve  the  existence  as  it  would  be  to  doubt  Jor  one  moment,  tha 
germ  which  has  produced  this  existence  ?  The  tree  stands  and  ia 
visible  as  an  ultimate  man  stands  an(J  is  also  an  ultimate.  The 
germ  of  the  tree,  you  knew  of  its  existence,  but  the  germ  of  the 
world,  you  do  nofc  know  of  its  existence,  But  is  it  not  evident  that 

OP      INNER      LIFE.  193 

the  latter  is  at  least  possible  since  the  first  is  known  and  demonstrated? 
By  even  assenting  to  such  a  possibility,  we  become  prepared  t  to  take 
one  more  careful  step  in  this  investigation. 

Let  ua  illustrate  the  next  step  to  be  taken  by  another  example. 
Suppose  a  man  diseased  :  physicians  examine  his  case  guided  both 
by  physiological  manifestations  of  the  disease,  and  by  the  feelings 
which  the  disease  produces,  which  are  not  perceptible  to  them  by  any 
processes  of  external  observation.  The  patient  communicates  his 
own  feelings,  the  physicians  taking  them  for  granted,  and  from  these 
together  with  the  symptoms  manifest,  they  decide  upon  the  name 
of  the  disease.  Every  one  of  these  physicians,  from  the  evidence 
which  he  has  received  through  the  senses,  differs  from  the  others  as  to 
the  character  of  the  disease.  Have  ^you  not  here  proof  that  the 
external  and  manifest  is  the  effect  and  cannot  be  relied  on,  while  the 
cause  is  hidden  and  you  do  not  possess  any  means  by  which  to  investi 
gate  its  cause  ? 

Again,  a  man  has  a  carious  tooth  ;  he  tells  you  he  experiences 
a  severe  pain  ;  but  you  doubt  his  word  and  ask  for  proof.  He  points 
you  to  the  tooth  which  is  the  object  tangible.  But  does  the  evidence, 
of  which  your  senses  admit,  convince  you  that  he  has  a  pain  ? 

Another  example.  The  whole  world  of  mankind  can  give  in 
their  united  testimonies  that  they  positively  and  absolutely  see  the 
sun  rising  in  the  east  and  setting  in  the*  west.  Is  there  not  in 
ternal  evidence  that  the  external  and  manifest  of  this  is  positively 
unreal  ?  Inward  searching  after  truth  has  established  the  causo  of 
this  phenomenon  and  proved  that  the  sun  does  not  move.  But  it  is 
the  visible  and  the  external  that  you  are  deceive^  by  and  not  the  in 
visible  which  is  the  reality. 

Hence,  the  true  student  of  Nature  contemplates  the  invisible  in 
the  visible,  silently  contemplates  the  cause  at  the  back  of  nature  which 
produced  this  theatre  of  human  existence,  and,  with  highest  re 
verence  for  truths  pertaining  there  unto,  associates  with  the  first 
Principle  of  life  and  activity.  His  aspirations  are  purely  of  an  in 
tellectual  or  moral  character.  The  universe  is  fully  of  the  Lord, 
and  there  is  'nothing  of  the  universe  that  is  not  of  the  Lord  : 

To  his  purified  understanding,  freed  from  passion  and  dislike, 
devotion  and  meditation,  confidence  and  dispassion  open  the  way 
where  the  beams  of  wisdom  softly  enter  and  shed  a  mellow,  agree 
able  lustre  on  his  feelings  and  intellect.  He  has  discovered  the 
true  saviour,  the  invisible  master,  in  whom  the  universe  has  its 
being.  To  him  the  interior  is  the  real.  His  expanded  intellect 
passes  through  the  dross  to  that  which  is  essential,  to  the  spirit* 
within  the  body,  to  the  life  within  the  law,  to  the  science  within  the 

194  THR      REALITIES       OF       INNER       LIFE. 

The  conclusion  from  the  above  is  that  it  is  the  expanded  in- 
tellect,and  not  prayer,  that  can  lift  the  soul  to  the  realisation  of  the 
divine  reality;  that  the  most  earnest  prayer  we  can  ever  utter,  is 
the  righteous  exertion  .to  merit  the  inspirations  that  flow  into  £he 
intellect  from  the  Fountain-head  of  all  Wisdom. 

It  has  been  my  object  in  frhe  present  imperfect  hasty  sketch 
of  my  ddeas  presented  to  you  to  establish  and  make  plain  three 
conclusions  : 

1. — That  'there  is  a  true  inner  life,  and  that  man  subjected  to 
the  interference  of  the  commotions  of  the  world  -cannot  fully  perceive 
a?nd -comprehend  the  Universal  Truth. 

'3.— That  from  inability  to  perceive  this  Universal  Truth  by 
the  expanded  intellect  or  purified  reason  have  sprung  up  the 
patent  theological  .remedies  of  prayer-doses  and  tearful  brain- 

3. — That  the  Original  Organiser  of  the  Universe  is  the  In 
visible,  the  Potent,  the  Universal,  and  the  All-governing  reality  of 
£hs  inner  world. 




Under  this  head,  we  propose  to   deal   with     the  question    "  how 
far  the  pursuit  of  wealth  is  a  healthy  pursuit/' 
Says  Manu,  II.  13  :— 

It  is  only  those  who  stand  aloof  from  the  pursuit  both  of  wealth 
and  of  carnal  pleasures  that  can  ever  obtain  a  knowledge  of  true 
religion.  It  is  the  duty  of  every  one  who  aspires  after  this  object, 
to  determine  what  true  religion  is  by  the  help  of  the  Vedas,  for,  a 
clear  and  perfect  ascertainment;  of  true  religion  is  not  attained  al 
together  without  the  help  of  the  Vedas. 

In  the  verse  quoted  above,  Manu  maintains  three  propositions  ; 
first,  that  the  pursuit,  of  artha  (wealth),  is  opposed  to  the  acquisition 
of  the  knowledge  of  true  religion;  secondly,  that  the  pursuit  of 
kdma  (carnal  pleasures)  is  opposed  to  the  acquisition,  of  the  same  ; 
and,  lastly,  that  the  study  of  the  Vedas  is  necessary  for  those  who 
would'  make  it  their  business  to  investigate  true  religion. 

The  first  and  second  propositions  of  Manu  -may  be  regarded  as 
one  ;  for  the  pursuit  of  carnal  pleasures  is,  in  the  majority  of  cases, 
BO  interwoven  with  the  pursuit  of  wealth,  that  it  is  generally  im 
possible  to  command  the  gratification  of  the  former  without  a  previous 
inordinate  accumulation  of  the  latter.  We  take,  therefore,  the 
first  half  of  the  verse  of  Manu  to  mean  that  an  inordinate  pursuit 
of  wealth  is  inconsistent  with  the  acquisition  of  true  hnowledge  of 
religion,  and  this  will  be  the  subject  of  the  present  paper.  The 
second  half  'of  Manu's  verse,  we  shall  deal  with  some  other  time. 

Had  Manu  lived  in  the  present  nineteenth  century  —  the  cry 
of  which  from  all  quarters  is,  '  the  struggle  for  existence/  or  '  the 
survival  of  the  fittest/  the  demand  of  which  is  ever  something 
practical,  either  in  the  shape  of  money,  or  of  goods,  or  of  materials, 
—  it  would  have  been  very  bold  of  him  to  have  asserted  the  pro- 
postion  .conveyed  in  the  first  line  of  his  verse  quoted  above  ;  for, 
the  actual  meaning  of  it  wijl  be  that  men  of  the  present  generation, 
immersed  as  they  are  in  practical  pursuit  of  wealth  are  not  qualified 
for  an  understanding  of  the  truths  of  pure  religion.  This  assertion 
of  Manu,  no  doubt,  seeds  to  be  a  very  sweeping  and  insulting  one, 

198  P  E  0  tl  N  I  O  M  A  N  I  A. 

It  is,  nevertheless,  nothing  but  true.  For,  the  light  of  religion  only 
dawns  or  the  soil  of  abstraction,  meditation,  mental  quiet,  and 
contemplation.  And  the  headlong  pursuit  of  wealth,  in  which  the 
present  practical  world  is  wholly  absorbed,  is  so  very  prejudicial  to 
the  growth  of  these  mental  conditions,  that,  in  the  interests  of  truth, 
religion  and  higher  human  nature,  it  has  become  needful  for  the  busy, 
practical  world  to  reconsider  its  position,  and  at  least,  to  bestow  a 
thought  before  plunging  into  the  active  labor  entailed  by  the  pre 
dominant  principles  of  Jealousy,  Competition  and  Ambition.  It  is 
true  that,  under  the  stimulation  of  these  powerful  incentives  for 
material  progress,  man  has  become  neglectful  of  his  higher  duties  to 
Truth,  and  so  very  true  is  it  that  even  eminent  men  of  science  have 
be^un  to  feel  the  dangerous  and  disgraceful  efforts  of  this  tendency. 
Remarks  Dr.  White,  President' of  Cornell  University,: — 

"  We  are  greatly  stirred,  at  times,  as  this  fraud  or  that  scoundrel  is  dragged  to 
light,  and  there  rise  cries  and  moans  over  the  corruption  of  the  times  ;  but  my  i'rienda, 
these  frauds  and  these  scoundrels  are  not  the  corruptions  of  the  times.  They  are  the 
mere  pustules  which  the  body  politic  throws  to  the  surface.  Thank  God,  that  there  ia 
vitality  enough  left  to  throw  them  to  the  surface.  The  disease  is  below  all,  infinitely 
more  wide-spread. 

"  What  is  that  disease  ?  I  believe  that  it  is  first  of  all  indifference — indifference  to 
truth  as  truth  ;  next,  scepticism,  by  which  I  do  not  mean  inability  to  believe  this  or  that 
dogma,  but  the  scepticism  which  refuses  to  believe  that  there  is  any  power  in  the  uni 
verse  strong  enough,  large  enough,  good  enough,  to  make  the  thorough  search  for  truth, 
safe  in  every  line  of  investigation,;  thirdly,  infidelity,  by  which  I  do  not  mean  want  of 
fidelity  to  this  or  that  dominant  creed,  but  want  of  fidelity  to  that  which  underlies  all 
creeds,  the  idea  thau  the  true  and  the  good  are  one  ;  and,  finally,  materialism,  by  which 
I  do  not  mean  this  or  that  scientific  theory  of  the  universe,  but  that  devotion  to  the 
mere  husks  and  rinds  of  good,  that  struggle  for  place  and  pelf,  that  faith  in  mere'.naterial 
comfort  and  wealth  which  eats  out  of  human  hearts  all  patriotism  and  which  is  the  very 
opposite  of  the  spirit  that  gives  energy  to  scientific  achievement. "  * 

Here  is  an  eminent  man  of  science  complaining  that  the  society  is 
at  present  pested  with  four  fatal  diseases,  indifference,  scepticism, 
infidelity  and,  finally,  materialism.  And  the  cause  of  all  this  is 
evidently  the  modish  worship  ofmightly  matter  and  money. 

In  order  that  this  truth  may  be  more  easily  brought  home  to  the 
earnest  reader,  let  us  cast  a  look  upon  the  large  number  of  lawyers, 
physicians,  capitalists,  tradesmen,  engineers,  contractors,  clergymen, 
educationists,  clerks,  and  other  life-draggers  in  the  innumerable  fashion 
able  professions  of  the  day,  that  swarm  in  our  own  country,  and  whose 
main  object,  in  choosing  the  very  professions  they  hold,  is  the  hoard 
ing  of  the  shining  gold,  so  alluring  to  the  jaundiced  eye  of  the 
competition-sick  practical  man.  It  is  in  vain  that  we  seek  for  a  ration 
al  explanation  of  the  existence  of  these  harassing  professions  on  the 
grounds  of  benevolence  or  of  rational  usefulness.  But  for  the  filthy 
lucre  they  bring,  these  professions  would  never  have  sprang  into 
existence.  Bees  do  nob  hum  and  buzz  so  thickly  on  a  lump  of  sugar, 

*  President  White's  Address,  appendix  to  Lectures  on  '  Light'  by  J.  Tyndal,  Third 
edition,  1882,  pp,  238-239, 


as  do  lawyers  and  traders,  physicians  and  contractors  at  the  shrine  of 
money.  It  is  literally  true  that  money  is  the  God  that  is  ruwe  wor 
shipped  than  the  God  of  Nature. 

Nor  is  that  alone,  money  being  the  pursuit  of  almost  all.  Nay,  it 
in  the  topic  of  topics.  There  is  the  self-styled  reformer  bewailing  over 
the  extreme  poverty  of  his  country,  over  the  consequent  misery,  sin 
and  crime  that  prevail.  He  is  awfully  pained  to  see  that  arts  do  not 
flourish  in  his  country.  By  long  and  tiresome  efforts,  he  succeeled  in 
establishing  an  institution  that  might  have  richly  improved  the  resour 
ces  of  the  material  prosperity  of  his  country,  but  his  disappointment 
is  past  all  description  at  the  fact  that  the  institution  is  soon  doomed 
to  starvation.  Thus  meditates  the  reformer  in  his  solitary  moods  : — 
our  country  is  poor,  because  we  have  no  wealth  ;  sin  and  misery  prevail, 
because  we  have  no  wealth  ;  arts  cannot  flourish,  because  we  have  no 
wealth  ;  institutions  cannot  live  long  and  succeed,  because  we  have  no 
wealth.  From  all  sides  is  the  ambitious  reformer  repelled  to>Vards  the 
problem  of  wealth.  He  employs  his  gigantic  material  intellect  in 
the  solution  of  this  problem.  Individual  enterprises  alone  can  render 
his  country  wealthy;  but  how  can  individual  enterprises  be  undertaken 
without  money  ?  Perhaps,  there  is  another  solution.  He  would 
introduce  machinery  into  his  country,  and  that  would  yield  rich 
harvest  of  wealth  and  opulence.  But  machinery  is  costly,  and  a  poor 
country  cannot  buy  it.  Or,  perchance,  our  reformer  is  a  protectionist. 
He  would  not  import  machinery  or  foreign  improved  modes  of  carrying 
on  industry,  but  would  encourage  and  foster  native  manufactures. 
Unfortunately  for  our  reformer,  unwise  human  nature  is  made  after 
cheapness,  and  competition  fells,  with  its  direful  a$e,  the  structure  of 
protection  so  carefully  raised  by  the  reformer. 

There  is  the  materialistic  philosopher.  What  a  charming  thing  is 
civilisation  !  In  accordance  with  his  superficial  modes  of  philosophiz 
ing,  he  analyzes  civilization  into  its  elements,  and  discovers  the  whole 
fabric  of  civilization  to  rest  upon  wealth.  Steamers  and  locomotive 
engines,  telegraphs  and  post  office  arrangements,  printing  presses  and 
labor-economizing  machines  would  vanish  into  mere  coal,  iron  and 
sand — fruitless  articles — without  the  mighty,  labor- sustaining  hand  of 

Nor  is  this  the  case  with  the  reformer  and  the  philosopher  alone. 
The  politician,  the  statesman,  the  newspaper-writer,  the  public  lecturer, 
each  in  his  turn,  is  hurled  back  upon  the  problem  of  wealth.  And 
thus  the  world,  in  its  talks  and  conversations,  lectures  and  public 
meetings,  private  meditations  and  silent  reflections,  echoes  and  re 
echoes  "  MONEY,"  till  the  whole  fabric  of  Society  begins  to  reverbe 
rate,  and  the  atmosphere  is  filled  with  phantoms  of  a  like  nature. 

Reader,  carefully  observe  the  ephemeral  bustle  and  transient 
activity  of  the  so-called  civilized  society.  Do  you  not  note  that  at 


least  seventy-five  per  cent,  of  the  phenomena  that  find  their  way  to 
publicity  in  the  civilized  world,  owe  their  origin  to  the  love  of  power, 
love  of  enjoyment  (i.  e.  of  pleasures  of  the  senses),  love  of  honor,  love 
of  superiority,  love  of  fame,  and  love  of  display  ?  Why  is  it  that  the 
master  extracts  obedience  from  his  servants  ?  Why  is  it  that  men 
always  desire  to  move  in  circles  of  society  higher  than  their  own  «? 
Why  is  it  that  so  many  reises  and  rajahs  would  willingly  incur  or  main 
tain  useless  regal  expenditure,  but  to  win  mere  empty  titles  of 
Rajah  or  Rai  Bahadur,  or  Sardar  Bahadur?  Impelled  by  imperious 
love  of  power  or  love  of  superiority,  love  of  honor  or  love  of  fame, 
love  of  display  or  love  of  enjoyment  !  And  where  is  the  mighty 
engine  to  manufacture  means  for  the  gratification  of  these  basely, 
inordinate,  selfish  loves  ?  It  is  MONEY. 

Again,  go  into  the  lower  strata  of  society,  (by  lower,  I  mean  lower 
morally,  though  not  necessarily  socially,)  and  see  wKat  part  the 
feelings  of  jealousy,  anger,  envy,  rivalry  and  competition  play  in  that 
blind  rush  of  living  forces,  called  civilized  life.  The  constantly 
increasing  litigation,  the  strifes  and  feuds  of  nobility,  the  corruptions 
of  courts  and  police,  the  life-sucking  exhaustion  of  competitive 
candidates — all  bear  testimony  that  the  society  is  at  present  deeply 
agitated  by  wretched  feeling  of  jealousy,  envy,  rivalry  and  competi 
tion,  so  unbecoming  of  man.  Where  would  you  find  the  man,  who, 
although  benevolence  of  nature,  would  restrict  the  operation  of 
vengeance  or  .anger  ?  In  the  civilised  society,  hardly  any  !  Perhaps, 
the  poverty-stricken,  misery-laden  wretch,  who  has  not  the  means  to 
practice  the  dictates  of  his  rebellious  nature,  but  has  only  the  -misfor 
tune  to  be  subject  jto  disappointment  and  melancholy,  may  be  found, 
here  or  there,  dragging  his  life  with  impatience  and  restless  nightmare. 
0,  if  he  had  the  power  to  wreak  his  vengeance  upon  oppressing  civiliz 
ed  society  !  Does  not  all  this,  again,appeal  to  the  potency  of  mighty 

Imitation  is  the  grand  principle  upon  which  society  is  at  present 
constructed.  Imitation  is  the  fulcrum  upon  which  hinges  the  mighty 
lever  of  society.  Not  to  speak  of  custom,  fashion,  dint  of  beaten 
groove,  fear  of  idiosyncrasy,  all  of  which  spring  in  one  way  ©r  other 
from  the  parental  principles,  imitation, — even  in  matters  of  religious 
belief,  or  in  the  department  of  opinions,  ninety  per  cent,  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  world  are  swayed  by  the  influence  of  the  same 
all-pervading  principle,  Imitation.  Speaking  of  the  same  ape-like 
faculty  of  Imitation,  J.  S.  Mill  says  : — 

'  In  our  times  from  the  highest  class  of  society  dovrn  to  the 
1  lowest,  every  one  lives  as  under  the  eye  of  a  hostile  and 
'  dreaded  cencorship.  Not  only  in  what  concerns  others,  but  in 
'  what  concerns  only  themselves,  the  individual  or  the  family 
'  do  not  ask  themselves — What  do  I  prefer  ?  or,  what  would  suit 
my  character  or  disposition  ?  or  what  would  allow  the  best  and 

PJECUNIOlfcANIl.  201 

'  highest  in  me  to  have  fair  play,  and  enable  it  to  grow  and 
'  thrive  ?  They  ask  themselves,  what  is  suitable  to  my  position  ? 
'  What  is  usually  done  by  persons  of  my  station  and  pecuniary 
1  (  circumstances  ?  Or  (worse  still)  what  is  usually  done  by  persons 
'  of  a  station  and  circumstances  superior  to  mine  ?  I  do  not 
'  mean  that  they  choose  what  is  customary  in  preference  to 
'  what  suits  their  inclination.  It  does  not  occur  to  them  to  have 
€  any  inclination,  except  for  what  is  customary.  Thus,  the  mind 
'  itself  is  bowad  to  the  yoke ;  even  in  what  people  do  for 
'  pleasure,  conformity  is  the  first  thing  thought  of ;  they  live  in 
'  crowds,  they  exercise  choice  only  among  things  commonly 
f  done :  peculiarity  of  taste,  eccentricity  of  conduct,  are  shunned 
'  equally  with  crimes ;  untill  by  dint  of  not  following  their  own 
'  nature,  they  have  no  nature  to  follow ;  their  human 
'  capacities  are  withered  and  starved ;  they  become  incapable  of 
'  any  strong  wishes  or  native  pleasures,  and  are  generally 
'  without  either  opinions  or  feelings  of  home-growth,  or ,  properly 
'  their  own.  Now  is  this,  or  is  it  not,  the  desirable  condition  of 
*  human  nature  ? 

Such,  then,  is  the  power  of  imitation.  Who  can  resist  its  imper 
ative  influence  ?  Can  one  see  the  busy,  practical  world, — lawyers, 
physicians,  engineers,  contractors  and  all— running  mad  after  the 
pursuit  of  MONEY;  can  one  hear  philosophers,  politicians  and 
patroits,  all  with  one  cry  extolling  the  efficacy  of  glittering  GOLD  ; 
can  one  see  the  enthusiastic  admirer  of  civilisation -confessing  the 
omnipotence  of  the  PECUNIARY  deity ;  can  one  observe  the 
aristocratic  hunters  after  ease,  pleasure  and  comfort ;  the 
ambitious  suitors  of  power,  distinction  or  title,  offering  libations 
at  the  shrine  of  MAMMON  ;  or,can  one  mark  anger,  revenge,  envy, 
rivalry  and  jealousy,  all  suplicating  PLUTUS,  to  bestow  them  means 
of  their  gratification ;  can  one  see  all  this,  and  yet  not  swear  fealty  to 
the  soverign  power,  GOLD  ? 

By  dint  of  imitation  or  example,  man  is  pushed  from  right  to  left, 
to  seek  MONEY.  Society  is  a  whirlpool,  wherein  are  caught  all 
swimmers  on  the  current  of  life,  then  tossed  with  violence  hither  and 
thither,  now  hurled  this  way,  and  then  the  other — till  man  is  no 
better  than  a  'money-making  machine?  Is  not  this  state  of  society 
deplorable  ? 

See  what  a  wreck  of  nobler  feelings  this  love  of  money  makes. 
Duty  clashes  with  interest.  Evils  are  shielded  under  the  suppressing 
power  of  Mammon.  The  dictates  of  higher  human  nature  are  cruelly 
eet  aside  and  trampled  under  foot  ?  Physicians,  instead  of  dissemi 
nating  the  knowledge  of  p'hysiology  and  making  the  laws  of  health 
public,  disguise  even  simple  disease  and  medicines  under  the  garb  of 
foreign  names,  and  the  modes  of  their  preparation  under  the  mysterious 
symbolism  of  prescriptions.  The  numerous  host  of  physicians,  now 


existing  in  the  country,  instead  of  wisely  administering  to  th® 
destruction  of  disease  and  blooming  of  cheerful  health,  earnestly 
pray,  every  day,  that  men  endowed  with  purse  and  power  to  pay 
should  fall  sick  oftener,  and  suffer  more  frequently.  Lawyars, 
instead  of  breeding  feelings  of  peaceful  friendship  and  encouraging 
reconciliation,  encourage  feud  and  strife,  and  fan  the  flames  of 
haughty  pride  or  revengeful  animosity.  Tradesmen,  instead  of 
administering  to  the  wants  and  needs  of  the  people,  and  regulating 
with  justice  the  law  of  demand  aud  supply,  get  all  they  can,  and  give 
as  little,  keep  their  trade  recipes  secret  or  patented,  and  delude  the 
ignorant  consumers  with  adulterated  materials.  Even  the  preacher 
or  the  clergyman,  whose  business  it  should  be  to  bestow  consolation 
of  simple  truth  and  morality,  and  to  shed  the  sacred  blessings  of 
religious  piety  and  spiritual  l^ght,  revels  in  the  grand  money-making 
scheme  of  winding  up  his  lengthy,  glooming,  effected,  hipocrysy- 
infected  sermons  with  a  mysterious  nonsense,  which  he  himself  does 
not  and  cannot  understand. 

It  is  not  thus  alone  that  urged  by  the  society-born  instinct  of 
hoarding  money,  the  physician  and  the  clergyman,  all  alike,  are  led 
to  the  perversion  of  their  duty  and  avocation.  More  serious  still  are 
other  evils  into  which  the  society  is  plunged,  but  for  the  possession  of 
wealth.  There  is  the  rich  wine-dealer,  or  the  opulent  tobacco  or 
opium-seller,  suffered  to  live  and  flourish  by  his  trade  in  society,  and  no 
one  ever  casts  a  look  of  disgust  or  disapproval  at  him,  simply  because 
he  is  rich.  There  are  thousands  of  poor  innocent  people  charged  with 
crimes  they  never  committed,  and  are  punished  ;  but  the  '  wealthy 
culprits/  armed  with  bribe  or  corruption,  influence  or  intercession, 
escape  with  impunity.  Inspite  of  the  inspiration  of  the  poet  and  the 
philosopher  to  the  effect  that  all  mankind  are  kin,  in  spite  of  the  weak 
whisperings  of  pure  religion  that  all  are  children  of  one,  common 
father,  is  the  wealthy  class  fostering  inequality  by  its  constant 
aggressions,  oppressions,  iniquities  and  tyrannies  inflicted  upon  the 
weak  and  the  poor.  Under  the  strong  infatuation  of  money,  even 
the  graduating  student  forsakes  his  tastes  and  inclinations,  if  he 
has  any,  and  although  fully  confident  of  his  intrinsic  unfitness  for  the 
profession  he  chooses,  he  rushes  into  medicine,  law,  engineering  and 
service,  and  floods  the  world  with  the  consequences  of  his  iniquitous 
calling.  And  the  newspaper  writer,  who  is  never  ashamed  of  calling 
himself  the  leader  of  public  opinion,  without  a  pang,  delivers  up  his 
conscience,  and  feeds  the  vanity  of  the  party  that  supports  him. 
Head  the  degenerate  newspaper  literature — for  newspaper  literature 
is  seldom  reforming,  regenerating  or  elevating — and  you  will  see, 
how  little  is  devoted  to  sound  advice,  true  leadership,  or  to  the  cause 
of  justice  and  trsth,  and  how  much  to  party-feeling,  sentiment alism, 
race-prejudice,  selfish  bias,  and  wilful  misrepresentation.  All 
^benevolence  and  disinterestedness  is  affected  for  mere  show  and 
ceremonialism,  and  in  truth  and  in  heart,  exchanged  for  base 
selfishness  and  combatant  sectarianism.  Is  this  humanity  ? 


The  conclusion  that  irresistibly  flows  from  the  above  considera 
tions  is,  that  the  'love  of  money'  is  no\v-a-days  a  disease,  a  form  of  in 
sanity.  Modern  science  of  pathology  would  be  imperfect  and  in- 
coirtplete  without  a  record  of  this  discovery  of  the  widest-prevalent 
disease,  that  at  present  infects  society  and  saps  the  very  foundation 
of  morality  and  religious  feeling. 

This  disease  is  to  be  styled  "  PECUNIOMANIA,"  for,  like  all 
other  forms  of  insanity,  it  produces  destruction  of  mental  equilibrium 
and  generates  incoherency  of  thought :  it  communicates  an  irrevocable 
bias  in  one  direction,  withdrawing  the  human  mind  from  all  other 
channels  of  activity,  and  excercise;  and,  lastly,  it  creates  an  over-3xcit- 
ed  condition  of  the  whole  system,  incompatible  with  moderation,  or 
normal  exercise  of  functions.  Like  mar^y  contagious  diseases,  cholera 
and  the  like,  it  spreads  its  germs  of  destruction  most  profusely,  and 
most  widely,,  and  is  easily  caught  by  r.he  susceptible  organisation  of 
man.  And  like  hereditary  diseases,  this  is  also  easily  transmitted 
from  father  to  son,  from  brother  to  brother,  and  f?om  companion  to 
friend.  Hence  : — 

Pecuniomania  is  a  disease  of  the  type  of  Insanity,  very  contagious, 
transmissible  by  hereditatioiij  incurable  or  hardly  curable,  of  the  most 
virulent  type. 

In  order  that  the  appreciating  reader ^may  have  no  difficulty  in 
diagnosing  the  disease,  we  give  below  its  most  remarkable  symptoms, 
Its  symptoms  are  : — insatiable  thirst,  or  ambition ;  always  hungry 
stomachy  a  phlegmatic  (filled  with  indifference)  and  splenetic  (peevish) 
temperament ;  extreme  sensitiveness  and  irritability  ;  strong  heart 
burn  of  animal  and  inhuman  passions;  restlessness,  anxiety  and 
sleeplessness ;  fits  of  pride,  power  and  f everishness  ;  paralysis  of  moral 
and  spiritual  faculties,  insensibility  to  impressions  ultra-sensual  or  not 
physical;  extreme  proneness  to  over-feeding,  over-clothing,  indolence, 
luxury  and  comfort;  an  assumed  air  of  superficial  independence; 
personal  weakness  and  infirmity. 

And  now,  we  will  ask  the  anxious  reader,  whether,  in  the  namo 
of  truth,  justice  and  goodness,  a  disease  that  renders  man  insane  ;  a 
disease  that  sneers  at  all  metaphysics,  looks  down  upon  all  thoughtful 
reflection  or  philosophy,  and  discards  all  theology  as  speculative,  un 
practical  and  absurd ;  a  disease  that  stigmatizes  all  efforts  to  ennoble- 
and  elevate  mankind  morally,  rationally  and  spiritually,  as  theoretical ; 
a  disease  that  pronounces  self-knowledge  as  impossible ;  a  disease  that 
brings  morality  down  to  the  level  of  expediency ;  a  disease  that,, 
instead  of'  the  worship  of  God  of  Nature,  sets  up  a  worst  and  most 
wretched  form  of  idolatry,  the  worship  of  copper,  silver  and  gold ;  a 
disease  that  denies  to  man  the  possession  of  any  nature  other  than  the  ' 
one  capable  of  eating,  drinking  and  merry-making  :  we  again  ask, 
whether  such  a  disease  should  not  be  at  once  uprooted,  destroyed,  ami 


burnt  never  to  grow  again  ?    For,  so  long  as  this  disease   exists,  there 
shall  be  no  morality,  no  religion,  no  truth,  no  philosophy. 

The  law  of  the  influx  of  religious  ideas  is  sound  mind,  disinterest 
ed  truthful  temperament,  composed  and  tranquil  attitude,  powerful 
persevering  intellect  and  concentrated  meditation.  And  it  is  the 
foundation  of  these  very  conditions  that  the  headlong  pursuit  of 
money  undermines.  The  anxiety  and  pride,  which  the  possession  of 
money  invariably  brings,  rob  the  mind  of  its  composure ;  and  the 
complicated  relations  and  interests  which  the  possession  of  power 
(wealth  is  power)  always  engenders,  even  take  away  the  iota  of 
disinterestedness  or  truthfulness  that  may  have  been  left;  till,  restless, 
through  anxiety,  turbulent  through  pride,  and  biased  through  interest 
man  loses  both  the  power  of  concentration  and  of  clear  thought. 

How  elevating  and  dignifying  is  independence,  true  real 
independence,  where  man  is  no  more  a  slave  of  his  surroundings  and 
circumstances,  but  a  master.  And  yet,  there  is  nothiug  that  does, 
more  violence  to  the  growth  and  existence  of  this  blissful  condition  in 
man  than  the  possession  of  wealth.  A  man  proud  of  wealth  is 
invariably  a  slave  of  his  wealth.  A  stout  healthy  man  is  always  in 
enjoyment  ef  his  health.  He  feels  self-conscious  of  his  power,  and  is 
legitimately  proud  of  the  independence  he  feels  in  the  exercise  of 
his  power.  He  exerts  his  locomotive  apparatus,  whenever  he  desires 
change  of  place  or  scenery ;  he  takes  to  physical  exercise  whenever 
he  desires  restoration  of  strength  and  vigour ;  he  goes  on  a  walk  to 
breathe  the  free  air  of  heaven  or  to  enjoy  the  scenery  of  nature-, 
whenever  he  desires  refreshment ;  he  entertains  elevated  thoughts  and 
plunges  into  meditations,  whenever  he  desires  to  feel  as  »  true  man, 
a,  human  spirit;  and  he  rouses  the  dormant  conservative  forces  of  his 
self-healing  nature,  whenever  diseases  or  extremes  of  heat  ind  cold 
attack  him.  In  short,  he  is  amply  provided,  in  himself,  with  what 
soever  he  needs.  But  the  rich  man  is  altogether  dependent  on  the 
tinsel  of  matter ;  conveyance  by  carraiges,  instead  of  locomotion  by 
muscular  action ;  plethoric  fulness,  borrowed  from  the  activity  of 
drugs,  or  the  ministrations  of  attending  physicians,  instead  of  inborn 
healthy  glow ;  rich  viands  but  impaired  digestion  which  strongly  needs 
the  stimulation  of  the  liquor  to  perform  its  functions,  instead  of 
simple  diet  and  healthy  stomach ;  dead  photographs,  and  mute 
portraits  hanging  by  the  walls  of  his  rooms,  instead  of  the  scenery  of 
nature ;  entire  dependence  upon  the  cooling  power  of  pankhas,  and 
the  warming  properties  of  fire,  refreshing  power  of  beverages,,  and 
stirring  influence  of  wines,  instead  of  natural  endurance.  Is.  this  tha 
independence  which  a  human  being  should  feel  ? 

It  is  not  to  this  extent  alone  that  Uie  effects  of  this  tendency 
"have  extended.  Modern  civilisation, — a  phenomenon,  mainly  due  to 
the  chameleon-like  properties  of  wealth — is  brimful  of  the  illustrious 
consequences  of  this  tendency.  The  ancient  world  produced  bar- 


barians  and  savages;  because,  they  were  gigantic  specimens  of 
human  nature,  living  almost  naked  in  caves  or  mere  huts  built  just 
for  a  temporary  protection  from  wind  and  rain ;  because,  their  wants 
being  few,  their  arts  were  simple  and  not  numerous;  because, 
possessed  of  powerful  memories,  their  knowledge  was  all  they  learned 
by  rote,  and  their  reference  books  or  library,  the  infallible  record  on 
the  tablet  of  their  memory  ;  because,  possessed  of  a  clear  head,  their 
illustrations  were  so  simple  and  common  that  their  reasoning  must 
appear  as  shallow :  because,  being  penetrative,  they  reasoned  by 
analogy,  and  therefore  they  knew  observation  only.  In  short,  they 
were  men  quite  different  from  what  the  modern  world  produces.  The 
modern  world  produces  civilized  men  who  are  'starved  specimens  of 
human  nature* ;  their  architecture  is  grand  and  more  permanent;  their 
arts  are  complex  and  more  numerous  ;  their  memories  are  weak  and 
defective,  and  more  faithless  ;  their  libraries  are  unportable  and  more 
cumbersome ;  their  illustrations  are  heavy  and  unique  because  they 
have  been  bedaubed  as  scientific  by  a  process  of  baptism  in  unintelli 
gible,  classical  and  technical  phraseology.  Their  reasoning'  is  induc 
tive  ;  their  test  is  experiment ;  and  their  logic  is  the  theory  of  pro 
babilities.  Such,  then,  is  the  widespread  influence  of  wealth  on 
civilisation,  both  moral  and  intellectual. 

If,  then,  the  possession  of  wealth  be  fraught  with  so  many  evil 
tendencies  and  dangerous  consequences,  let  it  not  be  imagined  that 
what  is  commonly  regarded  as  its  reverse ,  i.  e.  poverty,  is  less  so. 
For,  to  quote  a  Sanskrit  line  : — 

:  fa* 

'  There  is  no  sin  or  crime  that  is  unknown  to  poverty/  By 
poverty  we  do  not  mean  the  absence  of  that  hard  heavy  metal,  other 
wise  known  as  gold,  (for  how  can  dead  substances  like  copper,  silver 
and  gold,  affect  the  physical,  mental  and  moral  prosperity  of  the 
living  soul),  but  we  mean  the  poverty  of  mind.  Where  the 
absence  of  metal  is  the  only  thing  to  be  complained  of,  industry  of 
muscle  and  thoughtful  ingeniousness  of  the  brain  can,  with  much 
greater  advantage,  be  substituted  for  it.  But  how  and  whence  is  to 
be  suppliedi  that  deficiency  in  the  true  substance  of  the  mind,  in  the 
mental  and  moral  stock,  which  alone  is  the  foundation  of  all  industry, 
genius,  honesty  and  enjoyment  alike  ?  The  error  of  the  world  consists 
in  thinking  the  gross  material  ojocts  of  the  world  to  be  of  any  value, 
in  regarding  the  abundance  of  such  meterials  as  an  emblem  of  wealth. 
True  wealth  is  the  riches  of  the  soul,  repletion  of  the  mind  with  its 
fourfold  endowments — the  endowment  of  health,  of  will  and  muscular 
power,  the  endowment  of  intellectual  faculties,  and  the  endowment  of 
moral  and  emotional  stock.  Let  every  one,  who  is  possessed  of  a  due 
share  of  these  mental  gifts, '  discard,  with  contempt,  the  little  hard 
indigestible  shining  bits  of  metal,  known  as  coinage,  for,  there  is  ho 
liberty,  genuine  independence  and  dignity  outside  the  exercise  of  these 


normal  faculties  of  the  mind.  Mind  is  everywhere  the  regnant  princi 
ple.  The  furious  lion,  the  gigantic  elephant,  the  ferocious  tiger,  the 
howling  wolf,  the  blood-thirsty  hound,  have  been  cowed  down  by  the 
subdi^ing  power  of  the  superior  mind  of  man.  The  wild  beasts  of  the 
forests  have  been  tamed  and  rendered  docile.  The  solid  rocks  have 
been  compelled  to  part  with  their  quarry,  the  depths  of  the  earth 
have  been  forced  to  yield  up  their  locked-in  treasures,  the  mighty* 
rivers  have  been  made  to  change  their  course,  the  cataracts  to  give 
up  their  impetuous  force  to  the  whirling  machinery,  the  water  and 
fire  have  been  driven  to  drag  thousands  of  tons  of  loads  every 
moment,  at  the  tremendous  rate  of  40  or  50  miles  an  hour,  and  even 
the  electricity  of  the  heavens  has  been  imprisoned  by  pointed  conduc 
tors  ;  all  this,  under  the  guidance  and  control  of  the  superior  mind. 
Nor  has  the  material  universe,  or  the  animal  kingdom  alone,  been 
thus  vanquished  by  the  power  of  the  mind.  Even  arbitrary  royalty, 
powerful  oligarchy,  the  aristocracy  of  nobility  and  the  pride  of 
heraldry  have  been  thrown  down  and  surrendered  by  the  democracy 
of  reason,  '  the  monarchy  of  mind/  '  the  republic  of  intellect/  And 
further  the  pride  of  aged  pedantry,  hoary  with  age,  has  cast  off  its 
self-assumed  importance,  and  learnt  lessons  at  the  feet  of  superior, 
though  young,  minds.  Even  the  industrious  dexterity  and  skilful 
ingenuity  have  bowed  under  the  swaying  omnipotence  of  new  ideas. 
It  should,  then,  be  clearly  borne  in  mind  that  the  richness  of 
mind,  is  the  true  richness.  It  is  the  undecayable  wealth  that  deseves 
the  greatest  respect  and  highest  reverence.  Physical,  material  wealth, 
should  be  the  lowest  thing  in  our  estimation.  Says  Manu  :  — 

"  Wealth,  nobility  of  blood,  age,  professional  skill  or  honest  in 
dustry  and  knowledge  (the  wealth  of  mind),  these  are  the  five  things 
to  be  respected,  the  one  following  more  than  the  one  preceding  it/7 
This  truth  has  been  amply  illustrated  in  the  remarks  made  above, 
concerning  the  superiority  of  the  mind.  The  conclusion  to  be 
cherished  is  that  the  possession  of  mental  riches  is  the  best  possession, 
and  that  the  pursuit  of  these  (as  contradistinguished  from  the  pur 
suit  of  wealth),  is  the  pursuit  that  is  becoming  of  the  nobility  of  human 
nature.  Mind  is  the  true  source  of  power,  and  ideas  (or  knowledge) 
are  the  true  wealth,  before  which  all  else  crumbles  to  dust,  to  rise  no- 
mere.  Says  the  Upanishat  :  — 

True  power   comes  from   the  spirit,  ,ind  immortality   from  the 
possession  of  ideas. 

A  REPLY  , 






IN    THE    FORM    OF    FOOT    NOTES, 





DEAR  MR.  EDITOR,  —  Ifc  is  now  some  time  since  I  addressed  you. 
The  fact  is  that  it  is  only  now  that  I  have  the  leisure  to  write  to  you  ; 
and  I  trust  that  the  courtesy  which  then  actuated  you  in  venturing  to 
insert  my  communication  in  your  paper,  will  now  too  induce  you  to  do 

My  subject  is  "  Idolatry  in  the  Vedas."  Before  opening  my 
argument,  let  me  state  what  '  idolatry'  is.  It  is  not  merely  the 
worship  of  any  thing  man  has  made  of  wood  or  stone  or  metal  or  any 
such  thing.  It  is  the  worship  of  the  creature  instead  of  the  Creator, 
i.  e.,  the  worship  of  any  thing  whatsoever  other  than  God.(l)  I 
think  you  will  agree  to  this  ;  I  should  think,  no  Arya  would  demur  to 
it,  bat  rather  accept  it  as  a  sufficient  definition.  And  now  to  my 

If  my  definition  be  true,  then  the  worship  of  the  atmosphere,  or 
of  the,  water,  or  of  the  sun,  or  of  the  dawn,  or  of  the  Soma  juice,  is 
idolatry.  Now,  I  assert  that,  in  the  Rigveda,  we  find  the  worship  of 
all  these  creatures,  i.  e.,  the  worship  of  other  than  God.  In  this 
paper  I  shall  not  attempt  to  substantiate  my  assertion  with  regard  to 
all  these  creatures  enumerated,  and  shall  probably  find  that  what  I 
have  to  say  about  the  worship  of  the  atmosphere  will  be  fully  suffi 
cient  for  this  article. 

Now,  sir,  we  have  Mr.  Guru  Datta's  authority  for  saying,  that  in 
Rigveda,  1.  2.  1.  the  word  Vayu  means  the  atmosphere,  (Vide  Vedic 
Texts,  No.  1).  In  that  verse,  Vayu  is  in  the  vocative  case,  and  must 
be  rendered,  in  English,  "  0  Vayu  "  !  *  The  pada  form  of  the  verse 
shows  authoritatively  that  this  is  so.  Indeed,  Sanskrit  Grammar  can 
not  allow  of  any  other  case.  Vayu  being  in  the  vocative,  the  verbs 
depending  upon  ii,  are  in  the  imperative,  as  might  be  expected. 
There  are  three  verbs,  thus  dependent,  which  must  be  rendered  in 
English,  as  '  come/  'drink,'  and  'hear.'  The  person  adressed  to  in  each 
case  is  Vayu,  so  that  we  have  "  0  Vayu,  come,  —  0  Vayu,  drink,  —  O 

1.  We  quite  concur  with  this  definition.  Idolatry  is,  '  worship  of  any 
whatsoever  other  than  God.'  And  according  to  this  definition,  God  of  Nature  being 
one,  the  worship  of  three  Gods  of  the  Trinity  is  also  idolatry,  and  so  is  the  worship  of 
Man-god  or  God-man,  and  so  also  the  worship  of  the  Infallible  word,  Jho  worship  of 
the  cross  is  no  exception  to  this. 


Vayu,  hear."  With  Mr.  G.  Datta's  authority  let  us  put  'atmosphere' 
for  Vayu,  and  we  get.  "0  atmosphere,  come, — 0  atmosphere,  drink, 
— 0  atmosphere,  hear."  Of  course,  Mr.  Gruru  Datta  cannot  possibly 
be  wrong.  But  if  he  be  right,  then  we  have  the  Veda  recording  the 
edifying  fact  that  some  simple-minded  Arya,  ages  upon  ages  ago, 
thought  that  the  atmosphere  was  a  god  that  would  come  at  his  in 
vitation,  drink  at  his  request  and  listen  to  his  call  !!  This  simple 
Arya  was  of  a  sociable  turn,  for  the  beverage  (2)  he  had  prepared  for 
the  atmosphere  to  drink  was  the  exhilarating  Soma  so  beloved  of  the 
gods  and  of  Indra  in  particular.  (3) 

The  correct  rendering  of  the  verse,  both  etymologically  and 
grammatically  is,  "  Come,  0  sightly  Vayu,  these  somas  are  prepared. 
Drink  of  them.  Hear  our  invocation/' 

I  have  demonstrated  then,. by  the  help  of  Mr  Guru  Datta,  that 
there  is  'Idolatry  in  the  Vedas.'(4<) 

2.  The  writer  of  this  article,  Mr.  Williams,  betrays  a  strange  ignorance  of 
Sanskrit  Grammar  her.e.     Besides  the  fact,  that  there  is  nothing  in  this  mantra  to 
substantiate  that  the  "  Soma  "  is  the  beverage  referred  to,  there  is  something  to 
show  that  the  word  "  Soma  "  does  not  mean  "  beverage  "  here.     The  Sanskrit  word's 
are     "Ime     Sornah,"    which    mean      "these    Soma."    Now  had   Soma     meant, 
"  beverage,"   we  should  have  met  with  the  word  "  Soma  "  in  the  Singular  number 
and  the  qualifying  pronoun  "asau  "  or  "  saym  "  and  not  "  ime."     It  will  not  do  to 
say  that  there   may  be   many  kinds  of  beverages,  for,  although  it  may  be  true, 
"Soma"   is  only  one  kind  of  beverage,  and  hence  can  not  be  spoken  of  in  the 
plural    number.     To    substantiate   his  view,   Mr.   Williams  should  also  quote 
Mantras  that  deal  with  the  materials  of  "  Somah  "  and  of  their  mode  of  preparation^ 

3.  "  Soma  "  so  beloved  of  the  godg  and  of  Indra  in  particular."  Mr.  Williams 
is  here  in  his  "  clerical "  moods.     Justice  would  require  that  he  should   make   tfie 
best  of  this  mantra,  and  reserve  his  "  highly  accurate  information,"  on  other"  poinU 
till  occasion  requires,  or,  if  he  is  so  fond  of  thrusting  his  well-acquired  mythological 
information,  he  should  substantiate  it  there  and  then.     What  proof  has  he  given 
in  this  article  of  the  assertion  that  Somah  is  beloved  of  all  the  gods  and  particular 
ly  of  Indra.     But  he  might  say,  that  although  he  has  not  given  any  proofs  in   thi» 
article  yet  proofs  can  be  forthcoming.     Will  he  allow  the  same  license  to  his  adver 
sary  1    No,  it  will  be  against  Christian  Justice.     Without  waiting  for  proofs,  just 
as  we  have   to  wait  for   proofs  to  be  given  by  Mr.     Williams,  Mr.    Williams 
construes  the  silence  of  the  author  of  a  Vedic  text  on  certain  grammatical  forma 
ioto  a  serious  charge  1     He  says,  "  It  is  because  if  he  did' so  and  did  so  honestlyr 
(i.  e.     discussed  the  grammar)  he  could  not  regard  the  verse  as  a  scientific  state 
ment  of  any  sort  whatsoever,  for,  grammar  would  compel  him    to, represent  the 
verse  a»  the  simple  prayer  of  a  simple-minded  Arya  ,  whose  real  conceptions  of  a 
God  rose  no  higher  than  that  of  regarding  the  atmosphere  around  as  something 
divine,that  might  come  at  his  call,  drink  of  the  "sorua"  he  had  prepared,  and  listen 
to  his  call."     Surely  it  is  a  "  Christian  "  virtue  to  attribute  motives  without  the 
•lightest  evidence  for  them.     Let  us  however,  give  a  parody.     Why  is  it  that  Mr. 
Williams  does  not  substantiate  Bis  meaning  of  "somah"  as  juice,  the  plural  number 
of  the  word   "soma,"  "  together  with  a  plural  pronoun  "  iiue,"   and  the   assertion 
that  "soma"  was  much  beloved  of  the   gods  and  particularly  of  Indra.     It  is 
because  if  he  did,  and  did  so  honestly  he  would  find  his  meanings  falsified,   instead' 
of  being  substantiated,  and    himself  a  mere  misrepresenter  of  Vedic  mantras, 
tt rough  fear  that  if  the  Vedas  turn  out  to  be  true,  what  will  become  of  the  almost 
•core-centuried  Bible  Revelation  ? 

4.  In  the  light  of  T.     Williams'  logic  and  learning,  the  use  of  a  noun  signify 
ing  any  thing  other  than  God  in  the  vocative  case,  and  tke  consequent  use  of    the 
2nd  person  in  the  depending  verte,  &c.j  or,   of  the  imperative  mood,  i»  a  proof 


Now,  Mr.  Editor,  whoever  impugns  my  argument,  must  do  so  in 
one  or  more  of  these  ways  i.  e.,  first,  he  may  impugn  Mr.  Guru 
Datta's  rendering  of  Vayu  as  Atmosphere ;  or,  second,  he  may  ,  deny 
that  Vayu  is  in  the  vocative  case  ;  or,  thirdly  '  he  may  deny  that 
Ayahi,  pahi,  and  shrudhi  are  in  the  second  person,  singular,  imperative. 
Whoever  cannot  do  this  is  bound  (5)  to  accept  the  conclusion  I  have 
stated,  that  there  is  '  Idolatry  in  the  Vedas' 

I  will  begin  with  the  third  case,  and  ask,  are  ,  Ayahi/  '  pahi/  and 
*  shrudhi'  (the  spelling  is  Mr.  Guru  Datta's)  in  the  second  singular, 
imperative ;  or  are  they  not  ?  Every  sound  grammarian  would  say  they 
are.  The  mere  tyro  in  grammar  would  know  that ( Ayahi'  is  as  I 
have  said.  It  is  evidently  a  Vedic  as  well  as  a  later  Sanskrit  form. 
It  cannot  possibly  be  any  thing  else,  so^Yaska,  when  he  quotas  this 
verse  (Nir.  10.  2.),  does  not  give  the  modern  equivalent  of  Ayahi 
simply  bec?,use  the  ancient  and  modern  forms  are  identical,  or,  to  use 

incontestable  of  Idolatry  in  a  book  that  so  reads.  I  quo.te  from  Shakespeare] 
"Frailty,  thy  name  is  woman,"  and  apply  the  canons  of  T.  Williams  here. 
Fi-ailty  is  in  the  vocative  case,  'thy'  is  a  pronoun  in  the  2nd  person.  Hence  thia 
Terse  clearly  proves  the  existence  of  idolatry  in  Shakespeare's  Hamlet.  But  T. 
Williams  lias  to  say  that  it  is  not  only  these  features  in  the  Vedas  but  the  atmos 
phere  representedas  capable  of  coming,  drinkingand  hearing,  which  proves  idoUtry 

Let  ine  quote  from  'In  Memoriam  '  (Tennyson). 
"  So  careful  of  the  type  ?  but  no  " 
From  scarped  cliffand  quarried  st^ne 
She  cries,  "  Athens  and  types  hare  gone, 
I  care  for  nothing,  all  shall  go. 
Thou  makest  thine  appeal  to  me. 
'  I  bring  to  life,  I  bring  to  death  : 

The  spirit  doth  but  mean  the  breath  :     . 
I  know  no  more,  &c.' 

Here  Nature  is  represented  as  "  crying  "  'caring  for  nothing' '  hearing  appeal*1 
'answering  appeals'  'bringing  to  life 'or  'bringing  to  death  "knowing"   only 
•omething.     Are  not  these  clear  indications  of  idolatry.     Or  again   : — 
O  sorrow,  wilt  thou  lire  with  me, 
No  casual  mistress,  but  a  wife, 
My  bosom  friend  and  '  half  of  life' 
As  I  confess  it  need  must  be  ; 
O  sorrow,  wilt  thou  rule  my  blood, 
"     Be  sometimes  lovely  like  a  bride. 
And  put  thy  harsher  mood  aside, 
If  thou  wilt  have  me  wise  and  good. 

Here  is  sorrow  in  vocative  case,  with  second  person  pronoun,  "  thou,  "  represen 
ted  as  capable  of  living  as  a  wife,  as  hearing,  as  confessing,  as  ruling,  as  desiring 
others  to  be  good  and  wise  ;  and  here  is  poet-laureate  appealing  to  this  god  in 
prayer  "  wilt  thou."  Can  there  be  anything  clearer  than  this  ? 

It  is,  indeed,  very  strange  that  these  and  other  passages  so  often  occuring  in 
English  poetry  will  be  construed  neither  by  T.  Williams,  nor  any  other  Christian 
philologist,  into  indications  of  idolatry,  but  as  the  result  of  poetic  imagination,  and 
personification  ;  and  yet,  when  even  these  philologists  come  across  similar  passage-* 
in  the  Vedas,  they  forsake  their  common  sense  and  at  once  begin  to  find  idolatry 
in  the  sacred  books  of  the  "  pagans." 

5.  As  much  bound  to  accept,  as  T.  Williams  is  to  accept  the  conclusion  thai 
there  is  idolatry  in  the  passage  of  Shakespeare  and  Tennyson  given  above. 


technical  terms,  the  word  Ayahi  is  both  Naigama  and  Laukika.  But 
for  'pahi'  and  '  shrudhi/  Yaska  does  give  their  modern  equivalents  and 
says  they  mean  'pivahi'  and  '  shrinu/ 

Now,  Sir,  I  find  (  Ayahi '  occurs  64  times  in  the  Eigveda,  and 
'  yahi '  67  times,  and  in  every  case  they  are  to  be  translated  as  2nd 
sing,  impv,  so  that  any  man  that  translates  otherwise  is  to  be 
condemned  on  every  hand  as  violating  the  plainest  grammar  and 
disregarding  venerable  authority.  Now,  I  find  that  Dayananda  Saras- . 
wati  renders  e  Ayahi/  not  '  Agacchava/  but  it  is  to  Agacchati  that  he 
clings.  So  he  gives  for  ( pahi/  '  rakshayati/  and  for  '  shrudhi/ 
f  shravayati.'  The  man  who  dares  to  say  that  '  Ayahi = Agacchati7 
or  '  pahi = rakshayati/  or  '  shrudhi'  =  '  shravayati/  does  so  in  utter 
defiance  of  grammar  or  authoritative  precedent.  There  is  absolutely 
no  justification  for  such  rendering  in  any  shape  or  way:  For  a  man 
to  treat  a  book  that  he  professes  to  revere,  in  this  disgraceful  way, 
stamps  him  as  one  utterly  unscrupulous  (6).  I  have  another  instance 
of  Dayananda' s  scant  respect  for  the  book  that  he  proclaims  as 
superior  to  any  other,  and,  Mr.  Editor,  I  shall  give  it  to  you  in  some 
future  paper. 

But  now  one  must  ask  how  Mr.  G.  Datta  deals  with  these 
verbs.  He  says  nothing  about  them  grammatically.  This  is  extraor- 
nary,  for,  he  sets  out  with^  declaring  he  will  show  how  the  Veda 
teaches  us  what  the  atmosphere  is.  Now,  if  the  Veda  asserts  a  thing, 
it  must  employ  a  verb  in  order  to  do  so.  But  of  the  three  verbs 
employed  in  the  verse  Mr.  G-.  Datta  says  nothing  qua  verbs,(  i.  e., 
he  does  not  discuss  their  grammar  in  the  least ;  and  as  with  the' verbs 
so  with  the  nouns.  The  grammar  is  not  discussed  in  the  least.  Why 
is  this  ?  It  is  because  if  he  did  and  did  so  honestly,  he  could  not 
regard  the  verse  as  a  scientific  statement  of  any  sort  whatever,  for, 
grammar  would  compel  him  to  represent  the  verse,  as  the  simple 
prayer  of  a  simple-minded  Arya,  whose  rude  conceptions  of  a  God 
were  no  higher  than  that  of  regarding  the  atmosphere  around  us 
something  divine,  that  might  come  at  his  call,  drink  of  the  soma  he 
had  prepared,  and  listen  to  his  call.  Mr.  Guru  Datta  makes  the 
science  he  asserts  the  Rigveda  contains,  depend  not  upon1  grammar 
and  authoritative  rendering,  (such  as  Yaska),  but  upon  etymology  ; 
and  the  futility  of  this  as  regards  its  securing  for  the  Eigveda  any 
extraordinary  credit,  I  have  already  shown  when  I  demonstrated 
that  l  Vayu/  air  and  wind,  have  exactly  the  same  connotation,  so  that 
what  may  be  claimed  for  the  one,  may,  with  equal  right,  be  claimed  for 
the  three. 

6  If  in  explaining  the  above  lines  of  Tennyson,  <A  Professor  in  the  Chair  of  English 
language,  should  convert  "  0  Sorrow"  into  mere  "  .Sorrow,"  he  would  be,  equally  with 
Dayananda  Saraswati,  "  violating  the  plainest  grammar  and  disregarding  venerable 
authority."  The  English  Piofessor,  who  dares  do  so  in  defiance  of  grammar  or 
authoritative  precedent,  must  be  regarded  as  "utterly  unscrupulous. 


±,N^\  this  goes  to  show  that  tlle  rendering  of  the  Veda 
forth  by  Dayananda  a,   I  to  followers,  is  not  fafbe  trusted  buton  tte 
co.rran   is   to   be  tho,      ,-l,ly  mistrusted.     If   this  be   the   Sa°   £  and  exegesis  taught  in  the  Dayananda  College  it  needs 
special  inspiration  to  confidently  predict  that  it  will   be   an    evil   day 


Mr.  Editor  there  is  an  axiom  of  Panini,  'Vahnlam  cchandosi  ' 
which  occurs  in  his  grammar  some  18  times.  Now  this  axiom  or  sutra 
would  seem  to  be  the  Mag™  Uharta  of  Davananda  and  his  foUoS 
for,  it  means  in  the  hands  of  uns,  ,  people,  that  the  Veda  may 

mean  just  what  any  one  may  clause  to  make  it  mean  ;  and  so  becomes 
nt  merl    "  "         '  ' 

not  merely  "Vahnlam  "  but  '  bavala.\  6'j 

r:rs  host  o£  Chrsitian  yet  id°M™  ^l  ~£*zss*.^  r^e 

host  o£  Chrsitian 


The  passages  quoted  by  Pundit  Gnru  Datta  are  after  all  from  the 
:s  of  poets  who  may,  (according  to  Mr.  T.  Williams'  canons  of 
course,)  inculcate  the  rankest  idolatory  for  what  Mr.  'Williams  cares 
A  man  ot  such  deep  faith  would  require  something  directly  from  the 
"inured  writings."  To  please  Mr.  William,  we°  open  the  word  of 
(rod  and,  after  a  minute's  looking  over,  light  on  the  following  edify 
ing  passages  :  —  * 

"  Lift  up  your  heads,  0  ye  gates  ;  even  lift  them  up,  ye   everlast- 

°ry  sh  l  come  in'"    D^v'd's  Psalms' 

noiseunto  G°d,  all  ye  lands." 

We  leaw  it  to  Mr.  Williams  to  say  whether  or  not  the  Bible 
inculcates  idol-worship  according  to  his  mode  of  finding  out  idolatry 
m  another  ma'  —  y 

•:  o  :• 





N I Y  0  G  A. 





Says  a  writer, — "To  ascertain  what  a  person's  character  is,  in 
quire  of  him  concerning  the  God  in  which  he  has  faith  ;  and  his  reply, 
if  legitimately  and  honestly  stated,  will  be  a  disclosure  of  his  own 
disposition  and  spiritual  or  intellectual  growth." 

This  proposition  is  perfectly  true.  The  whole  experience  of  man 
and  nations  justifies  it,  and  the  Bible  of  the  Christians  is  also  a  proof 
of  it.  "  God  made  man  in  His  own  image/7  says  the  Bible  (Genesis,  I, 
26).  Therefore,  man,  as  an  image,  reveals  the  nature  of  God,  or  man  is 
(in  his  own  notion)  just  what  his  God  is.  Or,  perhaps,  it  is  more  true 
to  say  that  man  makes  God  after  his  own  image.  Even  in  this  case 
God  is  a  true  index  of  his  own  character  and  intellectual  worth  ?  Tak 
ing  this :  truth  as  our  guide,  we  wish  to  examine,  in  this  article,  T. 
Williams'  character  and  worth  as  a  critic  of  Dayananda.  For,  as  it  is 
invariably  true  that  "  it  is  a  giddy  head  that  thinks  that  the  world 
turns  round/'  may  it  not  be  that  what  Mr.  T.  Williams  stands  himself 
accused  of,  be  exactly  what  he  charges  Dayananda  with.  The  fact  is, 
that  T."  Williams  has  the  good  fortune  of  wearing  the  spectacles  of 
Christian  prejudice,  and  to  him,  just  as  to  a  jaundiced  eye,  every 
thing  appears  tinged  with  the  colour  of  his  spectacles.  T.  Williams 
in  his  article  appended  herewith  charges  Dayananda  with  : — 

1.  Having  scant  respect  for  the  Vedas. 

2.  Preaching  the    astounding,     grossly   immoral   and  monstrous 
doctrine  of  Niyoga. 

3.  Having  the  unenviable  distinction  of  so  fathering  the  doctrine 
on  the  Rig  Veda. 

4.  With  telling  a  lie,  gross  lie,  a  deliberate  lie,  a  terrible  lie,  and 
with  scandalously  falsifying  the  Vedas. 

5.  With  idiocy. 

6.  With  being  a  dangerous  enemy  of  the  Vedas  of  his  times;  and, 
lastly,  T.     Will  iams,  with  a   truly   Christian  spirit   absorbed   at   the 
pulpits,  damns  Dayananda  and  his  doctrine. 

In  this  article  I  shall  make  no  distinction  between  "  Lord/'  a$ 
occurring  in  the  Old  Testament,  and  Christ.  For,  the  "  Lord  "  of  the 
Old  Testament  is  Jehovah,  or  God,  whereas  the  world- renowned  (be- 

A   REPLY    TO    T. 

cause  of  its  pre-eminent  intelligibility)  doctrine  of  Trinity  will  have 
that  God.  the  Father  (Jehovah),  God  the  Son  (Christ)  and  Holy  Ghost 
(the  Ijord)  are  one  and  the  same.  I  will,  therefore,  substitute  for  the 
word  "  Lord,"  in  the  Old  Testament,  the  word  Christ,  to  give  it  a 
pleasant,  modern  Christian,  garb.  And  now  to  proceed  with  the 
subject.  I  shall  show  that  what  T.  Williams  accuses  Dayananda  of, 
if  the  Bible  be  true,  is  what  Christ  (Jehovah  or  Lord)  stands  accused 

T.  Williams  accuses  Swami  Dayananda,  firstly,  of  having  scant 
respect  for  the  Vedas. 

Now  to  quote  Paul  (1  Cor.  7,  12).  "  But  to  the  rest  speak  I,  not 
the  Lord"  Again  (2  Cor.  11,  17.)  "  That  which  I  speak,  I  speak  it 
not  after  the  Lord,  but  as  it  vr&G  foolishly ,  in  this  confidence  of  boast 
ing."  But  be  it  remembered  that  Paul  is  an  inspired  personage  and 
Paul's  inspiration,  which  means  Christ's  thoughts,  led  him  to  say  that 
what  he  is  inspired  of  (a  portion  of  the  Bible),  is  not  after  the  Lord 
but  foolish  and  uninspired.  Therefore,  God  or  Christ  stands  accused 
of  having  scant  respect  for  the  Bible,  for  he  declares  that  the  Bible  is 
not  inspired. 

Secondly,  T.  Williams  accuses  Swami  Dayananda  of  preaching- 
the  astounding,  grossly  immoral,  and  monstrous  doctrine  of  Niyoga., 
We  quote  from  Deuteronpmy  XXV  :  5- —10  : — u  If  brethren  dwell 
together,  and  one  of  them  die  and  have  no  child,  the  wife  of  the  dead 
shall  not  marry  without  unto  a  stranger,  her  husband's  brother  shall 
go  in  unto  her,  and  take  her  to  wife,  and  perform  the  duty  ,  of  an 
husband's  brother  unto  her  and  it  shall  be  that  the  first  born,  which 
she  beareth,  shall  succeed  in  the  name  of  his  brother,  which  is  dead,, 
that  his  name  be  not  put  out  of  Israel.  And  if  the  man  like  not  to 
take  his  brother's  wife,  then  let  his  brother's  wife  go  up  to  the  gate 
unto  the  elders,  and  say  '  my  husband's  brother,  refusefh  to  raise  up 
unto  his  brother  a  name  in  Israel.  He  will  not  perform  the  duty  of 
my  husband's  brother.'  Then  the  elders  of  the  city  shall  call  him, 
and  speak  unto  him  :  and  if  he  stand  to  it,  and  say,  '  I  like  not  to 
take  her';  then  shall  his  brother's  wife  come  unto  him,  in  the  presence 
of  the  elders,  and  loose  his  shoe  from  off  his  foot  and  spit  in  his  face 
and  shall  answer  and  say,  "  so  shall  it  be  done  unto  that  man  that 
will  not  build  up  his  brother's  house — and  his  house  shall  be  called  in 
Israel  the  house  of  him  that  has  his  shoe  loosed."  This  is  clearly 
Niyoga,  and  so  Christ  stands  accused  of  preaching  "the  astounding, 
grossly  immoral,  and  monstrous  doctrine  of  Niyoga." 

Thirdly,  and  consequently,  Christ  stands  accused  of  having  the 
unenviable  distinction  of  having  fathered'this  doctrine  upon  the  Bible* 

Fourthly,  T.  Williams  accuses  Dayananda  of  telling  lie,  a  deliber^ 
ate  lie,  a  terrible  lie,  and  a  scandalous  falsification. 

CRITICISM      ON      K1YOOA.  219 

Now,  I  Kings  22,  23.     "  And  there  came  forth  a  spirit,  and  stood 
"before  the  Lord,  and  said,  I  will  persuade  him.     And   the  Lord   said 
unto  him,    wherewith  ?     And  he  said,  I  will  go  forth,  and  I  will  Jbe    a 
lying  spirit  in  the  inouch  of  all  his  prophets.     And  he  said;  thou  shalt 
persuade  him,  and  prevail  also ;  go  forth,  and  do  so.     Now,  therefore, 
behold,  the  Lord  hath  put  a  lying  spirit  in  the  mouth  of  all  these,  thy 
prophets,  and  the  Lord  hath  spoken  evil  concerning  thee."     Again,  (2 
Thes.  2.  II)  u  and  for  this  cause,  God  shall  send  them  strong  delusion, 
that  shall  believe  a  lie." 

Does  not  the  Christian  God  here  stand  accused  of  putting  lie  in 
the  mouth  of  his  prophets,  of  deluding  people  by  a  lie,  "  a  gross  lie,  a 
deliberate  lie,  a  terrible  lie,  and  a  scandulous  falsification":' 

Fifthly,  T.  Williams  charges  Swr»mi  Dayananda  with  idiocy. 
**  Idiocy,"  says  Webster,  "  is  a  defect  in  understanding."  To  show 
that  Christ  or  God  suffered  from  this  defect  we  turn  to  Gen.  1-30, 
where  it  reads  : — "  And  God  saw  everything  that  He  had  made  and 
beheld  it  was  very  Good."  Here  to  God's  understanding  every  thing 
He  had  made  appeared  very  good.  Aj<ain,  in  the  6th  Chapter  and 
sixth  verse  of  the  same  book,  we  read  :  "  and  it  repented  the  Lord  that 
Ha  had  made  man  on  the  earth  and  it  grieved  him  at  his  heart."  From 
the  above  it  is  clear  that  time  proved  to  God's  defective  understanding 
that  he  had  cherished  fallacious  hopes  of  his  creation  being  very  good, 
as,  on  the  contrary,  it  turned  out  a  source  o£>repentence  and  grief  to 
him.  Is  not  this  defective  understanding,  idiocy  ?  God  or  Christ, 
therefore,  stands  accused  of  idiocy  with  %  hich  T.  Williams  so  anxi 
ously  charges  Dayananda. 

We  have  shown  how  Christ  declares  the  Bible  to  be  uninspired, 
and,  therefore,  declares  himself  also  a  dangerous  enemy  of  his 
Bible.  It  is  no  wonder,  then,  that  T.  Williams  should  charge 
Swami  Dayananda  with  being  a  dangerous  enemy  of  the  Vedas  of 
his  time. 

And,  lastly,  T.  Williams,  with  a   truly  Christian   spirit,   throws 
his  missionary  weapons  against  Swami  Dayananda,  whom   he    repre 
sents  as   exposed    to   a   damning  charge.     This  is  ro  more  unlike   T. 
Williams'  God  than  the   former    charges   were.     "  TLo   Biblo  repre 
sents  God  or  Christ  as  cursing  and  as  dooiuing  to  pain  and  agony,  to 
servitude  and  death,  whole    races    of   his    croatures,    throughout  all 
lands   and   throughout  all    ages,   for  the  sin  of   one  individual.     It 
represents  him  as  cursing  all  serpents,    making   them   cursed  above 
all  cattle,  dooming  them  to  go  on  their  belly  arid  eat  dust,  as  putting 
enmity  in   men's  hearts  towards  them,  because   one    solitary    serpent 
tempted  Eve.     It  represents  .him  as  dooming  all  women,    as   cursing 
the  earth  for  the  sin  of  one    man,   cursing  it  to    bring   forth   thonu 
and   thistles  to  annoy  all  fu'.  iro   generations,    dooming   a:l   mankind 
throughout  all   lands  and  throughout  all  ages  to  eat  of   the  ground, 

2     20  A   REPLY   TO   T.   WILLIAMS* 

in  sorrow  all  the  days  of  their  life,  to  eat  the  herb  of  the  field,,  to 
eat  their,  bread  with  the  sweat  of  their  brow,  and,  lastly,  to  return  to 
the  (Just.  The  thought  is  appalling.  Countless  millions  mercilessly 
doomed  to  daily  and  hopeless  misery  for  sins  committed  before  Itiiy 
of  them  were  born,  as  if  one  blasphemy  were  not  enough. 

One  word  before  we  come  to  the  proper  subject.  Let  T. 
Williams  always  remember  what  his  Bible  teaches.  He  alone  should 
throw  arrows  at  his  brother  who  is  himself  innocent.  Mr.  Williams, 
you  should  first  clear  the  Bible  of  its  disgusting  absurdities  and 
monstrosities,  its  evil  and  pernicious  doctrines,  thus  rendering  your 
self  and  your  God  innocent,  before  you  raise  your  head  to  attack  the 
doctrines  of  the  Yedas,  which,  Biblically  circumstanced  as  you  are, 
notwithstanding  your  twenty  ^years'  patient  study  of  Sanskrit,  you 
are  as  unable  to  grasp  as  the  little  Grammar  Schoolboy  his  dusty 
Greek  or  Hebrew.  And  now  to  the  subject. 

Speaking  of  ftig,  10.10.10,  the  authority  adduced  by  Swami,    the 
Rev.     Missionary  says :     "  Are    you    not    aware,    Sir,    that  in   what 
Da vananda  quotes  from  Rig   Veda  10.10.10,    the  speaker  is   a    brother 
and  the  woman  he  speaks  to  is  that  brother's  sister  !  I  !     The  speaker  is 
Yama  and  the  woman  lie  speaks  to  is  Yami,  aye,  not    only    his   sister 
but  his  ticin  sister."     It  needed  a  special  revelation  in  the  nineteenth 
century   for   the    Missionary    elite,    T.  williams,  to    know  that   Yama 
and  Yami  were  twin  brother    and    sister.     The  proof  of  this  revealed 
text   of  T.    Williams'   inspiration  we    will  learn    by  and  by,  but  the 
sinister  motive  in   his   insisting  upon  this  personal  revelation  is  obvi 
ous  and  it   is  purely   Christian.     Like   a  serpent   under  the  Vose,  he 
throws  his  flattering,  flowe.;   feelers  among  the  self-deluded   Hindus, 
to  exasperate  them  against     he    \ryas  by  joining  in  a  common   cause, 
pretending  to    show   th^    siii       the  mantra  means  Yami  disking  her 
brother  Yama's  hand  and  Yama  refusing  it,  the  Vedas  do    not    sanc 
tion  Niyoga.     This  is  all  pretence,  the  hidden  insinuation  is  that  there 
were     ancient    Aryans,  the  revered    and    sacred  forefathers   of   the 
Hindus,  the  great  olden  Vedic    Rishis,    among   whome    even    such   a 
depravity  prevailed   that  a  sister  dared  ask  her  twin  brother's  saciT< 
H.s-/i%  hand.     In  the  light  of  present    criticism,  such  hypocrisy   slu  >i. 
no   longer  last,  and   no  more    will  T.  Williams  arrogate  the  position 
which  belongs  to  God    alone.     Here  is   T.    Williams'   arrogant  blas 
phemy  : — "  I  say  it  with  all  positiveness  that  Dayananda  knew  tl^at  it 
was-  Yama  that  speaks  and  that  he  speaks  to  her  twin    sister  Yami. 
How   terrible,  the",  is  the  lie  that  he  is  guilty  of."    Poor  Wiilian  s,  is 
not  your  positiveness  the  most   terrible   lie    that   you  are   guilty  of, 
terrible  because  you   lie  against  a  person,  whose  staunch  -moral  cha 
racter  even  outdoes   your  ideal  Christ-?     (Vide    Theosophist  on  the 
«  subject.) 

As  a  proof  of  his  assertion,   T.  Williams  quotes  Nirukta,  6-0-0 
and,  forgetting  the  original,  falls  upon  a  spurious  commentary,  l>ut> 

CRITICISM      ON      NIYOGA.  221 

rising   from  his   sleep,    comes   to   Nir.     11-11-13,    and  quotes  "Yami 

Yamam    chakame   tarn   pratya    chakshu,"  which  means,  according  to 

T.  Williams,  Yami  desired  sexual  intercourse  with  Yama,  lie  refused 

r."     Where  is  T.  Williams'     ositive  assertion  that  Yama  ancl?  Yami, 


are  brother  and  sister  ?  Poor  Williams  can  only  reply,  "  Yaska's 
commentator  says,  "  an  author  is  not  bound  by  what  his  commentator 
might  say,"  Yaska's  commentator  shares  a  remorseless  fate.  Admitted 
that  the  Nirukta  of  Yaska  is  a  Veddtiga,  and  has  full  Vedic  authori 
ty,  we  trust  no  one  will  be  so  mad  as  to  believe,  like  Mr.  T.  Willams, 
that  Nirukta  being  a  Veddnga,  its  commentary  too  is  a  Vedanga. 
Impotent  Christian  logic  !  ! 

He  comes  now  to  Katyayana,  whose  words  are,  "  vaivasvatayor 
yama  yamyoh  samvadah"  Now,  learned  T.  Williams,  the  infallible 
authority  on  Sanskrit,  translates  Vaivaxvatayor  into  "  son  and  daugh 
ter  of  Vaivasvata,"  and  thus  infallibly  proves  that  the  hymn  is  a 
conversation  between  twin  brother  and  sister.  But,  says  Nirukta, 
7-26,  "  Vaivasvata  Aditydd  prerat  vata  pragafadva,"  which  means 
that  Vaivasvata  is  the  sun.  Again,  in  Nirukta,  12-10,  we  read, 
Adityad  Yama  rnithunam  janayain  chakare,"  and,  in  12-11,  we  read, 
"  ratri  radityasya  adityodaye  antardhiyate,"  which  means,  wherever 
Yama  and  Yami,  the  couple,  are  mentioned  in  connection  with 
Vaivasvata,  the  sun,  the  meaning  of  the  allegory  cleared  is,  that  the 
night  or  gloom  disappears  on  the  rise,  of  the  sun.  Has  this  any 
thing  to  do  with  Yama  arid  Yami,  the  twin  brother  and  sister,  the 
sons  of  Vaivasvata  ?  Absolutely  nothing.  There  is  in  this  allegory 
no  trace  of  Yami  asking  the  hand  of  Yama,  or  the  reverse.  But} 
Kfityaiia,  whose  authority  need  not  be  forced  upon  ns,  simply  says 
that  Yama  means  a  person  desirous  of  continuing  the  control  of  his 
passions,  and  Yami  a  similar  woman,  and  the  hymn,  in  an  allegorical 
conversation,  describes  the  duty  of  such  male  and  female  persons. 

T.  Williams  comes,  thirdly,  to  the  mantras  themselves.  He  is 
very  proud  of  counting  Yama  and  Yrmi  six  times  and  three  times 
each  as  proper  names,  and  his  proofs  of  these  as  proper  names  are 
curious.  His  first  proof  is  that  in  the  13th  verse,  Yama  occurs  in  the 
vocative  c^se  and  Yami  in  the  fourteenth  verse  in  the  same  case.  Is 
T.  Williams  ashamed  of  his  logic  after  he  has  read  our  criticism  on 
his  last  article  on  the  Idolatry  in  the  Vedas  ?  We  quote  from 
Solomon's  song,  13.  16,  "Awake,  O  north  wind  and  come  tliou  south/' 
Here  wind  is  in  the  vocative  case.  Will  T.  Williams'  Biblical  logic 
believe  that  "wind"  is  a  proper  name  ?  Again  we  quote  from  the 
book  of  the  prophet  Isaiah,  1-2,  "  Hear,  0  heavens,  and  give  ear  O 
earth."  Are  "  heavens  "  and  "  earth  "  proper  names  ?  Again,  in 
Isaiah,  21-13,  "0  ye  tr;m  II  ing  companies,"  is  "  companies"  a  proper 
name  ?  T.  Williams  has,  perhaps,  learnt  his  Bible  and  grammar  in  a 
Mission  School  only,  or,  he  would  not  have  fallen  upon  such  admira 
ble  logic  which  .shines  out  of  the  Bible, 


T.  Williams  now  discovers  the  relationship  of  his  "  vocative  case 
proper  names."  He  says,  that  Yama  calls  Yami  his  kinswoman 
"  salakshma."  (Does  "salakshma"  mean  kinswoman,  or  "  of  similar 
virtues  •?"  «. 

" Further  on,"  Williams  says,  "in  the  fourth  verse,  Yama  says 
that  Gandharva  and  his  watery  wife  were  their  source — ndbhi,  and 
that  their  relationship  was  consanguinous — Jami."  "  Watery  wife," 
a  Biblical  imagination  only  can  conceive,  and  the  husband  of  such  a 
watery  wife,  Gandharva,  must  be  residing  in  tracts  of  waters  mid 
naval  people  unknown  to  ancient  Aryans,  the  inhabitants  of  the  land 
of  Aryavarta.  T.  Williams  has  not  even  that  grain  of  human 
dignity  and  pride  which  keeps  a  man  consistent.  Are  Yama  and 
Yami  the  son  and  daughter  of  Faivasvata  or  of  Gandharva  and  his 
watery  wife  ?  T.  Williams  should  have  answered  this  question  to 
himself  before  rushing  into  print.  Again  says  he,  "in  the  8th  verse, 
Yami  says  that  Twashtri  formed  them  as  husband  and  wi$e,dampatit 
in  the  womb."  This,  instead  of  proving  Yama  and  Yami  us  twins, 
proves  them  as  husband  and  wife,  (if  we  are  to  accept  the  historical 
phraseology, )  by  legal  contract  or  mere  ceremony,  but  they  were  very 
much  naturally  inclined,  by  disposition  and  constitution,  towards  this 
relation.  This  alone  can  be  the  reasonable  meaning  of  Twashtri 
forming  them  as  husband  and  wife  in  the  womb.  Otherwise,  are  wo 
to  think  that  wise  T.  Williams  is  piling  objections  unwittingly 
against  his  own  position  ?  Or,  if  T.  Williams  be  right,  might  we  not 
question  which  of  the  three  alternatives  is  true  ?"  Were  Yama  and 
Yami  born  of  Vaivasvata,  or  of  Gandharva  and  his  watery  wife,  or 
of  Twashtri  in  his  womb  ?  * .  • . 

Again,  quoting  9th  verse,  says  T.  Williams  "  that  in  heaven 
and  earth  pairs,  '  mithuna .'  i.  e.  twins,  are  closely  united.",  Here 
again,  how  does  T.  Williams  conceive  that  "mithuna,"  which  means 
pair,  means  twins  ?  Does  the  fact  of  the  pairs  being  'mated  prove 
that  the  twins  are  mated  ? 

T.  Williams'  criticism  on  the  tenth  verse  is  no  better.  "  Yatr& 
jamayah  krinvan  ajami,"  which  means,  •'  the  childless  become  with  the 
child  by  the  marriage  relation,"  is  translated  by  our  Sanskrit  scholar 
of  twenty  years'  standing,  into  "  hereafter  blood  relations  will  do  what 
is  unbecoming  their  blood  relationship."  At  this  stage  comes  the 
Swami's  quotation  on  Niyoga,  where  Yama  says,  "  Desire  another 
husband  than  myself."  We  may  leave  verses  11 -12,  as  the  relation  of 
brother  and  sister,  which  T.  Williams  wants  to  establish  between 
Yama  and  Yami,  has  already,  by  his  own  translations,  been  proved 
to  be  false. 

Now,  Sir,  if,  after  this,  any  one  cavils  as  to  the  correctness  of 
Da^ananda's  translation,  why,  that  man  is  an  idiot.  I  have  shown 
that  the  allegorical  dialogue  is  not  between  twins  and  that  the  Swami'a 

CRITICISM      ON'      NTYOflA.  223 

translation  is  right.  Dayananda's  vilifier  T.  Williams,  calls^himself  a 
scholar  of  twenty  years'  standing  !  I  am  quite  prepared  to  subscribe, 
however,  to  this,  that,  having  proved  T.  Williams  and  his  God  'guilty 
of  deliberately  telling  lies  and  of  having  scant  respect  for  Bible, 
thus  charging  the  Divinity  with  grossly  immoral  attributes,  T.  Wil 
liams  is  undoubtedly  the  most  dangerous  enemy  of  the  Bible  of  his 
times.  The  Vedas,  however,  are  beyond  such  puerile  assail. 

— f  "^ :  o  : 


(Replied  to  above.) 

In  the  Satyartha  Prakasha,  (of  1884)  on  pa<?e  118,  Dayananda 
puts  the  question: — "  Does  Niyoga  take  place  even  when  the  hus 
band  is  living,  as  well  as  when  he  is  dead  ?"  The  answer  he 
gives  himself  is  : — "It  takes  place  even  when  he  is  living/  Now  we 
know  what  Dayananda  means  by  Niyoga.  It  is  that  when  a  couple 
(man  and  wife)  has  no  children  then  the  non-impotent  party  (man  or 
the  wife)  may  cohabit  with  certain  others  of  the  opposite  sex  for  the 
sake  of  obtaining  children. 

In  the*  preceding  part  of  the  Chapter  he  teaches  what  a  wife 
should  do  when  her  husband  dies.  Advancing  from  this  he  here 
shews  what  a  wife  should  do  even  when  the  husband  is  living  but 
impotent.  He  starts  the  astounding  doctrine  that  the  wife  of  a  child 
less  man,  while  that  man  is  yet  alive,  may  betake  herself  to  some  other 
married  man  in  order  to  have  a  child  ly  him.  Support  for  this  mons 
trous  doctrine  he  pretends  to  find,  not  in  Manu  as  before,  but  strange 
to  say,  in  the  Rig  Veda  ;  and  quotes  part  of  the  10th  hymn  of  the  10th 
mandala,  as  the  grand  authority,  and  the  only  authority  for  it. 

Now,  I  do  not  mean  to  say  that  there  is  no  indecency  in  the  Rig 
Veda,  for  there  is,  as  I  can  show,  but  it  was  left  for  Dayananda,  the 
founder  of  the  Arya  Samaj,  to  show  that  the  Rig  Veda  actually  en 
joins  the  grossly  immoral  doctrine  that  a  woman  should  betake  herself 
to  some  other  married  man  for  cohabitation  if  her  own  husband  be 
impotent  ?  I  do  not  mean  to  say,  either,  that  the  Hindus  hear  this 
doctrine  for  the  first  time  from  the  Dayanandis,  for  it  is  notorious 
that  as  a  matter  of  practice  the  thing  has  been  done  by  the  Hindus 
for  centuries.  Use  is  made  in  this  way  of  the  Panday  Brahmans  at 
Allahabad,  and  it  is  this  kind  of  thing  that  has  brought  such  ill 
fame  to  the  Mahajans  of  the  Vallabhacharya  sect,  and  attaches  such 
an  ill  character  to  the  Jaina  marriage  rites.  But  what  I  would  say 
is  this  that  I  have  reason  for  thinking  that  this  monstrous  doctrine 
has  now,  for  the  first  time,  iu  the  history  of  the  Hindus,  been  fathered 


upon   the^Rig   Veda,  and  that  the  unenviable  distinction  of  so  father 
ing  it  belongs,  to  Dayananda,  the  founder  of  the  Arya  Samaj. 

But,  Sir,  the  unenviability  of  this  distinction  becomes  a  thousand 
times  stronger  when  it  is  discovered  that  it  is  all  a  lie.  Yes,  Sir,  to 
say  that  the  Rig  Veda  teaches  and  enjoins  this  doctrine  is  a  gross 
lie.  What  can  any  man  think  of  Dayananda  after  such  an  instance 
of  scandalous  falsification  of  the  Rig  Veda, — the  book  he  professes 
to  revere  as  a  divine  revelation  and  yet  drags  so  ruthlessly  in  the 

Are  you  not  aware,  Sir,  that  in*  what  Dayananda  quotes  from 
Rig  Veda,  10,  10,  10,  the  speaker  is  a  brother,  ajidthe  woman  he  speaks 
to  is  thq,t  brother'*  SISTER  !!!  The  speaker  is  Yarna  and  the  woman  he 
speaks  to  is  Yami,  his  siste^r, — aye  not  only  his  sister,  but  his 
ticiu  sister  ! 

What1  wonder  that  up  to  this  time  no  Hindu  was  ever  so  mad  as 
to  father  such  a  d'octrine  upon  the  Rig  Veda,  for,  every  Hindu 
who  knew  the  Veda  at  all,  knew  that  it  is  Yama  who  speaks  and 
that  he  speaks  to  his  twin  sister  Yami.  Dayananda  translates 
it,  saying  that  the  speaker  is  a  husband  and  the  woman  he 
speaks  to,  the  speaker's  wife.  Now,  here  he  deliberately  lies.  I 
say  it  with  all  positiveness  that  Dayananda  knew  that  it  was  Yaina 
that  speaks  and  that  he,  speaks  to  his  twin  sister  Yami.  How 
terrible,  then,  is.  the  lie  that  he  is  guilty  of  ! !  ! ! — terrible,  because  he 
deliberately  lies  against  a  book  he  professes  to  believe  in  as,  and 
proclaims  to  be,  a  divine  revelation. 

The  only  way  far  the  Dayanandis  to  escape  from  this  damning 
charge  is  to  show  that  it  is  not  Yama  that  speaks  and  that  the 
woman  he  speaks  to  is  not  Yami,  his  twin  sister.  But  how  vain  any 
such  contradiction  must  be  I  will  show  conclusively.  For  : — 

(1)  Apart  from  the  hymn  itself,  the  earliest  authority  capable  of 
being  adduced  is  Yaska.  He,  in  Nir.  6,  5,  5,  quotes  the  13th  verse 
of  this  same  hymn  and  his  comment  by  saying,  "  Yami  speaks  to 
Yama,"  &c.  &c.  But  lest  any  one  say  that  an  author  is  not  bound 
by  what  his  commentator  might  say,  I  hasten  to  give  Yaska' s  own 
words.  When  explaining  in  Nir.  11,  3,  13,  the  14th  verse  of  this 
evening  hymn,  Rig  10,  10,  he  himself  says,  "  Yami  Yamam  chakame 
tarn  pratyachachaksha "  which  means  that  "Yami  desired  sexual 
intercourse  with  Yama.  He  refused  her."  Now,  surely  this  is  plain 
enough  for,  it  is  evident  that  Yaska  and  his  commentator  regard  the 
verses  they  quote  as  part  of  a  dialogue  between  Yama  and  Yami, 
in  which  Yami  desires  cohabitation  with  Yama,  but  that  Yama  re 
fuses.  What  has  this  to  do  with  an  impotent  husband  bidding  his 
wife  go  to  another  married  man  for  cohabitation  !!!  Yaska's  com 
mentator  says  expressly  that  Yama  was  Yami's  brother.  It  is 
needless  to  remind  you,  Sir,  that  this  Nirukta  of  Yaska  is  a  Vedanga 

REPLIED      TO      ABOVF,.  225 

and  therefore  lias  full  Vedic  authority.  How  dare  Dayananda  go 
directly  in  the  teeth  of  Yaska,  whom  he  professes  to,  altogether 
respect,  and  say  that  here  we  have  the  case  of  an  impotent 
husband! ! 

(2)  My  next  authority   is  one  scarcely  inferior  to    Yaska.     It  is 
Katyayana.     His  Sarvanukrainanika  of    the    Rig  Veda,    giving   the 
Rishi  and  Devata  &c,   of  every  hymn  of  that  Veda,  is  the    great    au 
thority    for  these  matters  and  is  respected  by   all.     He,   Katyayana, 
too,  is  the  author  of  the  Srauta   sutras  of  the  Shatapatha  Brahmana 
of  the  Yajur  Veda,   and,  as  a  Grammarian,   is  second   not   even    to, 
Panini    and  the  author   of  Mahabhashya,    Patanjali,  who    is  engaged 
chiefly  in  illustrating  Katyayana's  vartikas  on  Panini'a  Grammar.    As 
to  the  overwhelming  character,  therefore,   of    Katyay  ana's  -authority 
in  all  matters   such  as  we  are  discussing,  there   can  be    no    question. 
Now,   in  Ms  Sarvanukramanika,  he    says   that    there  is  no    Rishi    or 
Swata  of  this  hymn,  Rigveda  10,  10,  but  he  says  that  the  hymn  is    a 
dialogue  between  Yama  and  Yami,  the  son  and  daughter  of  Vaivasvat. 
His  words  are    "  Vaivasvatayor   Yama   Yamiyoh    samvadah."     Now, 
Sir,     apart     from  the  hymn  itself,  it  would    be   impossible   to  bring 
anybody  whose     authority   can,  in  any    respect  anywhere,    approach 
that  of  either  of  these.    Bnt,  now,  I  turn  to  the  hymn  itself, 

(3)  (a)   The   names   Yama   and   Yami  occur  in  the   hymn  six 
times,  three  times  each — as  proper  names.     In  the  (13fch  verse,  Yama 
occurs  in  the  vocative  case,  ( O,  Yama/  and  in  14th  verse  Yama  occurs 
in  the  same  case,    "  0  Yami."     These  are  the  two    last   verses.     The 
Shatapatha    shows  that    no    other      construction    than    that    of    tho 
vocative  case  is   possible.     This,   then,   shows  the    names   of   the    in 

(b)  Now  as  to  their  relationship.  In  the  2nd  verse  Yama  calls 
Yami  his  kinswoman,  "  salakshma."  In  the  4th  verse  Yama  says 
that  the  Ghandharva  and  his  watery  wife  were  their  (Yama  and 
Yami)  source — '  Nabhih/  and  that  their  relationship  was  consanguin- 
ous — "jami."  In  the  5th  verso  Yami  says  that  Twashtri  formed 
them  as  fyusband  and  wife — '  dampate/  in  the  womb.  She  hereby 
shows  they  were  united  as  twins  and  she  argues  from  that  that  they 
ought  to  be  man  and  wife.  Again,  in  verse  9,  she  argues  in  the  same 
w«y  that  in  heaven  and  earth,  pairs, — 'mithuna/ — i.e.  twins,  nro 
closley  united — '  Sabandu/  and  in  the  same  verse  she  says  she 
wishes  to  treat  Yama  as  not  consanguinously  connected  with  him. 
In  the  10th  verse  Yami  says  that  hereafter  blood  relation — 
"jam*y*h  " — will  do  what  is  unbecoming  their  blood  relationship 
— "  ajami."  In  the  lltfy  Yami  complains  that  Yama,  though  n 
"brother, — '  bhrata J — does  not  help  her,  arid  that,  though  she  is,,  his 
sister, — '  svasa ' — yet  he  allows  calamity  to  come  upon  her.  In  the 
12th  verse  Yama  refuses  to  coh'ibit  with  Yami,  because  he  says  they 


call  him  a  dimir — "papam  " — who  sexually  approaches — 'niyacchhat' 
— his  sister — 'svasaram/  and  in  the  end  of  the  same  verse  he  says 
"  thy  brother,  0  fair  one,  deserves  not  this," — "na  te  bhrata,  subhaga, 
vashiyetat."  In  the  Atharva  Veda  copy  of  this  hymn  this  verse  is 
enlarged  and  Yama's  refusal  made  more  decided  and  solemn . 

Now,    sir,   if    after  this    any    one  cavils  as  to  the  relationship  of 
Yama  and  Yami,  why  that  man  is  an  idiot. 

I  have  then  shown  that  the  speakers  throughout  this  dialogue, 
are  twins,  a  brother  and  sister.  The  sister  Yami  desires  ardently 
that  her  brother  Yama  should  sexually  lie  with  her,  The  brother 
Yama  points  out  the  sin  of  so  doing,  and  steadily  refuses  her,  but  tells 
her,  to  desire  and  embrace  some  other  man.  It  is  just  this  in  the 
10th  verse  that  Dayananda  quotes,  and  translates  falsely,  so  as  to 
show  that  a  woman  should,  if  her  husband  be  impotent,  betake  herself 
to  some  other  married  man,  for  the  sake  of  obtaining  off-spring  !  !  ! 
Dayananda' s  apt  seholar,  Guru  D&tta,  calls  his  master  "  the  only 
Vedic  Scholar  of  his  time."  I  am  quite  prepared  to  subscribe,  how 
ever,  to  this,  that  having  proved  Dayananda  guilty  of  deliberately 
falsifying  the  Yeda  and  of  endeavouring  to  father  upon  the  Iligveda 
a  grossly  immoral  doctrine  of  which  that  Veda  is  wholly  innocent, 
Dayananda  is  undoubtedly  by  far  the  most  dangerous  enemy  of  the 
Veda  of  his  times. 



VEDIC  TEXT  p.  1, 


Mr.  Guru  Datta  says  that  the  Vedic  word  "  Vayu"  conveys  the 
meaning  of  "  a  light,  mobile,  tremor-communicating,  effluvia-carrying 
medium."  ,  He  has  no  other  authority  for  this  meaning  than  the 
verbal  root  from  which  the  word  'Vayu'  is  derived.*  Now,  Sir,  what 
ever  meaning  the  word  '  Vayu'  may  have  on  accoynt  of  its  derivation, 
that  very  same  meaning  would  the  English  word  "  wind  "  have,  and 
also  the  Greek  word,  Englished  as,  '*  air,"  for,  both  these  words  have 
the  same  root  as  "  Vayu/'  which  root  is  no  more  or  less  than  that  re 
presented  by  the  Sanskrit  ft  Va."t  Mr.  Guru  Datta  is  worng  in 
saying  that  the  Niruktakar  derives  "  Vayu  "  from  the  root  "  va  "  to 
move,  to  carry  odoriferous  matter,  or  from  'vah*  to  communicate 
tremors."  Yaska,  the  prince  of  Niruktakaras,  only  gives  "  va  "  (Nir. 
10,2)  and  his  commentator  adds  to  "  Va,"  "  gatigandhanayos " 
quoting  from  Ad.  P.  It  is  probable  that  this  "  gandhana  "  sugges 
ted  Mr.  Datta's  odoriferous  matter,"  but  he  ought  to  know  that  it  ia 
now  a  settled  thing  that  the  word  "  gandha  " — smell — comes  from 
the  verbal  root  "  gandh,"  which  never  means  to  smell,  but  to  go,  or 
to  hurt,'  or  to  ask  ;  and  "  gandhana  "  is  from  this  verbal  root  and  not 
from  the  noun,  agandha."J  But  this  is  not  his  great  mistake  in  his 
derivation  of  "  Vayu  " :  it  is  in  his  saying  that  "  Vah  "  is  given  by  a 
Niruktakar  as  an  alternate  root !  What  is  his  authority  for  this  ? 

*  No  other  authority,  it  must  be  remembered,  is  at  all  required.  For,  in  the 
Vedic  literatine  the  yaugika  sense  of  the  word  is  the  only  guarantee  of  its  correctness, 
and  in  some  cases,  is  the  only  sense  possible  to  give  to  a  word.  —  Guru  Datta  Vid- 

t  This  is  incorrect,  for,  it  is  only  proper  to  take  that  sense  of  the  word  only, 
which  is  recalled  into  consciousness  of  those  who  employ  the  word  whenever  the 
word  is  spoken.  Now,  the  word  '  wind  '  does  not  recall  any  such  meaning  in  the 
minds  of  its  speakers.  But  in  the  case  of  Vedic  word,  (which  as  Vedic  are  quite 
distinct  from  Laukika),  no  sense  is  at  all  recalled,  unless  it  be  the  very  sense  accruing 
to  it  from  its  derivation.  This  essential  difference  between  Laukika  and  Vedic  words, 
the  critic  does  not  understand,  and  hence  his  mistake. — G.  D.  V. 

t  The  critic  is  wrong  when  he  thinks  that  the  author  of  the  Vedic  Texb 
No.  I  confounds  "Gandhana"  with  the  noun  "gandha."  For,  it  is  "  gandhaiia  " 
which  means  a  form  of  Suchana  producing  that  form  of  consciousness  which  is  called 
fimelling.— G.  D.  V. 

228  T.    W1LIAMS    ON    VEDIC    TEXT   XO.    I. 

He  should  have   given  chapter   and   verse   for   his    statement.     The 
derivation  v  from  (  va '  is  clear  enough   and  the  only  one  given   by  the 
chief  Niruktakar  Yaska,  or  by  any  other  commentator  that  I     have 
yet   seen.  *     It   is   from    this   root   that  "  Wind  "   and  "  air  "  t  are 
derived,  so  that  I  repeat,  whatever  Mr.  Datta  has  to  say  for  "  Vayu," 
that  is  true,  that   must  also  be  said  for   those  two   words.     His   vit 
uperate   reference  to  the   word  "  air  "  is  both  foolish  and  ignorant.  { 
Now  from  what   I  have  said,  there  is  nothing  specially  to  be  attribut 
ed  to  the  Vedas  because  this  word  "  Yayu  "  occurs  in  it  as  an   appell 
ation  of  the   Atmosphere.     Long  before  Maddhucchandas   composed, 
or,  if  Mr.     Datta  will  have  it,  saw   this   Rk.,   the   idea  of   the  word 
"  Vayu  "  as  an  appellation  for  the  atmosphere  was   the  common  pro 
perty  of  ajl  the  Indo-European  peoples. § 

Is  it  not  strange  to  find  that  the  critic  should  betray  the  very  same  jgnorance  of 
Nirukta  with  which  he  charges  Mr.  Guru  Datta.  For  'va'  is  not  the  only  root  given 
by  Niruktakar,kas  the  critic  would  suppose,  but  in  one  place  whose  reference  is  not 
given  in  the  text,  the  Nirqktakar  derives  it  from  at  least  these,  '  vati,'  '  vetti '  and 
•  eti,'  I  quote  the  passage  from  memory,  "  Vayurvater  vetter  vosyadgati  karmanah, 
eteriti  sthaulashtive.  — Ed.  A.  P. 

t  Mr.  Williams  must  be  a  great  philologist  to  derive   "wind"    and    "air  "from 
the  same  root.— Ed.  A.  P. 

t  Mr.  Williams  could  well  have  spared  such  harsh  words.     They  cannot    prove 
his  contention. — Ed.  A.  P. 

§  What  does  vague  philology  know  of  human  history  ?  Long  ages  after  Maddhuch- 
handas  or  earlier  rishis  saw  thii  Rk.  the  European  nations  had  not  even  assumed  their 
existence,  what  to  say  <jf  the  idea  of  the  word  'vayti  '  as  an  appellation  for  the  atmos 
phere  being  the  common  property  of  all  the  Indo-European  peoples.— £.  D.  V. 

•:  o  :• 



IT  will  be  interesting  for  our  readers  to  hear  what    a  well-knowrf 
man  in  England  of  Mr.  Pmcott's  ability,    has    to    say    on  the  faubj.  ct 
of   the   Vedas,     His   letter  on   the   subject   is    annexed.     It  is,     no 
doubt,    "  interesting1   to  the    Samaj    to    come    to     a     clear  idea     of 
what    coMstitute-s    the    Vedas."    Bn-t     the     Samaj     never     had     any 
nuclear  ideas  about  them,  for,  whenever  we  speak  of  the    Vedas,  th'o 
UMM"  is  to  us  "self-explanatory,"  find,  no  doubt,  tlie  four   well-known 
Sanhita  books  are  present   to    our    mind   whenever  we   speak  of   the 
\  edas.  It  has  been  a  matter  of  great  difficulty,  of  course,  for  European 
Scholars  to  distinguish    between   the  Vedic    and   the   non-»  Vedic,  for, 
arguing  upon  merely  hypothetical    grounds,    fovfhded   not    upon  any 
genuine  scholarship  of   Sanskrit    literature   or    language,    but  upon  a 
Pseudo-philological  and  evolutional    grounds,    mainly    deriving    their 
support  from  the  so-called  Comparative  Psychology,  whereas  they  were1 
at    the    same   time    prepossessed    with    a     quite     erroneous    Biblical 
chronology,  these  h^/u-xt,  confiitttunt  Scholars  had  to  deal  with   matters 
purly  conjectural,  when  the  Vedas  were   presented  to  them  for  study. 
•So  far  removed  were  the  language  of    the    Vedas,    their   diction    and 
their  subject-matter  from-what  they  expected  to  meet  with  on  a  priori 
•.•'•nception,  that  their  wholescheme  of  the  already  well-known  methods 
"I  interpreting  archaeological  records  had  to  be  given  up,  and,  to  meet 
tho  demands  of  their  pre-conce-ived  notions,  all  interpretations  had    to 
be  elaborateoV  son^tknes  forged,  and  at   other  times-  distorted  from     Hence   their    conclusion   "that    the   term    Veda 
applies  to  only  "that  portion  of  Sanskrit  literature  which  existed  before  - 
the  historical  period*  commenced;"  as  if,  implying   thereby,  that  there 
was  ;uiy  portion  of  Sanskrit  literature  that  was  pre-historic  or    unhis- 
topical.-     Tim  they  could  not  help,  for,  although  a  chronological  record 
of  the  various  periods  at    which    those    books  of    Sanskrit   literature) 
which  are  now  called  pre-historic  or    Vedic,    were   recorded,   existed^ 
yet  the  epochs  assigned  according  to  this  system  were  so    immense  as 
to  tninscend  all  bounds  of  Ei;r.»pi';iii  Biblical  matter-of-fact    imagina 
tion.      Howsoever  exactly  or  approximately  may  the  epochs    assigned 
l»y  Hindu  chronology  tally    with    the  conclusions  of    unsophisticated, 
geological  and  scientific  research,  to   assign   such   an   immense  anti 
quity  to  the  Vedas  was  involuntarily  perceived-  to  be  a    death-blow  to 
the  very  foundation  of    Christianity.     Under  these    circumstances    o£ 
prejudiced  European  Scholarship,  Mr.  Pincott  does  a  great  service  to 
point  out  that  the  term  Yc'das  can  only  be    applied    to    the    8anhitod, 
Tim  Brahmanas,  the  Upjinisliads,  the  Aranyakaa,  the    Shrauta    Sutraa 
and  the  Vedungas;  being  only  meant  to  explain  the  Sunhitay,  arc  decid- 

232  MR.  PFXCOTT 

edly  vedic  but  not  the  Vedas  ;  all  other  books,  philosophies,  plays,  law- 
books,  epochs  and  Puranas  decidedly  being  non-Vedic.  He  also  does 
well  to  point  cut  the  various  functions  of  the  Vedangas,  the  Shrauta 
Sutra&,  the  Aranyakas  and  the  Brahmanas.  But  to  think  that  at  l^ast 
some  of  the  Vedangas  were  meant  to  teach  the  ceremony  of  sacrifice  and 
proper  astronomical  times  to  offer  worship,  is  not  wholly  correct.  The 
object  of  the  two  Vedangas,  Kalpa  and  Jyotish,  is  decidedly  sacrificial 
and  astronomical,  but  neither  the  sacrifices  are  meant  as  ceremonies, 
nor  astronomy  as  intended  to  fix  times  for  offering  worship.  The  object 
of  both  is  to  elucidate  certain  problems  concerning  the  constitution  of 
the  moral  and  physical  universe,  a  proper  understanding  of  which  can 
alone  ensure  a  realization  of  Vedic  truths.  And  again,  to  think  that 
the  Brahmanas  treat  of  transcendental  subjects  and  were  first  uttered 
at  "  a  time  when  no  contradiction  or  objection  was  anticipated,  for,  all 
questions  of  probability  or  possibility  are  thrown  to  the  winds  and  the 
wildest  statements  are  unhesitatingly  made  in  simple  faith' with  all  the 
luxuriance  of  unrestrained  growth,"  evinces  an  ignorance  of  the  Brah 
manas  which  is  in  rib  way  praiseworthy.  Discussions  on  transcendental 
subjects  there  are,  and  the  wildest  statements  aresoasthesiwp/e  faith 
of  Christians  can  not  concieve  of  the  truthful  luxuriance  and  unrestrain 
ed  growth  of  theological  truths. 

Laying  aside  these  differences,  we  are  at  one  with  Mr.  Pincott  in 

the  functions  to  be  assigned  to  various  Vedic  records. 


As  for  the  Vedas  themselves,  there  is  much  to  differ.  That 
in  the  older  period  only  three  Sanhitas  were  recognized  and  the 
language  of  the  Atharva  Veda  is  so  modern  that  the  sane  an 
tiquity  can  not  be  assigned  to  it,  is  not  necessary  for  us  to  refute,  for, 
keeping  out  of  consideration  the  application  of  the  term  Atharvav, 
to  the  fourth  Veda,  it  cannot  be  doubted  that  the  fourth  Veda  is  made 
mention  of  in  the  other  8anhitas.  To  quote,  for  instance,  from  the  31st 
Chapter  of  Yajur  Veda,  7th  Mantra,  Tasmad  yajnyat  Sttrvahuta  Richa 
Samani  Tajnire  Chhandansi  Tajnire  tasmad  yajus  tasmadajayata.  The 
emanation  of  the  four  Vedas  from  the  Divine  essence  is  clearly  pointed 
out  under  tho  four  respective  names  of  Rig,  Sama,  Chhandansi,  and 
Yuju,  and  to  preclude  the  supposition  of  Chhandansi  as  merely  mean 
ing  metrical  compositions  and  therefore  as  simply  qualifying  the  other 
three  Vedas,  the  verb  jajn ire  is  distinctly  coupled  with  Chhandansi 
which  clearly  shows  that  a  fourth  Veda  is  made  mention  of.  It  remains 
now  for  the  historical  genius  of  European  scholars  to  discover  that  an 
anterior  Veda  existed  still  before  the  others  and  to  prove  beyond  doubt 
that  the  one  referred  to  is  not  the  Atharva. 

The  value  of  the  assertion  that  "no  European  Scholar  would 
dream  of  placing  it  (Atharva)  higher  than  the  Brahmana  period,"  is 
sufficiently  plain.  As  for  its  being  the  source  of  Hindu  religion,  one 
has  only  to  refer  to  the  various  Sanskar  Padhitis  and  to  find  out  how 
niany  mantras  of  this  Veda  are  used  in  them, 

ON      THE      VEDAS.  233 

We  come  now  to  the  other  three  Vedas,  for  a  correct  knowledge  of 
the  respective  functions  of  which  we  would  refer  the  reader  to  ''  The 
Terminology  of  the  Vedas."  But  we  wish  to  point  out  in,  this  connection 
th#t  the  mistake  of  European  Scholars  in  arguing  the  priority  •  of  the 
Rig  Veda  from  the  fact  of  the  Yajur  and  Sama  texts  being  wholly  or 
partially  found  in  the  Rig  Sanhita  lies  in  their  ignorance  of  the  modifi 
cations  both  in  sense  and  relation  effected  by  what  are  called  the 
Swaras  of  the  Vedas,  a  branch  of  study  which  Europeans  so  littla 
know  of.  That  the  same  mantras  appear  in  different  Swaras,  and 
with  different  devatas  in  the  three  Vedas,  may  be  taken  as  a  proof  of 
the  priority  of  any  one  of  them  to  the  other  two,  but  the  proof  really 
amounts  to  the  statement  of  the  independence  of  the  texts  of  tha 
three  Vedas, 

We  come  now  to  the  Rig- Veda,  Whence  according  to  the  Europ 
ean  scholars,  the  two  other  Vedas  are  derived.  We  shall  not  dwell 
upon  "  the  simple  directness  of  its  style  "  nor  upon  "  the  plain  matter- 
of-fact  way  in  which  all  its  statements  are  made^  for,  the  aphoristic 
saying,  Bhtidhi  purvika  vakya  kritir  vede,  i.e.  everywhere  in  the 
Vedas  we  meet  with  a  diction  designating  the  highest  intelligence,  is 
too  well-known  to  be  disputed.  Further,  as  clearly  proved  by  Jai- 
mini,  the  Vedas  are  not  "the  natural  out-pourings  of  the  human 
heart  in  times  beyond  the  reach  of  history,"  they  are  rather  the 
Divine  influxions  of  religious  injunctions  at  a  time  which  forms  the 
first  link  in  the  chain  of  History.  Td  a  reader  well- versed  in  the 
Bible,  it  is  easy  to  conceive  that  the  sacrifice  should  •  come  to  be  re 
garded  as  a  "  simple  spontaneous  act  of  worship/'  but  to  the  un- 
sophi&ticated  inquirer,  unless  he  be  a  believer  in  the  preternatural 
doctrine  of  vicarious  atonement,  the  sacrifice,  as  understood  by  the 
Christian  world,  is  neither  a  "  simple  nor  a  spontaneous  act  of  wor 
ship."  '  Surely,  the  above-mentioned  doctrine  plus  the  untheological 
belief  that  Grod  can  be  moved  or  propitiated  by  flattery  or  presents 
made,  can  afford  a  ground  for  such  an  unqualified  assertion  as  that  of 
the  "  sacrifice  "  being  a  "  simple  spontaneous  act  of  worship."  Tho 
yajna,  so  ignorantly  translated  by  the  European  world  as  "  sacrifice/' 
really  implies  an  application  of  natural  principles  to  practice,  and,  by 
the  consent  of  the  Rishis  of  India,  became  necessarily  significant  of 
Buch  application  for  sanitary  and  charitable  purposes. 

The  assertion  further  made  with  respect  to  the  Rig- Veda  being  a 
collection  of  poems  "  representing  various  stages  of  development/1 
also  deserves  to  be  considered.  The  first  and  natural  impressions 
produced  upon  seeing  a  book  bearing  a  definite  name  is  that  of  its  be 
ing  the  production  of  one  author,  and  this  is  the  impression  naturally 
believed  in  mil  il  further  evidence  is  recieved  to  the  contrary. 
shall  deal  with  the  Vedas  also  in  the  same  light, 

234  MK.      PINCOTT 

It  is  assumed  that  there  is  one  author  of  the  Vedas,  so  long  as 
evidence-  to  the  contrary  does  not  overthrow  this  assumption. 
Such  e.  vidence  in  the  case  of  the  "Vedas  is  mainly  two-fold  : — Firstly, 
because  various  portions  of  the  mantras  are  assigned,  how  it  mafters 
not,  to  different  Ilishis,  and,  2ndly,  some  mantras  seem,  to  contain 
"  simple  prayers  of  child-like  faith,  others  are  profoundly  philosophi 
cal,"  "  while  others,  again,  are,  d'stinctly  sacerdotal."  Since  "  child 
like,"  and  "  philosophical "  cannot  both  originate  from  the  same 
source,  nor  perhaps  in  the  same  age,  it  is  essential  to  assign  not  only 
various  epochs,  but  different  authorships  also  to  different  portions  of 
the  Yedas.  Such  being  the  evidence  of  the  various  stages  of  develop 
ment  represented  in  the  mantras,  it  behoves  the  truth- seeking  inquir 
er  as  well  as  the  honest  student  of  the  Vedas  to  note  down  that  the 
truth  of  the  conclusion  entirely  depends  upon  the  truth  of  its  pre 
mises.  Parts  of  the  Vedas  proclaim  "  child-like  "  faith  and  others 
are  "  profoundly  Philosophical  ?  "  May  not  our  system  of  interpre 
tation,  which  assigns  so  wide  a  difference  to  the  contents  of  different 
portions  of  book  held  equally  authoritative  and  equally  ancient  by  its 
believers,  be  wrong  ?  It  is  more  reasonable  to  believe  that  our  inter 
pretation  is  wrong  than  to  hypotheticate  different  epochs  as  well  as 
different  authorships  to  meet  our  fancied  interpretations. 

By  some  the  Yedas  have  been  constructed  to  yield  abundant 
stock  of  historical  harvest  as  thus  interpreted.  The  fact  of  "  Gold 
and  silver  ornaments,  war  chariots,  costly  dresses,  handsome  build 
ings,  manufactures,  trade,  sea-voyages,  ceremonial  observances  and 
several  classes  of  priests  being  mentioned  in  a  book "  whioh  also 
speaks  of  the  Sapata  Sindhwa,  or  the  seven  rivers,  is  indeed  an  infalli 
ble  evidence  of  the  advanced  state  of  civilization.  May  not  a  student 
of  Bacon,  meeting  in  the  course  of  his  studies  with  rich  and  faithful 
dissertations  on  the  methods  of  experimental  philosophy  and  induc 
tive  reasoning,  as  infallibly  conclude  that  when  Bacoirfs  Novum  Orga- 
num  first  saw  the  light,  the  country  of  Bacon's  nativity  ivas  in  a  highly 
advanced  state  of  civilization,  for  not  only  are  all  the  methods  of  scien~ 
tijic  investigation  known  and  therefore  practised  hut  they  are  found 
mentioned  INCIDENTALLY, — a  fact  so  significant  of  the  entire 
familiarity  with  science  in  those  days  ? 

We  come  now  to  the  recent  discovery  that  the  hymns  of  the  Rig 
Veda,  contrary  to  the  previously  prevalent  opinion,  are  arranged  in  a 
definite  order,  according  to  the  family  and  poet  to  which  they  are 
ascribed,  according  to  the  deity  addressed  and  according  to  the 
length  of  each  poem, — a  discovery  which  at  once  throws  light  on  the 
Rig  Veda  being  a  collection  of  one  thousand,  seventeen  hymns 
arranged  in  ten  divisions,  six  out  of  which,  not  to  speak  of  the  other 
four  which  are  occupied  with  the  ritual  of  an  ancient  sacrifice,  with 
the  praises  of  the  sacred  liquid  offered  at  the  scrifice,  and  with  the 
mythological  luUcellany,  have  been  preserved  traditionally  in  six 

ON      TIIK      VEDAS.  235 

ancient  families  or  tribes.  The  secret  of  all  this  is  that  European 
scholarship  is  not  as  yet  aware  that  vansha  or  family  in  ancient  India 
was  constructed  according  to  birth  or  according  to  learning,  'the  one 
being  called  gotra  or  jativansha,  and  the  other  viflyakid.  t  The 
different  Rishis,  the  seers  of  the  mantras  which  are  so  ignorantly 
ascribed  to  them,  belonged,  by  virtue  of  their  being  seers  of  the 
mantras,  to  the  same  vidyakul  and  not  to  the  same  family  or  tribe. 

We  have  finished  briefly  oar  remarks  on  the  Rig  Veda  and  very 
summarily  disposed  of  the  misconceptions  that  have  crept  thereon. 
One  thing  more  and  we  have  done.  » 

It  is  to  be  deplored  that  the  six  schools  of  philosophy  should 
have  been  so  much  misunderstood  and  misconceived  by  European 
scholars.  The  Darshanas  date  at  a  period  when  not  a  trace  of 
Buddhism  was  at  all  to  be  found,  but  ^he  sceptical,  atheistic,  and 
reason-demanding  temperaments  have  never  been  rare,  and  the  con 
troversial  character  of  the  Darshanas,  apparent  to  the  European  scho 
lar,  is  due  rather  to  the  comprehensive,  imaginative,  clear,  anticipating 
and  fore-casting  minds  of  the  Darshanawriters  than  to  the  hurricane 
sweepings  of  the  Budhistic  reform,  a  re-action  which  is  rather  embodi 
ed  in  the  new-Vcdant  of  Shankracharya,  than  in  the  Darshanas. 

We  shall,  at  our  leisure,  take  up  and  dwell  upon,  at  length,  the 
various  points  herein  but  briefly  touched,  at  some  future  date. 


Replied  to  above, 

'         -+o  :  *6*:  CM 


It  cannot  be  other  than  interesting  to  the  Samaj  to  come  to  a 
clear  idea  of  what  constitutes  "  the  Vedas."  Many  people  J  speak  of 
"  the  Vedas"  as  though  the  term  were  self-explanatory  ;  or  as  though 
some  well-known  books  were  always  present  to  the  mind  whenever  tho 
expression  was  used.  This,  however,  is  very  far  from  being  tho 
case.  The  majority  of  people  have  no  idea  whatever  as  to  what 
constitutes  a  the  Vedas."  Hindu  scholars  apply  the  term  to  much 
which  Europeans  peremptorily  reject  as  obviously  non-Vedic  ;  and 
even  Europeans  are  far  from  unanimous  as  to  the  precise  limits  to  bo 
ascribed  to  the  Vedas.  But  upon  one  point  there  is  no  doubt  or  varia 
tion  of  opinion  among  both  Europeans  and  Hindus,  and  that  is,  that 
the  term  ".Veda  "  applies  to  only  that  portion  of  Sanskrit  literature 
which  existed  before  the  historical  period  commenced.  "  The  Vedas/* 
properly  speaking,  comprise  only  that  fragment  of  Hindu  literature 
which  is  believed  to  be  the  revealed  Word  of  God ;  mid  the  term  is 

236  MR.      PINCOTT 

precisely  equivalent  to  the  Bible  among  Christians  and  the  Quran 
among  Masalmans.  But  when  we  have  arrived  at  this  conclusion  the 
difficulty  is  not  removed ;  for  there  are  no  generally  recognized  books 
which  'can  be  presented  to  view  as  "  the  Vedas;"  there  is,  instead**  of 
that,  a  vast  literature,  unsettled  quantities  of  which  are  held  to  be 
Vedic,  and  the  rest  more  or  less  secular. 

In  the  few  moments  at  our  disposal  I  cannot  explain  the  simple/ 
but  laborious  methods  by  which  scholars  have  separated  Sanskrit 
literature  into  its  various  stages,  and  have  established  the  truly  Vedic 
portion  of  the  whole.  The  application  of  the  simplest  tests  reveals 
the  fact  that  the  Puranas  are  subsequent  to  the  Darshanas  or  philoso 
phical  works ;  and  that  the  six  schools  of  philosophy,  the  law-books, 
the  plays,  and  the  epochs,  were  all  composed  after  the  great  gram 
matical  epoch,  when  the  famous  works  of  Panini,  Yaska,  and  the1 
older  Pratisakhyas,  were  put  together  for  the  purpose  of.  explaining' 
the  still  more  ancient  Vedas.  Prtndit  Guru  Datta,  to  whose  learned 
paper  we  listened  afc  a  recent  meeting,  states  that  the  very  language 
in  which  Sanskrit  books  are  written,  marks  the  historical  development 
of  the  series.  His  words  are,  "  Sanskrit  of  the  Puranas  is  so  diff 
erent  from  the  Sanskrit  of  Mahabharata  and  that  of  the  Darshanas, 
which  again  is  so  different  from  the  Upanishads,  that  the  clear  line 
of  demarcation  in  each  case  is  easily  laid  down." 

The   various   processes    of   investigation     have   established   the 
conclusions   that   the    books     called     the     Sanhitas   are  the  oldest 
Hindu  books-  now  existing ;  that  next  to  them    come   the   Brahmanas, 
and  in  intimate  connection  with  these  last  are  books  known  as  Aranya- 
kas,  and  others  called  Upanishads  ;  and  that  these  were  followed   by 
treatises  known  as  Srauta  Sutras,  and  the  Vedangas.     Most    of  these 
"books  are  by  well-known  historical  personages  ;  and,  indeed,  the  names 
of  even  the  saints   who   first    proclaimed   the    Vedas,    are,    generally 
speaking,  recorded ;  although  the  saints   are  not   considered   to   have 
been  the  authors  of  what  they  taught.     They  are  held  to   have    been 
highly  favoured  mortals  who   received  from  On.    High  certain  Divine 
revelations,  and  then  proclaimed  to  their   fellow   mortals  the   secrets 
they  had  received.     But  all  the  works  of  which  we  are  now   speaking 
are  intimately  bound  together  by  one  great  fact,  that,  whether   ascri 
bed  to  authors  or  to  divinely  inspired  saints,  they  all   directly  refer  to 
and  are  based  upon,  the  books  called   Sanhitas.     The  object  of  all  the 
other  Vedic  works  is  to  explain  the  meaning  and  the  proper  use  of  the 
portion  called  Sanhita ;  and  this  of  itself  is  sufficient  to  show  that  the 
Sanhitas  are  the  most  ancient  relics    of  the  Hindu  religion,   and    form 
the  back  gronnd,    so  to    speak,  of    all    Hindu   literature.     In   short, 
Sanhitas   form,   properly   speaking,   the    Vedas }  the  other  works   to 
jvhich  I  have  just  alluded  are  certainly  "Vedic,   because   their   whole 
object  is  to  explain  and  illustrate  the  Vedas  ;  but  no  other   portion  of 
Hindu   literature,  save  the  Sanhitas,  Brahmanas,    &c.,  has  any   right 
to  be  included  Under  the  terms  Fecfa  or  Fj?<Wc,    AU  the  bwks  which 

ON      THE       VEDAS.  237 

we  hear  so  much  about — the  Philosophies,  the  Plays,  the  Law-books, 
the  Ramayana,  the  Mahabharata,  and  the  Puranas — are  quite  outside 
the  pale  of  Vedic  literature. 

This  matter  is  of  much  significance  to  the  Arya  Samaj ;  because 
one  of  the  rules  of  that  Society  is  a  pledged  reverence  for  the  Vedas. 
It  is  impossible  for  me  to  enumerate  the  various  works  which  are 
really  Vedic,  nor  is  it  necessary  that  I  should  do  so.  Without  reckon  - 
ing  abbreviations  and  commentaries,  the  India  Office  Library  alone 
contains  about  300  original  Vedic  works.  It  happens,  however,  that 
all  Vedic  works  may  be  classed  under  one  or  other  of  the  following* 
heads  : — 

1.  The  Veddngds  which  teach  the  student  how  the  words  of   the 
Veda  should  be  pronounced,  grammatical  construction,  and  derivation 
of  the  words,  the  metrical  rules  for  correctly  reciting  the  ceremony  of 
sacrifice,  and  the  proper  astronomical  times  for  offering  worship. 

2.  The  Srauta-Sutras.     These  important  treatises  give   the  com 
plete  ceremonial  for  the  performance  of  Vedic  rites  both  in  public  and 
in  private.     They  comprise  special    treatises  for  the  different  kinds  of 
priests,  teaching   them   how   and   when  they   should   perform   their 
various  functions  in  conformity  with  the  Veda. 

3.  The  Upanishads.     These  are  short  works  of  a  highly  philoso 
phical  character  treating   of  the  hidden  meaning  of  the    Bralimanas 
and  the  ancient  hymns,    and  reasoning  on  the  nature  of  God  and  the 
soul  with  much   earnestness  and  logical  acumen. 

4.  The  Aranyakas.     These  form  one  branch  of  Upanisnad  litera 
ture  ;  but   there  is  something  about  them  of  a   more   primitive   char 
acter.     They  were   intended  to   guide    the   thoughts  of   the  ancient 
ascetics,  who,  after  performing  the  active  duties  of  life,  retired  to  the 
forest   and  spent  their  declining   years  in  reflecting   on  the   spiritual 
meaning  of  the  Brahmans. 

5.  The  Brahmans.     These  are,  primarily,    ceremonial  works  for 
the  use  of  Brahmans  ;    but  in  addition  to  the  directions  they  give    for 
the  performance  of  sacrifices,  they  comprise  a  great  deal  of    extrane 
ous  matter     connected   with    the   origin  and    history    of    the    world, 
speculations    of  a  more  or   less  philosophical   character,   mixed  with 
explanations,  old  stories,  &c.     These  works   have  preserved   for  our 
use  the  first  speculations    of  the    Brahmanas  on  transcendental    sub 
jects,  and  they  were  obviously    first  uttered  at  a  time  when    no    con 
tradiction   or  objection  was  anticipated,  for  all  questions  of  probabil 
ity  or  possibility  are  then  thrown  to  the  winds,  and  the  wildest  state 
ments  are   unhesitatingly    made,  in  simple    faith,    with    all   the    lux 
uriance  of  unrestrained  growth.     These  most  ancient  works,  however, 
Were  always  held  in  deep  reverence,  and  are  recokoned   part    of  the 
Kevealed  Word,    The   primary   use  of  these  curious    works  was, 

MR.      VI N  i  OTT 

however,  to  explain  the  sacrifices  at  which  the  older  hymns  were 
sung,  and,  therefore,  they  also  are  only  dependent  upon  and  grew 
out  of  the  Sanhitas. 

This 'brings  us  to  the  last  and  highest  point  in  Hindu  literature  <; 
but  in  order  to  lead  the  mind  back  to  the  starting  point  of  all  Hindu 
religion  we  must  examine  the  Sanhitas  themselves,  and  see  what 
relation  they  bear  the  one  to  the  othor.  In  more  recent  times  four 
Sanhitas  are  reckoned,  called  the  "  Rik,"  the  "  Sam,"  the  "  Yajuh," 
and  the  "  Atharva."  In  the  older  period,  however,  only  three 
Sanhitas  were  recognized ;  but  no  one  can  deny  the  modern  character 
of  the  language  in  which  the  Atharva  Veda  is  expressed,  and  allow 
it  the  same  antiquity  as  to  the  other  three.  Indeed,  Indian  comment 
ators  themselves  are  very  undecided  as  to  its  authority,  and  no 
European  -would  dream  of  placing  it  higher  than  the  Brahman  a 
period,  the  style  and  language  ot  which,  in  some  part,  it  resembles. 
The  Atharva  is  most  certainly  not  the  source  of  the  Hindu  -religion, 
and  may  safejy  be  set  aside. 

There  remains,  then,  the  three  primitive  Sanhitas  ;  and  of  these 
two  may  be  immediately  distinguished  from  the  remaining  one  by 
purely  ritualistic  character.  The  "Yajuh,"  as  its  very  name  tells 
us,  is  "  that  by  which  the  sacrifice  is  offered  ;  "  and  it  consists  of 
verses  almost  entirely  taken  from  the  Kik-Sanhita,  accompanied  by 
profuse,  directions  as  to  the  actions  to  be  performed  while  they  are 
being  recited.  The  Sama  consists  of  hymns  and  parts  of  hymns  the 
whole  of  which  is  -  taken  from  the  Rik-sanhita ;  but  in  the  Sama 
Veda,  these  quotations  are  arranged  in  the  order  in  which  they  are 
to  be  chanted  at  the  sacrifice.  It  is  perfectly  plain  that  both  *the 
Sama  and  the  Yajur  must  be  subsequent  to  the  Rik-sanhita,  for  they 
consist  of  little  else  than  quotations  from  the  Rik,  taken  out  of  their 
natural  poetic  connection,  and  placed  in  the  artificial  order  necess 
ary  for  sacrificial  purposes. 

Setting,  then,  these  rituals  aside,  we  come  to  the  work  whence 
they  were  both  derived — the  famous  "  Rik,"  or  "  Rigveda-sanhita." 
This  work  is  conspicuous  in  all  Indian  literature  by  reason  of  the 
simple  directness  of  its  style,  and  the  plain  matter-of-fact  way  in 
which  all  its  statements  are  made.  It  contains  the  natural  "out-pour 
ings  of  the  human  heart  in  times  beyond  the  reach  of  history,  when 
the  sacrifice  was  a  simple  spontaneous  act  of  worship,  and  man  was 
looking  up,  in  hope  and  fear,  from  nature's  works  to  nature's  God. 
The  Rig  Veda  stands  high  and  away  above  all  the  speculations 
and  crudities  which  have  been  built  upon  its  honest  statements ; 
and  will  continue  to  stand  a  monument  of  unaffected  piety,  and  a 
perpetual  beacon  to  guide  the  human  mind  in  the  path  of  Truth. 

It  must  not  be  supposed,  however,  that"  the  Rigveda  is  a  collec 
tion  «of  simple  poems  expressing  one  phase  of  thought  and  civiliz 
ation  ;  on  the  contrary,  it  contains  poems  differing  widely  from  each 

ON      THE      VEDA*.  239 

other,  representing  various  stages  of  development.  Some  are  simple 
prayers  of  child-like  ^aith,  others  are  profoundly  philosophical  ; 
while  others,  again,  are  distinctly  sacerdotal.  When  these  hymns 
first  saw  the  light,  the  country  of  "  the  seven  rivers "  was  in  an 
advanced  state  of  civilization ;  for,  we  find  frequent  mention  of  gold 
and  silver  ornaments,  war  chariots,  costly  dresses,  handsome  build 
ings,  manufactures,  trade,  sea-voyages,  ceremonial  observances,  and 
several  classes  of  priests.  But  all  these  things  are  mentioned  in 
cidentally  ;  the  poems  themselves  are  short  compositions  addressed  to 
one  or  more  deities,  asking  for  success  in  war,  prosperity  in  trade, 
or  long  life,  in  return  for  the  praises  offered. 

The  Rig  Yeda  contains  1,017  hymns,  arranged  in  tei^  divisions; 
the  first  division  I  have  recently  discovered  to  be  the  ritnal  of  an 
ancient  sacrifice,  and  it  is  probably  the  oldest  ritual  in  the  world  ; 
the  next  ^ix  divisions  contain  hymns  preserved  traditionally  in  six 
ancient  families  or  tribes,  all  the  hymns  ascribed  to  each  particular 
saint  being  placed  together;  the  eighth  division  contains  hymns 
which  had  not  acquired  general  recognition  at  the  time  the  arrange 
ment  took  place ;  the  ninth  division  is  a  special  collection  of  hymns 
in  praise  of  the  sacred  liquid  offered  at  the  sacrifice  ;  and  the  tenth 
division  is  a  miscellaneous  collection  of  long  and  short  poems  of  a 
more  or  less  mythological  character,  and,  for  this  reason,  properly 
placed  at  the  end. 

It  is  clear  from  this  sketch  of  the  arrangement  of  the  Rig 
Veda,  that  it  is  not  a  ceremonial  text-book,  like  the  Sama  Veda  or 
Yajur  Veda  ;  but  that  it  is  a  collection  of  sets  of  poems,  preserved 
from  an  indefinite  antiquity  in  various  faniilies,  all  the  hymns 
ascribed  to  one  saint  and  one  family  being  placed  together.  It 
was  formerly  my  good  fortune  to  discover  that,  contrary  to  the 
opinion  universally  entertained  previously,  the  hymns  of  the  Rig , 
Veda  are  arranged  in  a  definite  order,  according  to  the  family  and 
poet  to  which  they  are  ascribed,  and  according  to  the  deity  addressed 
and  the  length  of  each  poem.  The  Rig  Veda  is  simply  a  well-ordered 
store-house,  from  which  poems  could  be  .selected,  as  desired,  for 
sacrificial  purposes.  Some  of  the  hymns  were  first  uttered  at  a  time 
when  official  priests  were  unknown  ;  others  were  promulgated  when 
a  priesthood  had  come  into  being  ;  but  at  the  time  when  the  whole 
collection  was  brought  together  in  the  form  in  which  it  has  been 
transmitted  to  our  days,  a  complicated  ceremonial  was  in  existence. 
It  was  for  the  purpose  of  authorizing  that  cremonial  that  the  collec 
tion  was  made  ;  and  it  was  in  order  to  perform  that  ceremonial  that 
the  special  arrangement  of  hymns  forming  the  first  division  of  the 
Rig  Vecla  was  put  together. 

It  is  impossible  to  pursue  this  interesting  subject  further  on  ,the 
present  occasion ;  but  I  hope  I  have  said  enough  to.  show  that  the  Rig 
Veda  is  the  only  real  Veda,  and  that  is  the  book  which  all  should 

240  MR.    PINCOTT   ON    THE    VEDAS.  / 

study  who  entertain  respect  for  the  Vedas.  Everything  else  in 
Hindu  literature  rests  upon,  and  has  grown  out  of  that  book.  As 
regards  the  rest,  beyond  the  Sanhitas,  Brahmans,  Aranyakas,  Upani- 
shads,  Srauta- Sutras  and  Vedangas, — nothing  else  has  the  slightest 
right  to  be  ranked  as  either  Veda  or  Vedic. 

After  the  Yedangas,  the  Budhist  reform  swept  over  India  like 
a  hurricane ;  and  the  Brahmanas  were  driven  to  reason  with  their 
antagonists,  and  to  develop  the  schools  of  philosophy  for  the  purpose 
of  establishing  the  logical  consistency  of  their  faith.  During  the 
Budhistic  period  Greek  influence  also  spread  over  Northern  India," 
and  when  Buddhism  fell,  all  recollection  of  Vedic  ideas  and  all 
sympathy  with  Vedic  feeling  had  passed  away.  Then  modern 
Brahmanism  arose,  with  its  philosophies,  its  shastras,  its  theatricals, 
its  poetry,  and  its  Puranas. 

The  growth  of  this  wild  jungle  of  scholarship  and  fable  was 
brought  to  stoppage  by  successive  Muhamniadan  incursions,  and  by 
the  final  subjugation1  of  the  country  to  Mughal  rule.  Under  a  more 
enlightened  administration  the  intellect  of  India  is  again  developing, 
and  is  wisely  returning  to  a  study  of  those  real  models  of  national 
development  found  in  the  hymns  of  the  Rig  Veda. 


)        op 


I.  The   Primordial   Root — the    Eternal    Unseen    Sus- 
God,  His  charac-     tainer— of      all     true     knowledge,    and     of 

teristics.  objects    made   known  by    true    knowledge — 

aye  of  all  these — is  the  Supreme  God. 

II.  God    is   Personification    of    Existence,    Intelligen- 
His  attributes  and     ce    andBliss.     He   is   Formless,  Almighty  > 

worship.  Just,  Benevolent,    Unborn,  Endless  and-  In 

finite,  Unchangeable,  Beginningless,  'Incomparable,  Support 
of  all,  Lord  of  all,  All-pervading,  Omniscient  and  Controller  of 
all  from  within,  Undecaying,  Imperishable,  Fearless,  Eternal, 
Jloly  and  Maker  of  the  universe.  To  Him  alone  worship  is 

III.  The  Veda  is  the  Scripture  of  true  knowledge.     It 

is  the    paramount   Duty    of  every  Arya   to 

His  Word,  the  Veda.       ^^  ^  ^^  ^^  ^  ^  ^    ^    and    ^ 

recite  it  to  others. 

IV.  We  should  ever  be   ready  to  embrace  truth  and  to 
Truth;  forsake  untruth. 

V.  All  acts  should  be  clone  in  accordance  with  Dharma, 
Righteousness.        after  deliberating  what  is  Right  and  Wrong. 

VI.  The    prime    object   of  the    Arya    Samaj — Vedic 

Church — is  to  do  good  to  the  world,  that  is, 
to   promote  Physical,    Spiritual    and  Social 
good  of  every  sentient  being. 

VII.  Our  conduct  towards   all    should    be  guided    by 
Love  and  Justice.       Love,  Righteousness  and  Justice. 

VIII.  We  should  dispel  avidya — Nescience — and  pro- 
Nescienco      and     mote     vidyct — Science,     spiritual  and   phy- 

fccience.  &\Q&\. 

IX.  No  one  should  be  content  with  promoting  his  own 
individualism  and     good  onlyj  on  the  contrary,  he   should    look 

Altruism.  for  his  gOOd  in  promoting  the  good  of  all. 

X.  All  men  should  subordinate  themselve^to  the  laws 
Subordination  and     of  Society   calculated  to  promote  the  well- 
being  of  all  ;  they  should  be  free  in  regard  to 

the  laws  for  promoting  individual  well-being 

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BL  Gurudatta  Vidyarthi 
1201  The  works  of  the  Pandit 

G8  Guru  Datta  Vidyarthi